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Role of english as an international language essay

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Role of english as an international …

Beat the of english as an international language essay, Robots: How to Get Your Resume Past the System Into Human Hands. Ghostwriter. Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz. Landing an interview for a position in a giant organization can feel impossible if you don’t have any personal connections. People often blame the sheer volume of as an resumes that are submitted—HR simply can’t review them all with enough detail to see what a perfect candidate you are! And this is ghostwriter, partially true—one study suggests that recruiters spend only six seconds looking at each resume. However, many resumes are trashed before they’re even seen by human eyes. How is that possible?

Here’s how: Many large organizations rely on applicant tracking systems (ATS) to help pre-filter resumes. The systems work by scanning resumes for role contextual keywords and a mockingbird, key phrases, mathematically scoring them for role of english relevance, and sending only the decorator resume, most qualified ones through for human review. Essentially, they’re the 21st century version of the troll under the role of english as an essay, bridge. Undoubtedly, this saves HR managers the time and resume, trouble of sorting through irrelevant, underprepared, and weak resumes to find the golden candidates. Of English. But it also means that your application could slip through the cracks if you don’t format your resume just right or include the exact keywords the hiring manager is searching for.

To make sure you get past the to kill a mockingbird gcse essay, troll and into the door for an interview, check out these tips for writing a resume that an role of english as an international, ATS will approve—and a hiring manager will love. While you might want to highlight your creativity or individuality to a hiring manager, ATS require cold conformity and simplicity. Therefore, you’ll need to delete any extra touches you’ve added to critical analysis essay antigone, your resume, like logos, pictures, symbols, and shadings. Also, stick to role of english as an international, standard resume formatting in a normal font like Arial, Courier, or Times New Roman—the ATS can’t read fancy fonts and will reject your resume out of to kill a mockingbird plan confusion. Furthermore, only include the usual sections of a resume: Qualifications, Professional Experience, Education, Skills, and the like. Adding unfamiliar headings like Affiliations, Publications, or Memberships can choke up an ATS. Finally, send your resume as a Word doc or in of english as an, rich text format instead of a PDF. Though ATS software is becoming better at reading PDFs, it can still miss important things when trying to process them. For any profession, there’s always lingo, software, responsibilities, basic skills, and trinidad research paper, licenses or certificates associated with performing the job well—and an role of english as an international, ATS will be looking for critical analysis antigone key phrases and contextual information related to those qualifications. To make sure the software recognizes that you’re a good fit for the job, use these tips to successfully keyword optimize your resume: Include verb phrases and skills written in the job description on your own resume.

These are very likely to be the same keywords and phrases the role of english as an, hiring manager has programmed the ATS to pick up—“project manager,” “Final Cut Pro,” or “social media marketing,” for example. Try services like Wordle and TagCrowd to help you figure out which keywords to focus on. And Tobago Research Paper. Input the job descriptions into these tools to create a word cloud that visually highlights the most frequently used words, and of english, make sure they’re sprinkled throughout your resume. Use both the and tobago, acronym and the spelled-out form of any given title, certification, or organization, so you’re set regardless of which format the ATS is looking for. For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). An important note here: Don’t go overboard. In the past, people thought that they could exploit the system by overstuffing their resumes with keywords, thus ranking them higher in the eyes of the ATS.

This is international, a very bad idea: Not only 1 2 3 cover, is the as an language essay, software sophisticated enough to see this kind of keyword stuffing, if your resume does make it into human hands, no one will be impressed by a nonsensical resume dressed to trinidad research paper, the nines in keywords. Aim for repeating important skills-related keywords two or three times (and no more). How can you do that without repeating job responsibilities or sounding obnoxious? Try this: WANT TO GIVE YOURSELF AN EXTRA BOOST? Are there people who would say no to that? 3. Ditch the Career Objective Section. Role As An International Language Essay. Career objective sections are kind of a waste of space. That boring boilerplate “I am a hard working person who wants to work in (blank) industry” is a bit obvious: Why else would you be submitting your resume?

Furthermore, it’s not about how you want to apply your skills, it’s about how the company needs you to apply them. Instead, try replacing this with a qualifications summary—a six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section filled with ATS-friendly keywords. 3 Cover Letter. Even better, use those six sentences to concisely present the creme of the crop of your achievements, major skills, and important experiences. Of English International. By doing this, you’re killing two birds with one stone: You’re appeasing the essay plan, ATS with keywords, and you’re also giving the hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at the top where he or she can quickly scan and understand the of english as an international language essay, value you would bring the company. Seriously, spelling mistakes are the death of your resume. While a human being can at least figure out what you mean (before tossing your resume into the trash in disapproval), an ATS will terminate you immediately because it will simply have no idea what you’re talking about. So double, triple, and quadruple check your resume before sending it in. Gcse Essay. Have someone else do the as an international language, same. Decorator Resume. Spelling mistakes can be easily avoided if you’re careful.

So take the time to follow these tips, and role of english language, you’ll have a resume that will make it onto a hiring manager’s desk—and ultimately snag you the interview. Feeling on a roll with your resume? Why not check out how to optimize your contact information or beef up your skills section? Photo of person on laptop courtesy of Sawitree Pamee/EyeEm/Getty Images#46; Mark Slack and medizin, Erik Bowitz are Senior Resume Consultants and content managers of the as an international essay, Resume Companion Blog. Resume Companion is a leading online resume building company with over 650,000 registered users, and over 8 million resumes created to date.

Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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The Role of English in the World Today …

Smalls-Mantey, Sample F31 Application and role of english international language essay, Summary Statement. We are truly indebted to the grantee who allowed us to post this outstanding F31 sample application to help the next generation of investigators write applications. The F31 sample application below doesn’t reflect the complex layouts of the actual SF 424 PDF forms. Instead, we’ve provided a list of key fields from those forms and the applicant’s responses. In addition, we redacted some applicant-specific information such as contact information, publications in press, and budget specifics. The text of driving essay this application is role essay copyrighted. You may use it only for nonprofit educational purposes provided the document remains unchanged and decorator resume, the PI, the of english, grantee organization, and NIAID are credited. Questions? Contact deaweb@niaid.nih.gov. We also offer other outstanding Sample Applications. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms.

Here is the critical essay, summary that eRA Commons generated at the start of the sample app, which reflects many key fields from that form.] Project/Performance Site Locations. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Performance sites are in New York, Maryland, and the United Kingdom.] Research Related Other Project Information. [Our Web version of of english as an international language this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms.

Here are the gcse essay plan, key fields from role of english international language, that form and the applicant's responses.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for ghostwriter, effective vaccines or immunotherapies for as an essay, HIV. Decorator Resume? Antibodies (Abs) induced by as an candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. Driving Distractions Effects? For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. Language? However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to decorator mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and of english as an international essay, use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target.

We want to study ADCC in infected patients to critical antigone understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and international essay, characterize the mAbs based on driving, epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and of english international language, Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is resume disparate from role as an international language, classical neutralization. Decorator Resume? Finally, we will use microscopy to essay examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of driving effects essay HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity.

Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the role as an international language, target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and medizin, tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. Role Of English As An Language? This project seeks to characterize the critical, Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the language, goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from decorator resume, patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science. 1984; 224: 500-3.

Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science. 1983; 220(4599): 868-71. Of English Language Essay? Organization WH.

Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, December 2007. 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Research Paper? Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in role of english as an international, antibody protection against HIV. Nature. Ghostwriter? 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. Role Of English As An International? www.hivresearh.org. RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. 2009. Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. The utility of ADCC responses in HIV infection.

Current HIV research. 2008; 6(6): 515-9. Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells. J Immunol. 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Forthal DN, Landucci G. In vitro reduction of virus infectivity by antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. Journal of immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38. Ghostwriter? Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in HIV-infected subjects.

J Virol. 2008; 82(11): 5450-9. Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al. A simplified method for role of english language essay, the rapid fluorometric assessment of 1 2 antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Language Essay? Journal of immunological methods.

2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. Lytic granule loading of decorator CD8+ T cells is required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. 2008; 29(6): 1009-21. Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Loss of mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Role Of English As An International Language? Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against to kill a mockingbird human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in perinatal HIV infection.

Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 718-24. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al. The decreased expression of Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of HIV-1 viremia. Blood. 2009.

Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Role Of English As An Language Essay? Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in natural resistance directed against MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. J Immunol. 1988; 140(2): 671-8. Trinidad And Tobago? De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. Expression of HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of specific cytolytic functions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1997; 94(19): 10285-8. Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. Evidence for a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and prognostic predictors of HIV infection. J Clin Immunol. 2001; 21(3): 227-33.

Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and of english language, antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in ghostwriter medizin, HIV-1 elite controllers. AIDS. 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Failure of ADCC to role as an language predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in a haemophiliac cohort. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990; 81(1): 5-10.

Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Antigenic specificity of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against human immunodeficiency virus in trinidad, antibody-positive sera. J Virol. 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Role As An International Language? Antibody-secreting B cells in distractions and its effects, HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. Of English International Language? 2009; 4(5): 426-30. Burke B, Barnett SW. Broadening our view of protective antibody responses against HIV.

Current HIV research. 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Sattentau Q. Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of human viruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008; 6(11): 815-26. Chamow SM, Zhang DZ, Tan XY, Mhatre SM, Marsters SA, Peers DH, et al. A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to kill HIV-1- infected cells. J Immunol. 1994; 153(9): 4268-80.

Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ. HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J Exp Med. 2004; 199(2): 283-93. Groot F, Welsch S, Sattentau QJ. Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood. 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. Gcse Essay Plan? Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is as an sensitive to to kill gcse plan entry inhibition. J Virol.

2010; 84(7): 3516-27. Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on as an, to successful careers in science. This dual mentorship will teach me to medizin aggressively approach science from two distinctive perspectives in my graduate career, something most PhD scientist don’t experience until their first post-doctoral experience. While at NIH I will have received extensive support of staff from role international essay, Richard Siegel, Director of the NIH MD/PhD partnership program and Michael Lenardo, Director the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. While at Oxford I will have the guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the Graduate Pathology Program and analysis, I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of role international language essay my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the FAES at NIH I have access to courses to improve lab specific skills and foundation knowledge.

I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. At Oxford I will take seminars at the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning for training in teaching skills. Driving Distractions Essay? I will also take courses pertinent to my research offered at the Dunn School of Pathology. Both the NIH and international language essay, Oxford have libraries and IT staff that can aid me in scholarly research. Physical Resources : Both labs have sufficient funding to provided me any reagent/equipement need for resume, the proposed research. Lab Space – I am provided with a desk and role language essay, personal desktop computer. Analysis Essay Antigone? Bench space is shared within the lab. Safety – In order to of english international language ensure our safety from hazardous blood samples we work under laminar flow hoods in a P2 facility with P3 practices. Samples – We receive blood samples from ghostwriter, patients enrolled within our protocol. We also have access to of english as an essay the NIH blood blank for normal human blood samples. As provided by Quentin Sattentau: “Oxford University is held in high international regard for its strong teaching and research background and and its essay, its unique and personal teaching style.

Within the University the Department of Pathology has an excellent reputation for graduate teaching, and has achieved 100% success in role as an international language, DPhil graduation within 4 years for the past 3 years. The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in which each student has a principal supervisor, the possibility of a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and resume, a college advisor. The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the of english as an international essay, student multiple times a term, and each of the non-supervisory mentors will meet with the candidate approximately once a term and 1 2 3 cover letter, will file reports on role international, the candidate’s progress. The candidate will be expected to attend a series of high profile external seminars that take place once a week in term time, and a regular series of internal seminars from leading and more junior University and Departmental investigators and students. Critical Essay? Adjoa will attend and participate in the weekly lab journal club, in role as an international language, which scientific papers are taken apart critically by members of the trinidad research paper, group, and a weekly laboratory meeting in which each lab member presents their ongoing research.

Adjoa will also be encouraged to role of english as an language chat to driving and its effects essay other members of the department during tea lunch and coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for literature research and other reading and writing. Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to role of english essay her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and if required, an external screen. Adjoa will have full access to all core facilities, including the imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and sorting suite, an electron microscopy facility with full technical and critical, scientific support. We also have strong connections with the biochemistry and chemistry departments and as an international, the Weatherall Institute of to kill a mockingbird Molecular Medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital for of english as an international language essay, obtaining clinical samples and medizin, expertise.” BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator.

AutoMACS Classic Separator. Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. Of English Language? The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of 8 double hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment that is shared with three other virology groups. Virology. The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment, in which HIV-1 is grown and used to infect cells.

Flow cytometry. The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and two sorters. Molecular biology. The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for molecular biology carried out under containment levels –I, -II and –III. Light microscopy. The department has 5 confocal microscopes of varying sophistication and resolution, two of ghostwriter medizin which are set up for live cell immunofluorescence work. The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and as an international language, associated microscopes for decorator resume, live cell immunofluorescence analysis. The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for fixed and live cell work in the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of live, infected cells. Electron microscopy.

The department has two transmission electron microscopes and a scanning electron microscope, all of which are maintained and run as a central service facility by a skilled dedicated operator. Our collaborator in international language essay, Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is located at the University Churchill campus, which is 4 miles from the Pathology Department. He maintains and uses 3 microscopes set up for critical, cryo-tomography as follows. 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. See below for of english as an international language essay, the biographical sketch attachments.]

My interest in studying infectious diseases stems from the 2001 anthrax scare in the Washington D.C. area. I already had a strong interest in science but through my participation in the Gene Search Science Project at decorator Catholic University the following summer I came to understand how medical research impacts treatment for routine illnesses and also plays a role in national defense. Since middle school I have been preparing for role of english as an language essay, a career in science. At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in the rigorous Science and Technology Program during which time in participated in the Gene Search Project and researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. William Winters at Howard University Hospital. This experience taught me how research and medicine are intertwined and inspired me to become a physicianscientist. At UMBC I was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and multiple opportunities for scientific presentations prepared me for a career as a scientist. Trinidad And Tobago Research? My lab skills and of english as an language essay, understanding of a research career increased exponentially during my four years in Michael Summers’ lab. Not only did I learn about 3 cover letter, protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the time and discipline necessary for as an international, excellent research and essay, the internal drive that keeps one focused. Working with Dr. Of English As An International Essay? Nikola Pavletich I learned the value of immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly.

In the lab of gcse Tom Cech I had the responsibility of designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to design a novel assay to investigate AIDS specific questions in my graduate studies. Role Of English Language Essay? The medical education I’ve received at distractions Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Under the international essay, tutelage of Mark Connors and medizin, Quentin Sattentau, leaders in their fields on nonprogressive HIV infection and viral transmission, my understanding of infectious disease and my capacity to pursue further research in these fields will be greatly enhanced. In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and career development activities I am undertaking in role international, the forthcoming years make me an excellent P.I. for this grant. Academic and Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship. 2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa.

Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. 2005. Composition and sequence-dependent binding of RNA to the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Biochemistry. 44(10), 3735-3744. Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. 2010. Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography. J Mol Biol.

404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. 2003. Decorator? Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in international, Erythrocytes. Poster presentation at 1 2 letter ERHS Science Fair and Prince Georges County Science Fair. March 2003.

Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF. 2004. Role Of English As An International Language? Characterization of High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal. Analysis? Poster presented at 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. International Language Essay? Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. 2005. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to DNA.

Poster presented at Tri-Institutional Gateways to medizin the Laboratory Program Symposium and 2005 Leadership Alliance. August 2005. Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007. Dimerization of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding.

Poster presented at 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement Day. April 2007. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. March 2010. Of English? Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu.

2010. Gcse Essay Plan? HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium. June 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. Role Of English Language? HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Medizin? Poster presented at of english as an essay 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference. Distractions And Its? September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010.

Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and the Control of HIV. Talk given at role of english international essay Frontiers in Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] A. Personal Statement Regarding Project.

Currently HIV-specific ADCC is considered one of the very top priorities in the field of ghostwriter medizin HIV-specific immunity. Our laboratory has assembled the best techniques and reagents in the field to carry out this project. We have extensive experience in HIV-specific antibodies and cytotoxicity. As An International Essay? In addition we have a long track record of training students to prepare them for a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in 1 2 letter, Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 – 1989 Chief Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. Role Of English Essay? Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and gcse, Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of Allergy and of english international essay, Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S. Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of ghostwriter Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Clinical and international language, Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of 1 2 3 cover letter Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and Editorial and Review Board Activities. 2009 - U.S.

Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Virology. C. Role As An Language Essay? Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and Connors M. HLA B*5701 is and its effects highly associated with restriction of virus replication in a subgroup of HIV infected long term nonprogressors. Role Language? PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. Decorator? Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to role of english language essay perforin expression and is maintained in 1 2 3 cover letter, nonprogressors. Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068.

Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and Connors M. Role Of English? The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to gcse essay restrict HIV replication is not caused by loss of of english as an international recognition of autologous viral gag sequences. J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and Connors M. Diminished proliferation of trinidad and tobago research paper HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by exogenous IL-2. Of English As An Language? J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Connors M. Changes in paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion, of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of antigen load. J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, O’Shea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and Connors M. Lytic Granule Loading of driving distractions CD8+ T-Cells is of english international Required for HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021.

Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. Critical Analysis Essay Antigone? Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and cytotoxicity are not restored by role international language essay antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. To Kill A Mockingbird Essay? Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. Breadth of HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in sera: clustering analysis and association with clinical variables. Role Of English As An International Language? J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636. Doria-Rose NA and Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and Mascola JR. Rational design of critical analysis envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1.

Science 2010 329:856-861. Migueles SA and Connors M. Of English International Language? Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of understanding immune control of HIV. Decorator? JAMA 2010 304:194-201. [Redacted publication in role international, press] The research direction of the ghostwriter, HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation is international language essay focused upon mechanisms of immunity to HIV. The laboratory is staffed by PhD and MD scientists with extensive experience in trinidad and tobago research, the humoral or cellular immune response to HIV. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in the area of structure-function relationships of HIV-specific antibodies. Our laboratory is well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and imaging equipment to carry out this project.

Our laboratory is supported by the research budget of the Division of Intramural Research. Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP). This will continue for the next 2 years. We have also received funding from the Office of role international language essay AIDS Research for work on the humoral response to HIV. Positions and Employment.

1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of Research), Centre d’Immunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of critical antigone immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science 1998 - Member, American Society for role as an international essay, Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. 2005 - Member of the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of trinidad and tobago research paper BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of role as an study section for Swedish Program for International Development 2010 - Member of NIH study section for the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. To Kill A Mockingbird Gcse Plan? Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to the current application. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and Sattentau QJ. (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of of english international human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is sensitive to ghostwriter entry inhibition. International Language Essay? J. Virol. 1 2 Letter? 84: 3516-3527. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and Alcami J. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by mature dendritic cells inhibits the propagation of X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse.

J Virol. 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and Sattentau QJ. (2008). Efficient HIV-1 transmission from role as an, macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and Davis DM (2008).

Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission. Nature Cell. Biol. 10: 211-219. Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007).

HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in T cells takes place in tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. 1 2? J. Virol. 81:7873-7884 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007). Of English? Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. Critical Analysis? J. Virol. 81: 13916-13921. Jolly C, Mitar I and Sattentau QJ (2007). Requirement for an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient HIV-1 assembly and spread.

J. Virol. 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in T cells requires lipid raft integrity. J. Virol. 2005 79: 12088-12094.

Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J. Of English Language Essay? Exp Med. 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of important to the Field (in chronological order) Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in an anti-inflammatory environment. PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of 1 2 3 cover letter HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and immunogenicity. As An International Language Essay? J. Mol. Biol. Critical Essay? Aug 25th epub. Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Sattentau QJ. (2010).

Potent adaptive immune responses induced against HIV-1 gp140 and influenza virus HA by a polyanionic carbomer. Language? Vaccine 28: 2482-2489. Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and Fuller SD. SIV spike glycoprotein structure in situ determined by cryo-electron tomography. Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and Sattentau QJ (2007). A functional human IgM response to medizin HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the role of english language, layout of the actual PDF forms. The attachments are included below. In the trinidad and tobago research paper, original version, these attachments met the role of english as an international essay, page limits.]

Understanding the basis of an decorator, immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in as an, the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the driving distractions, primary goal in role language, most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Gcse Essay Plan? Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an role of english international essay, infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. Trinidad? We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and role of english as an international, characteristics of the ghostwriter, best responses achieved by of english international natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of ghostwriter medizin patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and language essay, Fc type.

We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from ghostwriter medizin, classical neutralization. Finally we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of of english as an HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from trinidad and tobago research, lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in role international, ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by infected CD4+ T cells. NKs expressing an Fc receptor bind the critical antigone, Fc domain of the Ab and of english as an language essay, use perforin to deliver granzymes to the HIV-infected cell.

Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the critical essay, cell. Of English As An Essay? Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. Essay Plan? We will classify ADCC by the percent of international language essay target cells receiving granzyme and the elimination of targets as defined by a mockingbird gcse plan residual percent of targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the international language, highest levels of ADCC. Compare the ghostwriter medizin, ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and role language essay, breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Trinidad And Tobago Research? Our laboratory has panels of NAbs derived from patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of specific epitopes is international language required for ADCC. Define the breadth of the polyclonal sera by its ability to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of HIV.

Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the letter, structure and function of the of english as an language essay, target-effector synapse. Using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography, we will examine the synapse formed between NK and other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and neutrophils) and decorator, infected target cells. Role International Essay? We will specifically investigate: The structure of a functional ADCC synapse. The kinetics of ADCC function in real time and its relation to antibody type and specificity. A role for antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in elimination of HIV-infected cells. d. Receptors and effector molecules central to ADCC activity against distractions and its effects essay HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the causative agent of AIDS in 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from AIDS each year 1- 3. There is more public awareness about how to language essay prevent HIV infection but with the growing incidence of HIV infection and decorator, the limitations of current antiretroviral therapy, there is an imperative need for a vaccine.

One of the most critical areas of research on vaccines for HIV is the search for correlates of immunity. At present the only method for determining the potential benefits of a vaccine with regard to protection from infection or lowering of of english as an language viral load upon infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials. Medizin? Determining correlates of immunity would tremendously accelerate the development process by role international essay permitting some estimation of ghostwriter medizin clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Reliable correlates would permit screening of vaccine candidates at a much earlier point in development with smaller numbers of participants. Over the past 20 years, research into correlates of immunity to HIV have largely focused on of english as an essay, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In addition to neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by research antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Of English International Language? In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on infected target cells and Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and bind the Fc? region of these Abs. Upon cross-linking of the Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the trinidad and tobago paper, target’s cell membrane and deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to HIV.

A recent study by Burton and colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in protecting macaques from HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to language essay macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Prior to this study, it was widely accepted that infection of a single cell would lead to integration and decorator, chronic infection. However, because ADCC mediated effects are on virus infected cells and not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and proof of the concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in vivo. In addition, some recent data in human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in ADCC as an important component of vaccine induced immunity to HIV. In September 2009 data from the international language, phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and showed that the decorator resume, prime-boost combination of role of english ALVACR HIV and AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. This vaccine regimen was known to not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to decorator resume the field that the protective efficacy is likely mediated through ADCC 5. Of English International Language Essay? Our laboratory is part of a large international effort to characterize ADCC antibodies from this trial in order to determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is now considered an extremely important part of vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. For example, the number, affinity, and specificities of antibodies necessary to mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against HIV-infected cells. We also have assembled panels of monoclonal antibodies from critical antigone, individual patients that permit a characterization of individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC.

One of the initial goals of this project was to adapt our current killing assay to provide a more robust assay for HIV-specific ADCC. Past studies of ADCC have been hampered by the availability of role of english assays that are only partially quantitative. There are four primary methods that people use to measure ADCC 6. The most prevalent is the chromium release assays (CRA), which is highly variable, does not specifically account for the mechanism of 1 2 letter killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and effectors for 24 hours and the supernatant is applied to the B95-8 cell line for 5-7 days. The endpoint is reduction of viral infection of the B95-8 cells 8. This method measures inhibition of role as an international language viral production and subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in the length of the assay and failure to measure killing of infected cells. Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for and its essay, the antiviral activity of many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and dendritic cells 9. Of English As An International Language Essay? The advantages of a mockingbird this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and of english international language essay, all cells and to kill gcse essay, Abs are from the same patient, but it is still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing.

The rapid and as an international language essay, fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. While use of protein pulsed targets is a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of protein on the surface of infected cells, potentially overestimating the driving distractions and its effects, efficacy of ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and of english as an international, autologous NKs as effectors. This is an 1 2 3 cover letter, adaptation of an assay for measuring the cytotoxic activity of CTLs developed in our lab11. Of English As An Language? This assay measures the distractions, cleavage of a GrB substrate, and eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and highly reproducible results. Of English As An International? In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for 3 days and HIV infected. To Kill? Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Effectors and targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated. NKs, targets and role of english language essay, serum are incubated in the presence of a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate.

Granzyme delivery to decorator the target cell and elimination of role of english international language HIV-infected targets can then be measured by flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content. GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the 1 2 3 cover letter, amount of GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Role As An Essay? Elimination of HIVSF162-infected cells. Driving Distractions And Its? Live targets are stained for role of english essay, intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). Some infected cells show downregulation of CD4 (PE-Cy7). A reduction in the number of p24 stained cells is represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and is an indication of cell death. In the example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%.

There are several advantages to this assay over older assays that use mismatched cell lines. Because NKs lyse target cells in the context of decorator resume MHC mismatch and cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in our assay to reduce background. 12. In addition, because NK function is diminished in HIV-infected patients, we use the NK cells and CD4+ T cell targets from role of english international, uninfected patients in our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of a given serum sample in mediating ADCC 13, 14. To Kill A Mockingbird Gcse? We observed variations in of english as an language, NKs from normal individuals in their ability to mediate ADCC and choose donors that provide optimal signal to noise ratio that we will use to a mockingbird essay plan compare the serum of HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in this assay are likely closer to the in vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in the place of antigen pulsed cell lines.

Other advantages include our assay’s ability to measure the of english, mechanism of ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is down-regulated in virally infected cells, and trinidad and tobago paper, the loss of MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to kill a cell 15, 16. We control for this by measuring the granzyme content of targets that are incubated only with effectors and sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the sensitivity and dynamic range with which we are able to measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in a dose dependent manner, and (3) GrB delivery is proportional to role of english international cell death. Aim 1: Characterize the magnitude of ADCC in HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is considerable controversy regarding the magnitude of ADCC activity in essay plan, sera from HIV+ individuals and how it correlates with disease progression.

It has been suggested that sera from elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and role of english language, disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the ghostwriter medizin, serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC. We will also compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of of english language patient serum to evaluate whether or not ADCC and trinidad and tobago research, neutralization always occur together in polyclonal sera which is of english language yet to be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the past several years, in collaboration with the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. We have extensive clinical data and neutralization data for analysis essay, all of the patients. With the data we generate from international language, our ADCC assay we are able to compare multiple indicators of immunity with ADCC. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on critical analysis essay, in vitro and passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to of english international be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. Aim 2: Characterize MAb from serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to analysis essay antigone specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on their surface which is recognized by NAbs and presumably by ADCC-mediating Abs.

We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and of english language essay, VRC01) and medizin, patient derived MAbs to probe specificities required for ADCC. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to language protect against diverse virus strains so it is important to 3 cover letter determine whether Abs raised against one clade of virus would be able to mediate ADCC in role essay, CD4+ T cells infected by different clades. We will use multiple strains of virus from clade A/E, B, and C to infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of target cells in trinidad, the presence of serum pooled from clade B HIV+ patients. IgG1 and IgG3 are the predominant IgG isotypes with roles in ADCC. It is possible that variations in ADCC activity of sera are mediated by of english as an language variations in IgG subclass. We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at the same dilutions used in our killing assay, and measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 by flow cytometry. We believe flow cytometry is a better way of measuring titers of binding Abs as compared to decorator resume ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the association between ADCC activity and IgG subclass may provide insights into the necessity of eliciting a specific class of IgG via particular antigens and adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for subclass binding and do not expect complications with this portion of the project.

Aim 3: Evaluation of the target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to role of english language essay study ADCC is important because it will help us define structural and kinetic parameters and will relate structure to function. Multiple mechanisms for cell-to-cell spread of and its effects HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of role of english as an international viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. Ghostwriter? To date there has been no study using microscopy to investigate ADCC in HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and CD4+ T cells as targets. In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to kill HIV infected targets 24.

With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. At 2 hours 50 - 80% of targets were conjugated and role of english international language essay, undergoing lysis and by and tobago research 24 hours all targets had been lysed. However, the role as an language, bispecific antibody may not be representative of ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. In addition, the structure of the trinidad paper, NK to HIV-infected target synapse was not examined. Methods : The lab of Quentin Sattentau has focused on examining the synapse of cells involved in HIV infection. They were the first to as an international language essay demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and nanotube structures for viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and decorator resume, that cell-tocell transfer of virus is 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26.

To study the kinetics of ADCC in real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). As An International Language Essay? Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and NKs to evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to resume evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and applied to poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and stained for granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope.

We will use transmission electron microscopy and of english international language, tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the ADCC functional synapse. For TEM targets, serum, and effectors will be incubated for approximately 1 hour, fixed in paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and stained with osmium tetroxide. Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27. If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for structural studies with the aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the driving distractions and its essay, pathology department’s core bioimaging facility and I will take department’s Advanced Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy course in preparation for as an international language, this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the kinetic and functional relationship between ADCC components and answer questions such as what density of Env epitopes are needed to recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per target. We do not foresee any difficulties in decorator resume, accomplishing this objective. The results of these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for the study of ADCC with potential utility for HIV vaccine trials; and increased understanding of basic HIV immunology. In the wake of the RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in the field of role as an international HIV-specific immunity. We are very well positioned to carry out these important studies because of our large collection of a mockingbird essay cells, sera, and detailed clinical data from patients that are part of the NIAID HIV clinic, and both labs’ extensive experience in this area.

Samples are collected under the NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Protections for human subjects are in of english language, accordance with NIAID Division of Intramural Research policies. Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and 1 2 3 cover letter, occasionally some bleeding or bruising at the site. Of English Language Essay? On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on any day or visit. In the and tobago research, course of any time frame during this study, the total amount of blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over any 8-week period, which is within the safety guidelines for blood drawing practiced at the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is occasionally associated with local bleeding and bruising at the site of needle insertion.

Lightheadedness can also occur, and people faint on as an international language essay, rare occasions. Occasional tingling in the arms and legs can occur with the procedure and can usually be relieved by chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the staff will provide. In addition, on very rare occasions (less than 1 in decorator, every 1,000 times), malfunction of the leukapheresis machine can result in blood loss of up to 450 milliliters. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to deal with any of these potential problems will always be on hand during the procedure. Inclusion of Women and Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and Race Consideration. This study involves techniques and procedures that are currently approved for various indications. Of English International Essay? Male and female adult patients (18 years of age or older) will be enrolled without preference to gender, race or ethnicity from the pool of patients that receive care in Clinics 8 at the NIH Clinical Center. Patients will be recruited from outside the NIH community by advertisements posted in the Clinical Center, the decorator resume, NIAID web site, and advertised in other media. We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. In adult HIV-infected patients planning to interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to entry into role essay the study as to the potential risks of discontinuing HAART therapy and the potential benefits of essay continuing HAART therapy, in the setting of a documented virologic and/or immunologic response.

Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of HAART cessation, in the opinion of the study team, will not be offered participation in the study. As An? Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for virologic and immunologic relapse and will be offered therapy, based upon the algorithm for safety outlined above. Target enrollment for distractions effects essay, this study is role as an language 300 individuals and is currently ongoing. Inclusion of Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of Children and Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to 18 years of trinidad and tobago research age.

As an observational study there is no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from participation in this trial, thereby children are not being denied the potential benefits of a research intervention. We also do not have the historical research database and in vitro findings on as an international language essay, HLA linkages with LTNP in the pediatric population to antigone make valid comparisons within that cohort. The potential risks of withdrawing therapy in minors have not been studied and therefore may present unknown additional risks to that study population. Comparable units specializing in international, pediatric HIV are available at the NIH to address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in the pediatric population. The safety of analysis essay discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and nursing, and current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to take antiretroviral therapy to role international language prevent viral transmission to the child during that time period. Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from ghostwriter medizin, this study. Any woman of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to study entry. All participants who engage in heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of reliable birth control for the duration of the study. When I entered the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to train with because of their focus on of english as an international language essay, HIV immunology, vaccine design, and their expertise in critical analysis essay antigone, basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and microscopy. I initiated contact between the two individuals and they agreed to role of english as an start a collaborative project with me. After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for one summer I decided I wanted to focus on antibodies that mediate ADCC.

I outlined the facets of ADCC I wanted to investigate then received feedback from both mentors. I subsequently wrote the proposal that was edited by both mentors and 3 cover letter, Mark Connors made final revisions. I meet multiple times during the role of english as an international, week with Dr. Connors to discuss my research progress and to plan future experiments. We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and meet at letter conferences. Communication will continue in role of english international, the same manner while I am in Quentin Sattentau’s lab.

Selection of Sponsors and antigone, Institution. Selection of Institution. I decided to language essay join Columbia’s MSTP program because of to kill a mockingbird its tradition of exemplary medical education, medical research, and unparalleled support offered to students from program administrators. Essay? Because of decorator my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field. Role Of English? I decided to join the NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to a more extensive network of scientists than Columbia could. Oxford has a particularly strong network of HIV investigators and the structure of its graduate program allows for a particularly specialized education. Decorator? As a graduate student in the pathology department I am allowed to select seminars and accelerated 1-day to 1-week courses that allow me to attain skills quickly and immediately implement them into my research. Role As An? In addition, the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for students to take courses offered by any institution giving me access to virtually any educational opportunity necessary. In addition, through NIH’s Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences I’ve had the decorator resume, opportunity to role of english international take courses that will help me towards my goal as in 3 cover letter, infectious disease investigator such as the Vaccine Development course I completed.

The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is designed so that students work with a mentor at NIH and one at a university. When I joined the program I searched for HIV investigators throughout NIH and Oxford and identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to conduct research that had direct implications in vaccine development. Quentin Sattentau was studying how to elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for vaccines and adjuvants to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity. Through my search at the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and Quentin had never collaborated before. I believed Dr. Essay? Connors’s expertise in NAbs of long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. Sattentau’s vaccine development goals.

In addition, Dr. Connors’s unique cohort of resume LTNPs would provide ready access to language essay samples to study many facets of HIV infection. Finally, I believe Dr. And Tobago? Sattentau’s approach to research as a PhD and Dr. Connors’ as an MD will teach me to think about science in role of english international language essay, a more practical way that is suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher.

I will follow the principles on responsible conduct of research as outlined in NOT-OD-10- 019. As an undergraduate at UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled “Ethics/Integrity in Scientific Research” which first help me to critical essay antigone understand the responsibility scientists have to as an international language essay one another and distractions effects essay, medical community honestly share information. As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the Hippocratic Oath to guide my patient care and I am expected to adhere to the code of ethics as outlined in student handbook. Upon joining the NIH I took an online ethics course and will continue to take refresher courses annually. Role Essay? At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by taking the required “Ethics: Introduction to medizin Research Ethics”. Since I will have access to sensitive patient data it is essential that I maintain the confidentiality of of english these individuals. When I started research at NIH I participated in ghostwriter, a patient confidentiality seminar. Role Of English International Essay? Oxford offers an “Ethics: Confidentiality” course in which I will enroll to better my further my understanding and ability to maintain ethical practices with regards to decorator resume research.

As a physician, I hope to alleviate an individual’s immediate suffering; and of english international language, as a scientist I hope to contribute to long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. Critical Analysis? To work most effectively at the interface of medicine and science, I have endeavored to earn an MD/PhD. I believe that the combined degree’s greatest value lies in the perspective that it affords: to role as an approach patient care with a researcher’s eye, and to approach research with a physician’s focus on improving the quality of life. A few years ago I conducted research on telomerase, an enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. When telomerase is upregulated, as it is in 90% of carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. While looking at yeast cells with low levels of telomerase and measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things. The first was that cells with low levels of telomerase grew slowly. Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. These observations led me to wonder whether the progression of cancer in 1 2, individuals with DC was slower than in patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase. Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from that aspect.

A literature search demonstrated a lack of any substantial research concerning this question. Research in biochemistry affords many new advances in medicine, but through that experience the importance of keeping a broader medical picture in mind became clear to of english as an international essay me. My goals as a physician scientist are to treat patients and conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and medicine in critical analysis essay antigone, the field of infectious disease. The training I will receive in role language essay, Oxford’s doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to a mockingbird gcse work in of english as an international, a collaborative environment, and by giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and even through this grant. These are all specific skills that would be harder and take longer for me to garner through a traditional medical student experience. The advantage I have in understanding that I want to be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to carefully cultivate these skills early in my career. Activities Planned Under This Award. Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in Mark Connors’s lab I have acquired specific skills such to 1 2 3 cover creatively study immunology such as learning to use flow cytometry. I discuss my research progress frequently during the week with Dr.

Connors. We also have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Sattentau at numerous conferences throughout the year. Writing Skills : When I entered the program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by role international language the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of college. I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication, applying for trinidad and tobago research, training grants, and submission of a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam). I will also complete the Scientific Writing from a Reader’s Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the 3-day “Vaccines: Development and Evaluation of Efficacy” course offered by FAES in February 2010. I also attended “Psychiatry and HIV,” a 2-day workshop offered by the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter. I attend weekly seminar series hosted at the NIH such as the Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and weekly lab meetings.

Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. I will also have the opportunity to be mentored by an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to annually attend and present at pertinent Keystone Symposia and the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference. Role International? I have also had opportunities to present posters at the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. I have given a talk to my graduate program journal club and will have more opportunities to present my research in antigone, lab meetings.

Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in government/academic research, the pharmaceutical industry, and international essay, finance speak with us about their career. I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on career development. Teaching : As I prepare to leave the lab I will be responsible for training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and and tobago paper, Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in Quentin Sattentau’s lab I will learn to apply microscopic imaging to studying HIV infection. I will have weekly meetings to discuss my research progress. We will have phone conferences and meet with Dr.

Connors at various conferences throughout the role of english as an international essay, year. I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the pathology department but not in ghostwriter medizin, my specific lab who will help me to objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication and writing reviews. I will complete the role of english language, following 1-day courses offered at Oxford: Writing Skills – Paper and Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing, Discipline specific learning : I will participate in and tobago, courses and Skills Workshops offered by Oxford including “Advanced Light Microscopy,” “Electron Microscopy,” and “Introduction to Statistics.” Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Nuffield Department of international language essay Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and ghostwriter, shadow an infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. I will also attend the of english as an, 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to be an undergraduate lab instructor and take the Oxford course “Teaching and Learning Skills” to prepare myself. Year 3 and Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the summer after 11th grade I participated in the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at critical analysis essay antigone the Catholic University of America that introduced me to role of english as an language essay molecular biology and the exciting race to sequence the human genome.

That summer, I learned much more than how to run a gel; I learned to ghostwriter read and comprehend primary research articles and how to design experiments. Because of my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to of english participate in an extension of the Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. This program inspired me to pursue a career in biomedical research because I began to understand how the principles I was learning in school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. William Winter at Howard University School of Medicine to investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in red blood cells (RBC). 2,3-DPG lowers the affinity of 1 2 3 cover hemoglobin for oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to tissues. Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of 2,3- DPG. While this effect may seem advantageous to patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to sickle by promoting hemoglobin polymerization.

Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an interaction with the A3 receptor. To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by using spectrophotometry to measure a by-product of the 2,3-DPG pathway. An exciting therapeutic prospect of our research is that an antagonist of the of english as an language, A3 receptor may prevent the accumulation of critical analysis essay antigone 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in patients with sickle cell anemia. I documented this work in international language, a five-chapter thesis, in accordance with my high school’s Science and Technology Program, and 3 cover, presented it at my school’s science fair, where I was awarded third place in biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. Michael Summers to investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. Understanding dimerization is key to developing gene and antiviral therapies. MuLV is similar to HIV in that it is a retrovirus that packages two copies of its RNA genome.

Packaging of dimerized RNA is mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the assembling Gag polyproteins and a specific domain of the RNA called the Psi-site. Role Of English International Essay? Previous work in the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for MLV genome packaging, where, in monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of binding NC are sequestered by base pairing, but upon dimerization, become exposed to bind NC. My project was to investigate whether similar sequences in trinidad and tobago paper, the Psi-site could also bind NC. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and 3) binding affinity varies by more than one order of magnitude depending on international language essay, which three nucleotides lie upstream of the guanosine. The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. al., 2005) extends an established model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA. I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at multiple UMBC symposiums. I continued to investigate potential dimerization and NC-binding regions of the Psi-site using native and analysis antigone, mutant MuLV RNA segments in gel-shift assays. As expected from our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to RNA dimers which was also confirmed by role as an language essay equilibrium dialysis. Most recently our lab published the NMR structure of this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the summer of 2005 I participated in the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to ghostwriter the Laboratory Program.

I worked with Dr. Nikola Pavletich toward solving the role as an international language, crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to a DNA substrate. Rad4-Rad23 is a homolog of human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Patients are extremely sensitive to effects essay UV-light and develop skin cancer during childhood. I identified DNA substrates to be used in crystallization trials by HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and setting up crystal trays. I presented this work in a talk before the Tri-Institutional community and during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in essay, the lab of Dr.

Thomas Cech at the University of Colorado at Boulder. To Kill? The central role telomerase plays in protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at international language the heart of two common human ailments—cancer and aging. Research Paper? To study how and of english as an language, where in the cell telomerase is assembled from its RNA and protein components, we used the and its effects essay, budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We sought to understand whether the noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. Role As An International Essay? One model is that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is exported to the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins. Mtr10p then plays a role in importing the TLC1-Sm complex back into the nucleus, where the telomerase holoenzyme is assembled. Using cellular fractionation and real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to critical essay localize TLC1 in its various stages. During the summer between my first and second year of medical school I joined the lab of Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for breadth and potency of neutralizing Abs against HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in potency in neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Of English As An Language? Studying NAbs peaked my interested in critical, other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and lead to my proposed project of role of english international language investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

Each research experience has shown me the many nuances of a research career. I learned about: 1) the importance of ghostwriter medizin basic research in developing medicines, 2) the time, organization, and ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and 3) the vital role that a physician-scientist plays in translating basic research into medical treatment. Although I’ve experienced frustrations and of english international, disappointment in research, the thrill of observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges. Each successive experience only critical analysis essay antigone, increased my eagerness to improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from international language essay, sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from sample.] [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual summary statement. A Mockingbird Gcse Plan? See below for the data fields and critiques.] Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel. Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION:

In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-infected patients do determine the extent of protection that ADCC provides. The reviewers noted that the candidate is outstanding, with a strong record of language essay research training and accomplishment. The candidate appears to be highly motivated. A Mockingbird Gcse Plan? Her sponsors, at international language both institutions, are well qualified to provide the necessary training and and its effects, the letters of recommendation were uniformly laudatory. Role Of English As An International Essay? Minor weaknesses of the application included the ambitious research plan to be accomplished in two years, the risk of conducting the essay antigone, research at two sites, and the failure to address pitfalls and alternatives of the research project. These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the reviewers’ enthusiasm.

This training project will have a high impact in ensuring that the candidate maintains her potential to become an independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in of english as an, the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to driving and its effects the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of role language primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in a mockingbird gcse essay, the target. We want to role of english international study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the to kill plan, best responses achieved by as an international language natural infection.

First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Distractions? Based on these findings, we will select the role as an language, sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on trinidad and tobago, epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from of english as an language, classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in resume, the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. Of English As An International Language? We hypothesize that variations in essay antigone, ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1: Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC.

Aim 2: Characterize the as an essay, specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the structure and function of the ghostwriter medizin, target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and role of english as an essay, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of 3 cover letter this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by as an international cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of plan defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is from an applicant who is currently enrolled in the NIH M.D./Ph.D.

Partnership Training Program and is a participant in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in an NIH laboratory and in a university research lab. As An International Essay? Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from Oxford University and complete her medical training at Columbia University. The applicant is trinidad and tobago research paper highly recommended by of english as an international language essay previous research mentors and critical, has an outstanding academic record. Her research experience, which includes four years of undergraduate research, is matched by her productivity; she is a contributing author on two published papers and has presented her work at language essay numerous scientific venues. The research plan, which derives directly from the expertise and analysis essay, interests of the as an essay, mentor, focuses on relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and antibody subtype. Antigone? Additional experiments, which will draw on the expertise of the co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC. These studies will be significant for their basic science and translational value. The training plan is unique in that training and research will be accomplished in two separate laboratories of the sponsor and of english language, co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the applicant and her potential for and tobago research paper, establishing an independent research career. The applicant, who is currently enrolled in an M.D./Ph.D. training program, is role language described in three strong letters of recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and very inquisitive.

Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as “easily among the top two or three of the more than 200 current and former undergraduates” that he has mentored. The applicant has four years of undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and research performed during a summer program at distractions essay the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on studies of telomerase. Technical approaches for role international essay, which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and cryo-electron tomography. Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on two published papers and paper, has presented eight posters and one oral presentation at various local, national, and international meetings. Essay? The applicant has an outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and numerous awards and recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. The collaborative project outlined in the proposal was an critical analysis antigone, outgrowth of a dialog initiated by as an international language essay the applicant between the sponsor and co-sponsor. The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for developing a career as both a scientist and physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: The applicant’s mentor and sponsor, who is currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an established and productive senior investigator with research support provided by the NIH. The co-sponsor is also a productive researcher with a consistent record of essay antigone support for as an international language, studies related to HIV/AIDS.

The research interests and trinidad paper, expertise of the as an language essay, sponsor and co-sponsor will provide excellent support for the applicant’s research and training. The expertise of the co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to decorator resume studies outlined in Aim 3. The sponsor has trained an average of four students per year over role as an essay, 20 years, suggesting an ghostwriter, excellent training environment for the applicant. Role Of English Language Essay? Similarly, the co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the a mockingbird gcse essay, applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and one M.D. in the sponsor’s lab, and four Ph.D. trainees in the co-sponsor’s laboratory. The latter trainees will overlap with the applicant for one year or more. Role Of English International Essay? These interactions will enrich the applicant’s training. The research plan is medizin built on studies of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in HIV-1-infected individuals. Experiments will examine the essay, potency of distractions essay sera of HIV-1-infected individuals in ADCC (Aim 1), the specificity and international, breadth of antigone antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and the structure/function of the target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC. The central feature of the proposed research is international essay a novel and a mockingbird gcse essay, quantitative ADCC assay (developed in the sponsor’s lab) that offers significant improvements over other ADCC assays.

Results generated from experiments in Aims 1 and 2 will have both basic science and translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of ADCC. The applicant and sponsors are well positioned to perform these studies, since the patient populations and study procedures are already in place. The applicant is participating in role as an international language essay, the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at the NIH and another mentor at a university. Consistent with the Scholars Program, the research training plan includes studies and training in year 1 in the sponsor’s lab at the NIH, continued studies and training in year 2 in the co-sponsor’s lab at Oxford, and years 3 and 4 in medical school. Trinidad? Training in each laboratory will include the as an international, development of specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and opportunities for presentation of results and teaching. Training at 3 cover the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on independent research and critical thinking.

Training at Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and biochemical and serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry). Although the targeted patient enrollment is of english international language essay given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the resume, experimental plan does not provide details regarding the scope of studies in role as an international essay, Aim 1. Correlates of ADCC to distractions effects be studied in Aim 1 (“rates of progression and viral loads”) were not described in sufficient detail. Role Of English As An International Language Essay? How will rates of progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified? An explanation of how the results of Aim 1 experiments will be used to medizin guide the selection of role of english international language pooled patient sera in Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the laboratories of two different principal investigators will offer diversity in training and acquired expertise, and enhance the capability of the applicant to develop an decorator, independent and productive research career. 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and of english international, facilities at both institutions will provide outstanding environments for training and research. A more detailed plan regarding the coordination of trinidad and tobago paper training plans between the sponsor and co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the distance and time difference between the two performance sites.

Training in the Responsible Conduct of role international Research: Comments on Format (Required): The description of RCR training is brief and does not provide a detailed plan for formal training. However, enrollment in two formal courses at Oxford (both focused on ethics) is mentioned. Comments on medizin, Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and certifications at the NIH and as an language, Oxford should provide information on relevant subjects. Comments on resume, Faculty Participation (Required): Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the description of RCR training. Comments on Duration (Required):

The duration appears to be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided. Comments on role as an international essay, Frequency (Required): The frequency of 3 cover training could not be discerned from the description of RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and role as an language, Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2.

Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This is an outstanding proposal from a highly qualified applicant. The applicant has an exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and outstanding letters of reference although she lacks a first author publication. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. In fact, the applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Both sponsors have excellent training track records and both are actively involved in the HIV arena.

The primary goal of driving effects this project is to characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The Connors lab at the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to role as an essay measure granzyme B delivered to an HIV infected cells. Using this novel assay the applicant plans to compare ADCC in HIV+ subjects with various rates of disease progression and to define the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and 2). Driving Distractions And Its Essay? The third Aim to characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse will be carried out at Oxford under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau.

This aim will use fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and of english as an international language essay, TEM to examine the samples between NK and other cells with ADCC activity. If the applicant is successful the data from resume, this project will be highly important for HIV vaccine development. As An International? The research project however is quite ambitious and no timeline is decorator given. It appears that the applicant plan to role of english as an language essay spend 1 more year in the Dr. Connors lab and 1 year in Dr. Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the applicant plans to finish all the work they outlined. Despite the letter, highly ambitious nature of the proposed research project the overall project goals warrant further study and the applicant herself is international of the highest caliber making this application worthy of funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to high school where she participated in the Gene Search Project at Howard University Hospital. As an undergraduate at UMBC she was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by the HHMI. The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and is the first author on 8 posters and 1 oral presentation. Trinidad And Tobago Paper? The applicant has extremely strong letters of recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner.

Exemplary scholastic record and many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: Two suburb sponsors are listed. Dr. Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of high quality research and of english international, publications and a solid list of successful trainees (4/year for 20 years). The other sponsor, Dr. Letter? Sattentau, a Professor of Immunology and Pathology at the University of Oxford, is equally meritorious with over 151 published manuscripts and solid funding record. Dr. Sattentau, also has a established track record of training PhD student (n=9) and post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about of the role of ADCC in HIV infection.

The project is well outlined and of english as an international language, there are sufficient preliminary data to support the feasibility of the to kill essay plan, project. The plan is to utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to role of english measure GrB cytotoxicity and determine which Abs are capable of mediating the highest level of ADCC. Using this technique the applicant plans to characterize the critical, potency of sera from subjects with different rates of disease progression, characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and international language, electron microscopy) the applicant plans to examine the letter, structure and of english as an essay, function of the target-effector synapse. This work will be done under the guidance of Dr. Driving Effects? Sattentau who is an expert in studying the virologic synapses. This is role of english as an international essay a highly ambitious grant. It may be difficult for the applicant to finish all the proposed work especially the work proposed in Aim 3. The applicant is calling for 300 subjects but no power calculation is shown to support that many subjects. Resume? A timeline for the proposed work would be helpful. The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined. This maybe a little naive.

The research training plan is well laid out by of english as an international year. 3 Cover Letter? The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in class room training of new personnel) and discipline specific learning (i.e. in role of english, house courses and seminar series, lab meetings). Letters describing each institution’s role in training the applicant were provided. Applicant states that she will interact on daily basis with section head and other senior laboratory member on a daily basis. Students also make formal presentations and trinidad and tobago, attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and HIV journal club. The training plan indicates that the applicant will be at the NIH for one year and role of english essay, Oxford for critical analysis essay antigone, one year and then back to medical school for the last 2 years. This raises some concerns regarding the role as an language, duration of the funding (3 vs. Critical Analysis? 2 years). 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training:

The work will be conducted at the NIH/NIAID and role of english as an, University of Oxford. Both institutions are of the highest caliber with access to all the required resources. Oxford has a program in place for graduate students to take accelerated courses and the NIH Foundation for to kill a mockingbird gcse essay plan, Advanced Education in the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the applicants goal to become an infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Format (Required): On line ethics course at the NIH and formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on Subject Matter (Required):

Applicant states they will follow principle of research outline in NOT-OD-1-019. The applicant has taken semester long course on Ethics/Integrity in Scientific research. The applicant took another Ethic course upon entering the NIH. Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on faculty participation. Comments on Duration (Required): Comments on Frequency (Required): Online course and annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and role of english as an language, Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to ghostwriter medizin Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an as an international language essay, excellent candidate who is trinidad part of the role, NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out her PhD research under the decorator, guidance of two excellent researchers and role international essay, mentors, Drs.

Connors (NIH) and Satentau (Oxford) and will complete her MD studies at Columbia. The primary hypothesis of research this proposal is that ADCC activity levels in sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific Abs. This represents a highly relevant area of research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and as an language, well-planned aims – (i) characterize the potency of sera from individuals at different stages of HIV infection in letter, ADCC (comparing to clinical status and Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the specificity and breadth of role international Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the sera to panels of ghostwriter medizin known neutralizing Abs), and (iii) characterize the ADCC synapse. This will involve state-of-art approaches established in the sponsors’ labs, allowing the applicant an role of english as an international essay, excellent chance to perform this research. It is a clear and well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out ghostwriter medizin, relevant research in of english international, an excellent training environment.

THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF WOMEN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF MINORITIES PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE.

COMMITTEE BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS: The budget was recommended as requested.

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al qaeda essays Over the years, the security of the United States has been of role language, great concern. Since the infamous September 11 bombing, America has taken greater measures, to ensure safety of its citizens and assets, all over the globe. Critical Analysis Antigone! Currently, the Federal Government invests millions of international essay, dollars towards fighting terrorism, both within and without its borders. The growth of terrorist groups has been a major challenge to the United States in its quest to security. Controlling the emergence of such groups and suppressing their growth and and tobago research paper, penetration into role language, the American territories has been a burning issue to the American leaders.

One such an organization is Al-Qaeda. Al-Qaeda is an international militant organization, which was formed between 1988 and 1989. Its founders were Abdullah Azzam, Osama bin Laden, and others. Medizin! Its genesis is traced back to Arab volunteers in the 1980s, who were resisting Afghanistan’s invasion by the Soviet. The organization comprises of both a stateless, multinational army, and an extremist, Islamist, Wahhabi jihadist group. The organization is designated as a terrorist organization by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United Nations Security Council, the language essay, European Union, Russia, India, the United States of America, and other countries. The terrorist group has carried out many terrorist attacks on countries it perceives as being kafir (Burke, 2004).

Al-Qaeda has been attacking military and civilians in various countries across the globe, including the Bali bombing in 2002, the 1998 Unites States embassy bombings, and the September 11 attacks. It is the September 11 attacks that led to American government’s launch of the war on terror. Due to the death of 1 2, its most important leaders, such as Osama bin Laden, the role of english as an international language, terror group’s operations have changed from being controlled in a top-down structure, to activities by lone-wolf operators and franchise-associated groups. Major techniques used by Al-Qaeda include bombing different targets simultaneously and suicide bombings. Its ascribed activities involves members who have pledged allegiance to Bin Laden, or other Al-Qaeda-linked people trained in any of its camps located in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sudan, or Iraq. Prior to his assassination by the American forces in 2011, Osama was the and its, Senior Operation Chief and the notable commander of Al-Qaeda. After his death, his, Ayman al-Zawahiri, took over as the commander of the organization. During his reign as a commander, Osama received advice from role international, Shura Council, consisting of powerful Al-Qaeda members, estimated to be between twenty to thirty individuals. Atiyah Abd al-Rahman was ranked second in command before his death in August 2011. In addition, the organization’s network is built as a conspiratorial network, from scratch; drawing leaders from its regional nodes, to serve in its high command, as and when necessary. The organization’s military committee takes responsibility in training operatives, planning attacks, and acquiring weapons.

The business committee funds training and recruitment of operatives via the Hawala banking system. Decorator Resume! America’s efforts to eradicate terrorist funding were more successful in 2012, after the September 11 attacks. Despite such measures, Al-Qaeda still operates unregulated bank accounts, for instance, the one thousand or more hawaladars in Pakistan; some can transact deals of up to ten million dollars. The organization, also, provides false passports and air tickets, oversees profit-driven businesses, and pays its members. A report from the commission formed to probe the role as an essay, September 11 attack reveals that the terror group requires approximately thirty-million dollars annually to 3 cover, conduct its operations.

Additionally, the organization’s law committee is of english as an international language, responsible in reviewing Sharia law and determines whether specific courses of action comply with it. The Islamic Study Committee is responsible in issuing religious edicts, for instance, the 1998 edict commanding Muslims to murder Americans (Gunaratna, 2002). Financing of Al-Qaeda. To Kill A Mockingbird Gcse Essay! In the 1990s, the financing of Al-Qaeda came from Osama bin Laden’s Personal wealth. Afghanistan had become politically mired and language essay, complex by driving and its essay 2001, therefore, accessing other financial sources, making Bin Laden’s role in financing the role of english as an international language, group comparatively minor.

In the 3 cover, year 2001, some of the major sources of finance for the organization include Islamic Jihad and Jamaa Al-Islamiyya, which are linked to Afghan-based Egyptians. In the same year, additional sources of income included donations from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and other Islamic countries’ supporters and heroin trade. A memo from the U.S. Secretary of State, released in 2009, shows that the major source of the group’s funding world-wide was Saudi Arabia (Burke, 2004). Al-Qaeda and the radical Islamist movement developed in Islamic movement and Islamic revival of the last thirty years of the twentieth Century. Being anti- pro-Soviet government, the Afghan jihad formed the as an international language, Salafist jihadist Movement, whereby Al-Qaeda was the most vocal example. Some scholars argue that, minus the trinidad and tobago research, writings of the Islamic thinker and author Sayyid Qutb, Al-Qaeda would not have come into existence.

He preached that, it is because of role international language, lack of Sharia law that the Muslim world had failed to be Muslim, due to a mockingbird, returning back to role of english essay, ignorance before Muslim’s existence called jahiliyyah. He asserted that, a movement of sacred Muslims was necessary to restore Islam, implement Sharia, and rid the Muslim community of non-Muslim influences, including concepts like nationalism and to kill gcse essay, socialism. Qutb had great influence on Osama’s mentor and another key member of Al-Qaeda, Ayman al-Zawahiri. Qutb’s most powerful idea was that most of role of english as an essay, those who claimed to be Muslims were not, instead they were apostates. This did not only give jihadists a loophole in killing another Muslim, but also made it a religious norm to carry out an execution of such self-professed Muslims. Critical Analysis! Among such apostates were leaders of Islamic nations, as they failed to implement Sharia law (Al-Zayyat, Fekry, Nimis, 2004).

Al-Qaeda’s Communication and Aviation Network. Due to increased international vigilance, Al-Qaeda has migrated online. Its use of the internet has become more sophisticated, encompassing recruitment, financing, mobilization, publicity, networking, and role as an international language essay, information gathering, dissemination, and sharing. In Iraq, the group releases short videos glorifying jihadist suicide bombers. Multimedia content disseminated by critical analysis antigone the organization include: victims ready to be killed, guerrilla training clips, testimonials from suicide bombers, and videos showing jihad participation (Thomas, 2003). Al-Qaeda is deemed to be running a clandestine aviation network involving a number of Boeing 727 aircraft, executive jets, and turboprops. It is believed that the organization uses aircrafts to transport weapons and drugs from role international, South America to many unstable nations in West Africa. An aircraft such as the Boeing 727 is in a position to ferry up to analysis essay, ten tons of cargo. Osama claimed back in 1998 that acquiring weapons of mass destructions was his right as a Muslim.

Over the of english as an international essay, years, the Al-Qaeda has been working hard to develop or purchase weapons of mass destruction, such as nuclear and biochemical weapons. However, the organization has not been successful in the use of such weapons. To Kill Gcse Essay Plan! Al-Qaeda has less interest in easier- to- use, cheaper, and simpler technologies, such as poisons and crude toxins. The group managed to develop anthrax for of english language, mass causality attack in the U.S. The project was run by its deputy chief personally, in medizin parallel to the organization’s quest to role as an language, acquire nuclear capability.

By 2002, a United Nations report indicated that many new soldiers were joining Al-Qaeda’s training camps in Afghanistan. In addition, the report indicates that, the organization’s operatives were training in more than forty countries, across the world. And Tobago Research Paper! In such camps, the as an language, new recruits receive military training in various areas such as bombing, document falsification, combat, and much more. Such specialized training is useful to the recruits in discharging their duties during terrorism activities. After training, such recruits are assigned new duties, in various parts of the resume, globe (Aldrich, 2002). Al-Qaeda is a threat to American security and the world at large. From its various activities in the past, it is clear that such an organization has the potential to bring destruction and cause mayhem in the country. Despite Osama’ death, the group is recuperating and new leaders are taking overthe leadership of the group. In addition, the group is concentrating on recruiting more young people and professionals, and acquiring new and more sophisticated weapons.

This is not good news to the United States. Despite the belief that the country has a superb military, sometimes the events that unfolded in role international essay September 11 show that anything is possible. Therefore, there is need for critical analysis essay antigone, the security agencies to ensure that they are prepared at all times. Aldrich, G. H. (2002). The Taliban, Al Qaeda, and the determination of international language, illegal combatants.

American Journal of International Law, 96(4), 891-898. Al-Zayyat, M., Fekry, A., Nimis, S. (2004). The road to al-Qaeda: the medizin, story of Bin Laden#8217;s right-hand man. Of English As An International! London, UK: Pluto Press. And Tobago! Burke, J. (2004). Al Qaeda. Foreign Policy, 18-26.

Burke, J. (2004). Al-Qaeda: the true story of radical Islam. London, UK: IB Tauris. Gunaratna, R. (2002). Inside Al Qaeda: Global network of terror. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Thomas, T. L., Foreign Military Studies Office (ARMY) FORT LEAVENWORTH KS. Role As An Essay! (2003). 3 Cover! Al Qaeda and as an essay, the Internet: The Danger of #8216;Cyberplanning#8217;. Ft. Belvoir: Defense Technical Information Center. You can place an 1 2 order similar to this with us.

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Essay: A Report on E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Following report has been made on the ‘Indian E-commerce Industry’. All the data has been collected from the internet, research papers and language surveys. The e-commerce is one of the driving and its effects essay, biggest things that have taken the role as an essay, Indian business by critical essay antigone, storm. It is creating an role language entire new economy, which has a huge potential and is fundamentally changing the way businesses are done. It has advantages for 1 2 both buyers as well as sellers and this win-win situation is at the core of of english international, its phenomenal rise. Trinidad Research! Rising incomes and a greater variety of of english as an essay, goods and services that can be bought over the internet is making buying online more attractive and convenient for medizin consumers all over the country. The report gives information on different aspects of the Indian E-commerce industry.

For simplicity it is divided into various chapters. Chapter 1 ‘ Introduces to the Indian E-commerce industry and defines its importance to the economy. The objective of the study is set in this chapter. Chapter 2 – Briefs about the Global and Indian scenario. Comparison of U.S and Indian E-commerce.

Chapter 3 ‘ Provides a brief insight into the Structure of the industry with the HHI index the Chapter 4 ‘ Has the macro environmental analysis of E-Commerce industry which includes the PESTEL analysis. Chapter 5 – Briefs the Competitive analysis using Porters 5 Forces. Chapter 6 ‘ Performance Analysis using 4 key metrics on major players of E-commerce industry. Also included the of english as an international language, Internet users traffic comparison on top 10 e-commerce sites in India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Since from few years, Growth of analysis, internet has changed the world in terms of expectations of. the consumer and consumer behaviour. Online websites for role of english language product purchasing concentrate. on consumer behaviour pattern and shopping patter with drastic change. Company are now a. days willing to change their marketing strategies as they have understood traditional selling. practices won’t work with changing technology world.

‘Buying and selling products online’ was a new chapter introduced in the internet world in. year 1991. Ebay.com played a significant role to create a revolution in the online ecommerce. Till that time nobody thought that purchasing all kind of products online will become a trend. in world and India will share a good part of success. In the 3 cover letter, late 1990’s, ReddifShopping.com. and Ebay.com gave a first-hand experience for Indians towards E-retail. Initially when it use to come for of english as an international language essay weekly shopping of essay antigone, groceries, clothes, shoes and cosmetics, majority of the people preferred to get into their cars and drive to the supermarket to get the. groceries, shops or malls for other basic products.

Now it is becoming common news that. people even buy their groceries online in of english international language essay, India. 1.2 Business Model of E-commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 1) Flash Sales Sites: A Flash Sales e-Commerce Website is a B2C type business model. where the website sells the products directly to the end customers. They normally. manage the entire process of the e-Commerce lifecycle on their own or through their. partners and the consumer make the payment directly to the business owning and. managing the website. Decorator! The consumers take the benefit of huge discounts, which at.

times ranges from 50% to 90%, and prefer to buy the products they always aspired to. own. They are normally unaware or do not really care even if the product they are. buying from such websites are obsolete or no longer in language, fashion. 2) Daily Deals Sites: A Daily Deals Website also operates as a B2C website and. typically showcases a very lucrative sale on a single or a set of products for the.

customers. Unlike the Flash Sales website, such a deal is time bound (usually for a. day) which compels the user to make immediate decisions for that product purchase. 3) Group Buying Sites: A group buying website is quite a unique B2C business model. where the website invites the distractions effects, buyers to buy the products / services at a discounted or. at a wholesale price. Like the Daily Deals site, the products advertised on the group. buying sites are also time bound, but usually not limited to a day. An online subscription website works in of english as an international essay, a similar manner like an critical antigone offline subscription.

for any kind of service. Role As An Essay! Such websites showcase the entire catalogue of subscription. options for the users to choose from and subscribe online. There are a number of B2C e-Commerce websites offering a range of products and. services to customers across different brands and categories.

Such websites buy the. products from the decorator resume, brands or their distributors and sell to international, the end customer on market. competitive prices. Ghostwriter! Though their modus operandi is same like a flash sales website, but their business objective is to role of english as an essay, offer the and its essay, latest products to the end customers online. at the role of english international essay, best possible prices. A Study on ghostwriter Indian E-Commerce Industry. Another business model gaining attracting in India recently is the online marketplace. model which enables the as an essay, buyers get in touch with the sellers and makes a transaction. In this business model, the website owners do not buy the ghostwriter medizin, product from the of english essay, sellers but. act as mediators to facilitate the entire e-commerce transaction. They do assist the.

sellers in various services like payment collection, logistics, etc. but do not prefer to. hold inventory in their own warehouse. 1) C2C Marketplace. A C2C Marketplace or a Consumer to Consumer marketplace means an online. marketplace where individual consumers can sell products to individual buyers. As a seller, even if you do not run a business, you are free to sell your product. through such marketplace to the end customers. 2) B2C Marketplace. A B2C Marketplace or a Business to Consumer marketplace means an online.

marketplace where only resume, business owners can sell their products to the end. customer. The process is more or less the of english as an international, same like that of a C2C Marketplace. with the exception that it does not allow individual users to distractions and its effects essay, sell their products. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. online. Role Of English International Language Essay! Best example of ghostwriter, this kind of a website would be SnapDeal.com which has. now become a B2C Marketplace. 3) B2B Marketplace. In a Business-to-Business E-commerce environment, companies sell their online. goods to role of english language, other companies without being engaged in sales to consumers.

B2B web. shop usually contains customer-specific pricing, customer-specific assortments and. customer-specific discounts. Indiamart.com and TATA groups tatab2b.com are few. popular sites in India.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Exclusive Brand Stores. This is the latest business model of its kind recently started in India. 3 Cover Letter! In this business. model, the various brands setup their own exclusive brand stores online to enable. consumers buy directly from the brand. A few examples of role as an essay, brands operating through.

an Exclusive Online Brand Store are Lenovo, Canon, Timex, Sennheiser, HP, Samsung, Mobilestore.com etc. 1.3 Role of Internet in E-Commerce. Large and distractions small business companies both use internets for promotional activities. Some of. the advantages of role of english language essay, E-Commerce are:- 1. Decorator! Availability- The availability of internet is widespread these days and hence is easily. accessible to people which has increased the online purchases of of english language, goods and. 2. Open to All- Internet open page allows everyone to and tobago research, access and as an international language transact from any. global location.

Moreover it provides an paper extension of product choice to the customers. which in turn is not possible at local retail stores, etc . A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 3. Global Presence- Having a global presence it is very easy to access from any world. location just by having a laptop and an internet connection. All such happenings have. encouraged E-Commerce as any commodity is just a step away from oneself. 4. Professional Transaction- Internet allows professional transaction with just one click a. professionalism that consists of role as an international language essay, decision making. 5. Low Cost, More Earn- E-commerce can be easily done with more earnings and less.

expenses. The easiest approach is to replace sales person with a well informative and. designed web page that could easily help the to kill gcse plan, customers to have their like items at. their doorsteps with a click of a mouse. 1.4 Changes due to online shopping in India. According to report BCG (Boston consultancy Group), by 2016, Indian economy will reach. $10.8 trillion. In global chart India’s rank is 8th. India ranks top in services and china occupies. top position in of english as an language essay, goods in terms of export through internet. As of now, June 2014, India has.

user base of about 250.2 million. It is estimated that by critical analysis essay antigone, 2024-26, e-commerce market in India. will be $260 billion. At an Exponential rate, E-commerce is role international language essay, growing in India. According to recent online retailing.

report by Forrester, twenty eight percentage of growth is experienced by every retailer year. after year in 2012. As per to kill a mockingbird essay the study digital consumers spend alomostaround$1.46 billion on. cyber cafes. This indicated that year after year there will be increasing number of online. users. Consumer behaviour is one of the biggest reasons of e-commerce boom in India. Major reasons for online shopping growth in India. ‘ There is increase in broadband connection and 3G penetration in India. ‘ Much wider range of as an international, products are available then what is available in brick and mortar.

‘ Living standard is rising for middle class people and disposal income is decorator resume, also getting. A Study on role as an language essay Indian E-Commerce Industry. ‘ Online products are usually available at resume discount which is less than the products. available in normal shops. ‘ Lack of time and busy lifestyle for of english international language offline shopping.

‘ Evolution of the online marketplace model with websites like ebay, flipkart, snapdeal. ‘ Takes less time for critical analysis essay antigone purchasing as there is no need to stand in the queues which usually. done in offline shopping. 1.5 Advantages of E-Commerce. ‘ With E-Commerce as an alternative shopping is of english international, no longer a barrier for the customers. in terms of time, distance and place as customers can shop at any time and from.

anywhere they prefer to. ‘ E-Commerce has satisfied and provides certified branded products to the customers. that even typical Indian customers are ready to buy products such as clothes, shoes, etc. without even touching or trying them for fitness. ‘ All extra expenditures that were initially done on labour, etc are avoided and a lot of. funds get saved.

‘ Shopping through web is the most feasible options for metro city residents. ‘ Transaction time has reduced. ‘ Alternative products offered by different brands are also availed to the customers if by. chance the current product in driving effects, a particular brand is unavailable. ‘ 1-Day delivery along with door-door delivery has caught a boom in the market with. the evolution of E-Commerce.

1.6 Disadvantages of E-Commerce. ‘ Unprofessionalism has increased as any company gets a chance to make their business. portal out of of english international language, trust or belief. ‘ Customer interaction is very less so the product quality and satisfaction to 3 cover, the. customer remains a matter for concern. ‘ Hackers and crackers are day in and day out searching for a chance to hack into. customer personal details that they share at the time of online payments. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. ‘ E-commerce go discouraging for the purchasing of precious items just by having a. glance of them rather than getting a chance to wear them or check product quality. such as jewellery etc.

‘ E-commerce concept is under a mess as many online sites do not deliver services as. promised at the time of placing the role of english international, order. ‘ Authenticity for the product is untrustworthy. 1.7 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY. ‘ To study the global and Indian scenario with respect to the E-commerce Industry.

‘ To study the structure of the resume, Indian E-commerce industry. ‘ To study the macro environmental factors affecting the Indian E-commerce industry. ‘ To analyze the industry using Porters 5 Forces. ‘ To study the performance of major players in the industry. ‘ To compare the U.S and Indian E-commerce industry. ‘ To study the future opportunities and prospective growth in the industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. GLOBAL AND INDIAN.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.1 Status of the global e-commerce industry. Middle class in role, many of the developing countries, including India, is rapidly embracing. online shopping. However, India falls behind not only US, China and Australia in terms of.

Internet density, but also countries like Sri Lanka and Pakistan. Sri Lanka has an internet. penetration of 15 percent. Better internet connectivity and the presence of an internet-savvy. customer segment have led to growth of e-commerce in Sri Lanka with an existing market. size of USD 2 billion. Pakistan, with an internet penetration of 15 percent has an existing. market size of consumer e-commerce of USD 4 billion. 1 2 3 Cover Letter! Incidentally FDI in inventory-based. consumer ecommerce is allowed in both these countries. (IAMAI-KPMG report, September. A.T.

Kearney’s 2012 E-Commerce Index examined the top 30 countries in the 2012 Global. Retail Development Index’ (GRDI). Using 18 infrastructure, regulatory, and retail-specific. variables, the Index ranks the top 10 countries by as an international language, their e-commerce potential. Following are some other major findings of the Index: i) China occupies first place in the Index. The G8 countries (Japan, United States, United. Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Russia, and Italy) all fall within the Top 15. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. ii) Developing countries feature prominently in the Index. Developing countries hold 10 of.

the 30 spots, including first-placed China. These markets have been able to shortcut the. traditional online retail maturity curve as online retail grows at the same time that physical. retail becomes more organized. Consumers in these markets are fast adopting behaviors. similar to those in more developed countries. iii) Several “small gems” are making an impact. The rankings include 10 countries with.

populations of less than 10 million, including Singapore, Hong Kong, Slovakia, New. Zealand, Finland, United Arab Emirates, Norway, Ireland, Denmark, and Switzerland. And Tobago! These. countries have active online consumers and of english international sufficient infrastructure to support online retail. iv) India is gcse, not ranked. India, the world’s second most populous country at role language essay 1.2 billion, does. not make the Top 30, because of low internet penetration (11 percent) and poor financial and. logistical infrastructure compared to other countries.

It is seen that countries making in the top list of the table of e-commerce have required. technologies coupled with higher internet density, high class infrastructure and suitable. regulatory framework. India needs to work on these areas to realize true potential of ecommerce. business in the country.

2.2 Comparison of E-Commerce in US and India. The Indian e-commerce market will reach as high as USD 6 Billion by 1 2, the year 2015. This. implies that if we compare the role as an essay, e-commerce market with the statistics from the critical antigone, year 2014, there is a substantial growth of 70%. It is evident that India is language essay, slowly becoming like the US in. the area of e-commerce. It is stated that India has started doing well in the market of e-commerce because of the. growing number of people who have access to mobile Internet. Medizin! Broadband usage has. increased by about three times in the last two years (2013 #038; 2014). A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

2.2.1 Cash on of english international Delivery (COD) system in India. Cash on Delivery is an Indian thing. US consumers mainly transact online using Credit Cards. or through PayPal. Indians are known to be price sensitive. Even though with heavy. discounting e-retailers are trying to lure them to ghostwriter medizin, buy online, consumers are still wary of.

making prepaid orders. The situation is different in of english as an international, US. Ghostwriter Medizin! Even though the role of english as an international essay, discounting games continue, users generally. go with prepayment. This is also because the analysis essay antigone, penetration of credit cards and electronic. payments is of english as an language essay, highly evolved in that market, while in India, despite the estimated 1.252 billion. strong population of India, only 18.8 million credit cards existed in the country, with.

approximately 331 million debit cards till last year. The popularity of CoD is critical analysis antigone, directly. dependent on the trust issues consumers have on the online retailers. 2.2.2 Offers and excitement created among customers. The trend of mega online shopping festivals started in the West. From offline trends of. Macy’s Day parade and Black Friday to role of english international language essay, taking these festivals online, and creating further.

new trends like Cyber Monday. India is still naive, even the three editions of the Great Online Shopping Festival have not. been able to driving distractions and its essay, make the impact they were expected to. Role Of English International! The festive season of Diwali is medizin, a time. when Indians indulge in spending, and while the Indian retailers were busy creating their. respective versions of ‘mega sales’, US based Amazon was the first to step on this. opportunity with ‘Diwali Dhamaka Sale’. Role As An Language! Also, the consumer shopping behaviour is medizin, different. in the two countries.

The Indian online retails brings up offers and of english as an international language excitement into medizin the consumers, but it is not big. like how it is in US. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 2.2.3 Type of Product that People Buy Online. Nowadays people buying real estate and even automobiles online even in India is becoming. common.

But in general, Apparel and electronics remain the role of english as an essay, most popular categories people. buy online, and the same is seen in critical antigone, the US as well. These two categories dominate both the. An area where India is lacking is online grocery retail. Grocery retail and logistics is highly. evolved in US.

In India, it was a taboo, and as an international language essay wasn’t touched for a long time even though the. sentiment was strong. Players are emerging now in this segment, with start-up’s like. BigBasket, LocalBanya etc. and mature players like Reliance Fresh taking the lead. The local Indian ‘banya’ is still stronger than online stores.

The unorganised retail in India is. an area where the e-commerce would be able make a difference and eventually take over. 2.2.4 Logistics and Regulations. The logistics infrastructure is still not up to the mark in India. While India Post is doing a. great job in to kill, helping the e-commerce players, no dedicated e-commerce company has been. able to of english as an, scale up its operations to reach all the postal codes. Effects! The penetration of internet in.

India is 18% as against of english as an international, 87% in US, is 1 2 letter, a big hindrance. When it comes to technology, site crashes, issues in ERP systems etc. are commonly heard. things in India. Whereas in US, the technology is very strong. The Government bodies in India haven’t yet matured to the online businesses that are. operational. There hasn’t been any clear guidelines for FDI until recently, even there the.

Government has decided to treat both online and role of english essay offline retail alike. Some of the other online. marketplace keeps running into warehousing policy issues. The heavy discounting is another. questionable area, since the Government has clear guidelines for Maximum Retail Price, there is and tobago, no lower bar set. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. STRUCTURE OF THE. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 3.1 HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX. A commonly accepted measure of market concentration.

It is calculated by squaring the. market share of each firm competing in a market, and then summing the resulting numbers. The HHI number can range from close to zero to 10,000. The HHI is role of english, expressed as: HHI = S1^2 + S2^2 + S3^2 + … + Sn^2 (where Sn is the market. share of the Ith firm) the closer a market is to being a monopoly, the higher the market’s. concentration (and the lower its competition).

For the e-commerce industry, the HHI, based on the market share is calculated as follows. Company Sales(in cr) market. Flipkart 2846.13 53.89683186 2904.868484. Jabong 202 3.82525044 14.63254093. Myntra 441.58 8.362148958 69.92553519. Snapdeal 830 15.7176132 247.0433646. Amazon 168.99 3.20014392 10.24092111. Ebay 107 2.02624652 4.105674961. naptol 460 8.710966349 75.88093474. Yebhi 120 2.272426004 5.163919944. Yepme 80 1.514950669 2.295075531.

bewakoof 25 0.473422084 0.22412847. total sales 5280.7 100 3334.38058. The HHI can have a theoretical value ranging from close to zero to 10,000. If there exists. only a single market participant which has 100% of the market share the HHI would be. 10,000. If there were a great number of decorator, market participants with each company having a. market share of almost 0% then the HHI could be close to zero. ‘ When the HHI value is role of english international language essay, less than 100, the to kill a mockingbird essay plan, market is highly competitive. ‘ When the HHI value is between 100 and 1000, the market is said to be not concentrated.

‘ When the HHI value is role language, between 1000 and 1800, the market is 1 2 letter, said to be moderately. ‘ When the HHI value is above 1800, the market is said to be highly concentrated. So the of english international, HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX of the E-commerce industry is greater than. 1800. Hence it is highly concentrated. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 4.1 PORTER’S FIVE FORCE ANALYSIS. The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to. keep their prices in antigone, check to role of english international, attract buyers. Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players. Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in case they.

are not satisfied with any one player. Buyers in ghostwriter, this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this. industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of role of english, options to choose. Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service. from one online retail company to analysis essay, other one.

Same products will be displayed in. several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is of english international, almost low. So, all these. factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail.

Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to decorator, see which. site offers the product in the least price. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 4.1.1 Bargaining Power of Buyers. The huge competition in role international language, the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to. keep their prices in check to attract buyers. Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players. Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in antigone, case they. are not satisfied with any one player. Buyers in role language, this industry are customers who purchase products online.

Since this. industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to choose. Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service. from one online retail company to other one. Same products will be displayed in. several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. So, all these. factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail. Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to and tobago research, the consumer to see which.

site offers the product in of english as an language essay, the least price. 4.1.2 Bargaining Power of suppliers. Tens of trinidad and tobago research paper, millions of role of english as an language, sellers list their products on ecommerce marketplaces; hence. their individual bargaining power is limited. However, sellers can also list their products on multiple platforms and sites, including Amazon, Etsy.com and various international e-commerce sites. Hence, if. eBay introduces policy and critical analysis antigone pricing changes that are unsatisfactory to sellers, then it.

could result in as an, lower number of critical analysis, product listings on its marketplace. There are relatively fewer number of postal and role of english as an international language delivery services as well as. shipping carriers; hence any pricing change or disruption in their services could. hamper eBay’s ability to deliver products on time. Hence, these carriers hold some. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. The sources that generate traffic on ecommerce site can also be classified as. suppliers.

Search engines hold significant leverage as they account for over 20% of. traffic on eBay if we account for paper both organic and paid search (according to Similar. Web estimates). Changes in of english as an language, Google SEO (search engine algorithm) have a negative. impact on traffic. Analysis Antigone! eBay’ seller marketplace model leads to large amounts of. unstructured data on the site, which is as an international essay, detrimental to its SEO efforts. Additionally, several referring sites such as slickdeals.net, dealnews.com and distractions and its essay social. networks also bring considerable traffic to ecommerce and any changes in their. policies could adversely affect the role of english international language essay, company’s top-line and profitability.

In this industry, suppliers are the manufacturers of trinidad research, finished products like Nike, Dell, Apple etc. Of English As An Language! Online retail companies sell various products ranging from books to. computer accessories to apparels to footwear. Since there are many suppliers for a mockingbird essay any. particular category, they can’t show power on of english as an language online retail companies. For example, if you take computers category, there are many suppliers like Dell, Apple, Lenovo, and Toshiba who wants to resume, sell their products through these online retail companies. So, they won’t be having power to role of english international language, control the online retail companies. Online. customers can select the letter, products on their own and role of english international the switching costs in this case is. zero.

It is very difficult for manufacturers of finished products to come into this. industry because of letter, challenges in Logistics. Online retail industry is important to. suppliers because it acts as one of the channel to sell the products. Now, with most. of the customers in India purchasing online through online retail companies, they. can’t afford to lose this channel. So, they can’t dictate terms with online retail.

companies. So, in this industry the supplier power is low. 4.1.3 Competitive Rivalry within the Industry. E-commerce faces competition in its marketplaces segment from both offline and online. players. Customers can buy products from a wide range of retailers, distributors, auctioneers, directories, search engines, etc and hence the competition is intense. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Various factors such as price, product selection and services influence the purchasing. decision of customers. E-commerce companies frequently engage in price-based. competition to woo buyers, which limits their ability to raise prices.

In the payments business, there is competition from role as an international sources such as credit and. debit cards, bank wires, other online payment services as well as offline payment. mechanisms including cash, check, money order or mobile phones. Considering the critical, entry of newer players such as Apple Pay and Alibaba, the. competition is expected to heighten in the online payments space. Competition is very high in this industry with so many players like Flip kart,

Myntra, Jabong, Snap deal, Amazon, India plaza, Homeshop18 etc. 4.1.4 Threat of New Entrants. Given the role of english international essay, nature of the research, business, there is always a threat of new entrants as it is. relatively less costly to enter the role language essay, market and decorator setup operations. There is role international language essay, no additional.

cost incurred to set up any physical stores and locations. Trinidad And Tobago Paper! In addition, traditional. established physical stores can easily move into online retailing and bring with them. their substantial consumer base. These stores such as Target or Wal-Mart, already enjoy. economies of scale, have recognizable brands and a strong supply chain. So they do.

pose strong competition to Amazon. That said, the threat from brand new entrants remains low as it would be nearly. impossible for a new company to match the role of english language essay, cost advantages, economies of scale and. variety of offering as Amazon.com. These advantages will deter most brand new. entrants to decorator, the market. Substantial Economies of role of english international language, Scale. Ecommerce like Amazon works with over 10,000 vendors and trinidad and tobago paper boasts an impressive 75.

percent repeat purchasers. Its market capitalization is substantially ahead of its nearest. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. First Mover Advantage. As the pioneer online retailer, Amazon , flip kart has the necessary brand awareness and. credibility as a strong reliable presence in the market. Massive product Variety. Way beyond a bookstore now, Amazon.com , Flipkart provides any type of role international language essay, product. there is in its online stores. This means that there is a strong supplier base relationship.

that cannot be replicated. In addition, as a bookseller and a provider of other. entertainment channels such as movies, videos and resume music, ecommerce has established. relationships with publishers, producers, movie studies and music producers which are. not easy to form and replicate. The e-commerce market is characterized by low barriers to entry. It is relatively easy. for newer players to enter the market and start selling products. Role Language Essay! Having said that, it’s.

difficult for newer players to gain brand recognition and attain high ranking on ghostwriter search. Newer players require significant marketing budgets to compete on a large scale and. this restricts entry of newer players to an extent. The online payments market has relatively higher barriers to entry as there is intense. competition between established players; additionally, security is a paramount during. online payments and hence newer players which do not have the necessary brand. recognition will find it difficult to attract new customers. However, established players such as Apple, Amazon and Alibaba have the potential. to make a dent in PayPal’s strong market position. ‘ Indian government is going to allow 51% FDI in multi-brand online retail and.

100% FDI in single brand online retail sooner or later. So, this means foreign. companies can come and start their own online retail companies. ‘ There are very less barriers to entry like less amount of money required to start a. business, less amount of role essay, infrastructure required to start business. All you need is.

to tie up with suppliers of products and you need to develop a website to display. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. products so that customers can order products, and a tie up with online payment. gateway provider like bill desk. ‘ Industry is driving distractions effects, also going to grow at a rapid rate. It is going to touch 76 billion $ by. 2021. Industry is going to experience an exponential growth rate.

So, obviously no. one wants to miss this big opportunity. 4.1.5 Threat of substitute products. The threat of substitutes for ecommerce is high. The unique characteristic Amazon has is. the patented technology (such as 1-Click Ordering), which differentiates them from other.

possible substitutes. However, there are many alternatives providing the same products. and services, which could reduce Amazon’s competitive advantage. Therefore, Amazon. does not have absolute competitive advantage on their product offerings, but they. definitely have the advantage when it comes to the quality of international, customer service and. There is no technology that can substitute the Internet so far in ghostwriter, the market. Even, analog. signal that use to send the television signal or radio signal are not the main threat. The main substitute that exists is the brick and motor store, which they change or move.

their place to be on of english as an international essay the Internet. Therefore, the e-commerce industry has low threat of. substitutions. When we compare relative quality, relative price of product that he/she. buys online with physical store, both are almost same and in driving distractions and its effects essay, some cases, online discounts. will be available which makes customers to buy products online. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Porters 5 Force Model of E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. This industry analysis, also known as the macro environmental analysis is basically done to.

determine the conditions in which the industry is operating in. The analysis of these factors. becomes very important for a company operating in international language essay, that particular industry for the growth. 5.1 POLITICAL AND LEGAL FACTORS: E-commerce has introduced many changes in the Indian consumers and customers. However, e-commerce in India has also given rise to many disputes by letter, the consumers purchasing the. products from e-commerce websites. In fact, many e-commerce websites are not following. Indian laws at all and they are also not very fair while dealing with their consumers. Allegations of predatory pricing, tax avoidance, anti competitive practices, etc have been.

levelled against of english international language essay, big e-commerce players of India. As a result, disputes are common in India. that is to kill gcse essay, not satisfactorily redressed. This reduces the as an international, confidence in the e-commerce segment. and the unsatisfied consumers have little choice against the big e-commerce players. At a. time when we are moving towards global norms for e-commerce business activities, the. present e-commerce environment of India needs fine tuning and regulatory scrutiny. In fact,

India is exploring the possibility of regulation of e-commerce through either Telecom. Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) or through different Ministries/Departments of Central. Government in a collective manner. It is obvious that e-commerce related issues are not easy to manage. E-commerce disputes. resolution is even more difficult and challenging especially when Indian Courts are already. overburdened with court cases.

Of course, establishment of decorator resume, e-courts in India and use of online. dispute resolution (ODR) in India are very viable and convincing options before the as an international language essay, Indian. Many Indian stakeholders have raised objections about the critical analysis antigone, way e-commerce websites are. operating in India. These websites are providing deep discounts that have been labeled as.

predatory by of english language essay, offline traders and businesses. Further, Myntra, Flipkart, Amazon, Uber, etc. have already been questioned by the regulatory authorities of India for violating Indian laws. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.1.1 NEED FOR HUMORIZED TAXATION LAWS: Laws regulating ecommerce in India are still evolving and lack clarity. Favorable regulatory. environment would be key towards unleashing the potential of ecommerce and help in. efficiency in resume, operations, creation of jobs, growth of the industry, and investments in role of english as an language essay, back-end. infrastructure. Furthermore, the interpretation of intricate tax norms and complex inter-state.

taxation rules make ecommerce operations difficult to manage and to a mockingbird gcse essay plan, stay compliant to role of english as an language, the. laws. With the wide variety of audience the ecommerce companies cater to, compliance. becomes a serious concern. Companies will need to have strong anti-corruption programs for. sourcing and medizin vendor management, as well as robust compliance frameworks. It is important. for the role of english as an essay, E-Commerce companies to keep a check at every stage and adhere to the relevant.

laws, so as to avoid fines.Myntra, Flipkart and many more e-commerce websites are under. regulatory scanner of Enforcement Directorate (ED) of India for violating Indian laws and. policies. There are no taxation laws for these websites so the products are being sold at huge. discounts in these sites. Some of the medizin, major causes not keeping taxation laws over ecommerce. are that the government is not having proper knowledge about the role of english essay, structure of. industry and the limitations that has to be given to the e commerce industry and what are the. rights that should be given to them for to kill a mockingbird essay plan selling the product Security of the as an international essay, information. provided during the online transaction is a major concern.

Under section 43A of the I T Act. the ‘Reasonable practices and procedures and sensitive personal data or information Rules, 2011’ have been proposed, which provide a framework for the protection of data in research paper, India. A Study on role Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.2 ECONOMIC FACTORS: Mass usage of decorator resume, internet: The usage of internet is increasing rapidly in role as an international language, INDIA, it is said that India is and tobago research, said to be the 3rd. largest internet population country after USA and CHINA. Current India internet users are. 205 millions .The total no of users are expected to be 330-370 millions in just 3 years. Role As An International Essay! The.

internet usage in ghostwriter medizin, cities has been increased rapidly. Increased aspiration levels and of english essay availability. The aspiration of the Indian youth and middle class while the coming year will be even more. promising both for the consumer as also the entrepreneurs, with average annual spending on. online purchases projected to 1 2 3 cover letter, increase by 67 per cent to Rs 10,000 from Rs 6,000 per person. In 2014, about 40 million consumers purchased something online and number is expected to.

grow to 65 million by 2015 with better infrastructure in terms of logistics, broadband and. Internet ready devices will be fuelling the demand in ecommerce. The smart phones and. tablet shoppers will be strong growth divers, mobile already accounts for 11% of e commerce. sales, and its share will jump to of english language, 25% by 2017. Computer and consumer’s electronics as well. eral and accessories account for the bulk of India retail ecommerce sales will contribute 42%

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Liberal policies (FDI in Retail and Insurance) The E-commerce Association of India (ECAI) is looking for a positive response from the. government on critical reforms like permitting FDI for the B2C inventory led model. This has. been industry’s demand for a long-time, especially as many small and medium sized. ecommerce players face obstacles on distractions and its effects essay easy access to of english language, capital and 1 2 letter technology. The industry has.

been hoping that the role international language, government would at essay least review a partial opening of the sector to FDI. In 2015 budget the of english as an international, FDI has been increased to 51 %. So there is a positive response from the. international e commerce industry that is resume, trying to enter into role language India. Even allibaba.com is also. trying to enter into India with the help of snapdeal.com.

But on the other side the small e. commerce companies are finding it difficult because may face difficulty in ghostwriter medizin, the future when. the MNC e commerce companies enter India. Supply chain and the productivity growth. The most important impact of role of english as an international language essay, ecommerce is maintained supply chain and the productivity of. the products. Essay! The buying and selling of goods’continues to undergo changes that will have a. profound impact on the way companies manage their supply chains. Simply put, e-commerce. has altered the role as an international, practice, timing, and technology of business-to-business and business-toconsumer. commerce. Trinidad And Tobago Paper! It has affected pricing, product availability, transportation patterns, and. consumer behavior in developed economy in India.

Business-to-business electronic. commerce accounts for role of english as an language essay the vast majority of total e-commerce sales and plays a leading role in. supply chain network. 1 2 3 Cover! In 2014, approximately 21 percent of manufacturing sales and role international essay 14.6. percent of wholesales are done in critical analysis antigone, India. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

From the moment the online order is placed to when it is picked, packed, and shipped, every. step in the process must be handled efficiently, consistently, and cost-effectively. In ecommerce, the distribution center provides much of the customer experience. Simply. delivering the goods is no longer an adequate mission for the fulfillment center’customer. satisfaction has to role as an international language, be a critical priority. The typical e-commerce consumer expects a wide. selection of SKU offerings, mobile-site ordering capability, order accuracy, fast and free. delivery, and free returns.

Understanding how online consumers shop and letter purchase across. channels is critical to the success of online fulfillment. More consumers are browsing the. Internet for features and language selection, testing products at brick-and-mortar stores, acquiring. discounts through social media, and decorator resume then purchasing the product online through the. convenience of their mobile device. As An Language! Some retailers,’including those that also sell through.

catalogs’have been in resume, the direct-to-consumer marketplace for some time. These companies. have fulfillment facilities established and information technologies in place to role of english as an international language, manage orders. with speed and efficiency, doing it well and profitably. But to many distribution executives, online fulfillment poses a significant challenge to their existing knowledge, experience, and. 5.3 SOCIAL FACTORS: A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

Better comfort level and trust in online shopping: ‘ Consumers feel easy to access the effects essay, ecommerce sites 24?7 support. Customer can do. transactions for the product or enquiry about any product/services provided by a company. anytime, anywhere from any location. Here 24?7 refers to role as an essay, 24 hours of each seven days of 1 2 3 cover letter, a. ‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options and quicker delivery of products. ‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options to compare and select the cheaper and. ‘ A customer can put review comments about a product and can see what others are buying or. see the review comments of other customers before making a final buy.

‘ E-Commerce provides option of virtual auctions. ‘ Readily available information. International Language Essay! A customer can see the relevant detailed information within. seconds rather than waiting for days or weeks. Advantages to the society: ‘ Customers need not to travel to shop a product thus less traffic on road and low air pollution. ‘ E-Commerce helps reducing cost of products so less affluent people can also afford the.

‘ E-Commerce has enabled access to driving distractions, services and products to rural areas as well which are. otherwise not available to them. ‘ E-Commerce helps government to deliver public services like health care, education, social. services at reduced cost and in improved way. ‘ E-Commerce increases competition among the organizations and as result organizations. provides substantial discounts to customers. A Study on role international Indian E-Commerce Industry. 5.4 Technological factors: Cloud computing in e commerce:

According to analysts, within 10 years’ time 80% of all computer usage worldwide, data. storage and e-commerce will be in the cloud. It is called the third phase of the internet. During the first phase software and operating systems were combined to driving distractions effects essay, create a simple flow. of communication through ‘ for role of english as an language instance ‘ email. A Mockingbird Essay Plan! The second phase brought the user to the. World Wide Web, where he had access to millions of websites. This increased internet usage. by a factor of role of english as an international, one hundred in distractions and its, only 2 years’ time. In the of english international essay, third phase everything is in the cloud, both data and 1 2 3 cover software.

There are several types of cloud computing, of which Software-as-a-Service is role international, probably the. best-known. The others are Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure-as-a-Service. The ability to lower costs, accelerate deployments and respond quickly. to market opportunities and challenges are just a few reasons why so many IT leaders are. leveraging cloud based e commerce applications. Research! Given the role of english as an language essay, variety of solutions, IT leaders. must research their options carefully in order to trinidad research paper, select the of english as an, one that best meets their needs. Following are the top four impacts of cloud computing on e-commerce applications and. steps IT leaders should take during their evaluation process.

It’s easy for business leaders to focus on the benefits of cloud computing without considering. the time and effort involved in implementing a viable solution. However, whatever cloud. computing solution they select, the application will need access to customer data, product. data, fulfilment systems and other operational systems in order to and tobago, support e-commerce. Cue. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry.

Consumerization of the online customer experience requires closer scrutiny. While many B2C companies use e-commerce platforms for direct sales, B2B organizations. are also leveraging them to add transactional capabilities to their informational sites. In. addition, the online experience is becoming more ‘consumerized,’ meaning that B2B buyers. expect a retail-like customer experience ‘ even when visiting non-retail sites. As An Language! Cloud solution. providers (CSPs) that focus solely on creating retail models are often not well-versed in B2B. requirements which can be more complex. As a result, their offerings don’t include B2B. functions, such as easy entry of large orders and repeat orders, segmented product catalogues.

that are based on a client hierarchy and buying privileges, configure price quote capabilities. and extended payment terms. IT leaders have an unprecedented number of CSPs from which. to choose. However, they need to carefully evaluate ones that have experience meeting their. industry-specific needs, whether it’s B2B, B2C, or a combination of decorator resume, both. Usage of bandwidth for E-commerce:

Transmission capacity of a communication channel is role of english as an international language essay, a major barrier for and tobago products that. require more graphical and video data. For this e commerce companies need higher. bandwidth than usual. These all depend on the no of the customers visiting websites, the. type of the products the e commerce industry is selling and the location at which the of english language essay, online. users are mostly visiting the website. These all are some of the 1 2 3 cover, factors that affect the usage. of bandwidth.

Web processing is as an international essay, also some of the key factors that make e commerce. industry to run. Another key factor is: High cost of driving, developing, purchasing new software, licensing of software, integration into existing systems, costly e business solutions for. Benefits of using cloud computing over E-commerce: ‘ Trust. Cloud computing enables online store owners to use the same platform and use.

the same functionality. That means that new features can be made available to. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. everyone with a simple modification. Moreover, the maintenance is taken care of. centrally, which means that store owners can rely on a stable platform. ‘ Cost saving.

In many cases this is the most important reason for companies to choose. cloud computing. Since companies do not need to purchase hardware or bandwidth, costs can be decreased by 80%. ‘ Speed. A company can activate an ecommerce application five times faster and sell.

directly through a platform that is managed remotely. ‘ Scalability. Cloud computing makes a company more elastic and able to respond to. seasonal changes or sudden increases in demand due to special promotions. ‘ Security. Many cloud computing suppliers have been certified so more security can be. guaranteed to role language, customers. ‘ Data exchange. The explosive growth of cloud ecommerce will lead to analysis essay, more data. exchange between the clouds.

Suppliers will offer more and more possibilities to add. features to their clouds for users, partners and others. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6. FIRMS UNDER STUDY. Four key metrics have been used to evaluate the performance of. E-Retailers in of english international essay, India. 2. Subscriber Growth Rate. 3. Average Order Size: 4. Research Paper! Percentage of Mobile Visits.

6.1 Gross Margin (Financial year 2013-2014) Online shopping in India is growing at role as an a very fast clip. At the same time, there is an intense. competition in ecommerce space, especially among the top 3 players. There is aggressive. pricing and discounts are being paid by Venture Capitalists’ pockets. Flipkart, Amazon and Snapdeal, all of them have raised investments or have commitments of.

$1 Billion or more. This money is being burned to acquire new customers, offer discounts. and pump up products on resume offers. At the same time these sites are losing money, the quantum. of loss these ecommerce players have incurred for every Rupee spent is displayed in the.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. The revenue figures above are not the price of products sold (GMV), as these are all. marketplaces, and their revenues come from commissions they get from sellers or listing fees. that they charge to list the products on their site. GMV or Gross Merchandize Value represents the price of as an language, products sold and net revenues are. just a fraction of that. Flipkart leads the critical, race with net revenue of 179 crore followed by language, Amazon at 168.9 crore and.

Snapdeal at 154.11 crore. However, when it comes to losses, Flipkart leads by a much bigger margin and medizin their loss for. 2013-14 stands at Rs. 400 Crore. Comparatively, Amazon losses are pegged at Rs. 321.3.

crore and Snapdeal had least losses of 3 with 264.6 crore. The figure below shows the loss each player incurs for every rupee in net revenues. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Flipkart leads the as an language, race to losing 2.23 rupees for every 1 rupee of revenue. Amazon loses 1.90. and Snapdeal has least amount of losses at Rs.

1.72. This cannot be judged as a low performance by the players as after a certain time when they. gain major part of to kill a mockingbird gcse essay, market. Every product they sell would be a profit for international essay them. 6.2 Subscriber Growth Rate. Flipkart was founded in the year 2007. By the driving distractions and its effects essay, end of year 2013 they have acquired 22. million registered users and role of english as an international language essay handles 5 million shipments every month while Snapdeal was.

founded in the year 2010 and has 20 million registered users by and tobago research paper, the end of year 2013. Snapdeal has acquired customers in a quicker pace when compared to Flipkart, but this. cannot be considered to be low performance shown by Flipkart, because when they founded. e- retail in of english, India, the people were not much familiar to plan, e-commerce and online purchasing at. 6.3 Average ordering size of Flipkart for Financial year 2011-2012. Flipkart, has hit a milestone clocking Rs 100 crore in gross merchandise value shipped in a. month for the first time in June 2012. The jump is from an average of around Rs 42 crore. financial year 2010-2011. Flipkart had clocked Rs 500 crore for the 12 months ended March.

In the role of english as an, year 2012 the number of ghostwriter, daily orders has hit 25,000 mark (or seventeen orders per. minute), a five-fold rise after the company clocked 5,000 orders a day for the first time in. May 2011. Flipkart first clocked 1,000 orders a day in March 2010. Average order size= Total Revenue/Number of Orders. =Rs.5000000000 / 25,000 x 365. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6.4 Percentage of Mobile Visits. Mobile is now one of our most strategic channels for driving revenue and customer acquisition. The eretailers.

are investing to role of english international essay, build strong technology and marketing platforms that will allow them to. accelerate their growth on driving and its effects mobile. Shopping online through smartphones is expected to be a game changer shortly. Role As An! In the year 2014. there were nearly 123 million smartphone users in India. Affordability of smartphones is. leading to the growth in mobile Internet users, hence generating fresh consumer base for the.

online players. Mobile Internet users in India are estimated to to kill, be 120 million compared to 100 million. users using Internet on role as an international language their personal computers. 60 percent of Snapdeals orders are coming over mobile in the end of year 2014. It is growing really fast. They get more traffic from the mobile than they get from personal computers. Flipkart a year ago, less than 10 percent of their orders, transactions and visits used to to kill a mockingbird gcse essay, come from mobile. Now those numbers are greater than 50 percent for role of english as an international language essay them.

It is accelerating at a very rapid pace. And Tobago Research! Flipkart. is seeing more than 2 times or 3 times growth from the mobile front compared to desktop, where Flipkart is growing overall but mobile is growing at a much faster pace. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. 6.5 Top 10 Indian E-Commerce Sites Traffic Comparison. Stats have been taken for month of April 2014.

Flipkart topped the charts with over 62 million visits in of english international language, the month of April with Myntra. coming shade lower at 59.5 million. Given that both of them have now come together, purely. based on 1 2 letter the traffic, they clock more traffic than the rest 8 players combined. While we expected either Amazon or Snapdeal to grab the 3rd place in of english as an international essay, terms of traffic, Jabong took the bronze position with 42.5 million visitors followed by Snapdeal (31.4. Amazon.in clocked a respectable 27.6 million visits in month of April (Remember, they have. not even completed a year since launch as yet). Also, if you combine Junglee, which is.

owned by Amazon, their traffic bulges to close to 40 million visits. Infibeam and trinidad paper Tradus both have not been doing too well in terms of traffic. They clocked 3.4. million #038; 3 million respectively. Also, according to similar web, their traffic has been. steadily dropping over last 6 months. Both of them had close to 5 million visits at the start of. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. Stats have been taken for month of April 2014. When it came to role as an, user engagement, Flipkart again reigned supreme with each visitor spending. an average of 8:35 minutes per visit.

Ebay also had very high levels of engagement with 8:15. mins followed by Snapdeal (7:49 mins). Myntra had surprisingly low (in fact lowest of all) visitor time spent at 3:04 minutes. Critical Analysis Essay! Junglee. and Jabong were other two sites who had low visitor time spent.

Given that Flipkart had highest time spent by visitors, they also got the maximum pageviews. per visitor (8.53) followed by Ebay (8.04). Surprisingly, Tradus did quite well in terms of. page views with a average of 7.57 views per visit. Ecommerce industry in India is in role of english international, their blooming stage now. Ghostwriter! E-commerce including online. retail in of english as an language essay, India constitutes a small fraction of total sales, but is set to grow to a substantial. amount owing to a lot of factors such as rising disposable incomes, rapid urbanization, increasing adoption and penetration of technology such as the internet and trinidad mobiles, rising. youth population as well as increasing cost of role as an language essay, running offline stores across the country.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. MACRO ENVIONMENTAL ANALYSIS. A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry. MARKET SHARE VALUE. GLOBAL AND INDIAN SCENARIO. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

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Ctrl+Alt+Bernanke: Operation Empire State Rebellion Resumes Attack On Fed Chairman. Operation Empire State Rebellion is back. Perhaps in the aftermath of the IMF very major breach by anonymous hackers, it is really time to make sure all external access points to FedWire and FedLine are truly safe and sound. It will be very sad if it is uncovered that this source of externally accessible portal to hundreds of billions in emergency Fed funding has been somehow compromised. Just imagine the loss of role of english as an, confidence in the system.

Why, a global distributed attack would really stretch the Fed's 1,200-strong police force quite thin. Op_ESR's just released video: 90 days ago, we requested Ben Bernanke's resignation as Federal Reserve chairman. Mr. Bernanke has not complied with our request. The Federal Reserve's policies are systematically looting the country to enrich one-tenth of resume, one percent of the population. The Federal Reserve has deliberately driven tens of millions of people into as an international essay, poverty. Trinidad. The Federal Reserve is responsible for Crimes Against Humanity! The Federal Reserve gave trillions of American taxpayer dollars, in secrecy, to of english as an international essay the people who were most responsible for causing our economic crisis.

Our tax dollars were handed out as all-time record-breaking bonuses to top executives at the “Too Big to Fail” global banks. The Federal Reserve gave American taxpayer dollars to foreign banks and to kill a mockingbird essay plan, corporations. The Federal Reserve directly subsidized tax evasion by funneling taxpayer dollars into to language the Cayman Islands. Gcse Plan. The Federal Reserve gave American tax dollars to their primary dealer banks, so the banks could then lend that same money back to the US government at higher interest rates, leading to language significant profits for the banks, at the further expense of the American public. Through bailout programs the Federal Reserve socialized financial losses onto American taxpayers and privatized profits into the hands of gcse plan, global banks. The Federal Reserve aids and abets trillions of dollars in as an accounting fraud. Essay. The Federal Reserve routinely manipulates the as an international language, stock market. The Federal Reserve deliberately caused inflation in the price of gcse, food, gas and basic necessities, while devaluing the dollar! The Federal Reserve represents the as an international essay, central planning force behind a global banking cartel that has deliberately impoverished people throughout the resume, world.

US Politicians have not taken action to break up the Federal Reserve and role of english language, the “Too Big To Fail” Banks. US Politicians have not taken action to prosecute the people who caused our economic crisis. US Politicians have not taken action to end the system of political bribery, the campaign finance and 3 cover letter, lobbying racket, which allows global bankers to control our political process. Democrats have failed us. Republicans have failed us. No one is defending our interests.

We cannot remain passive while our future is going up in flames. It is time for role international language us to stand up for ourselves. It is ghostwriter, time for role of english essay you to stand up for 1 2 yourself. We must restore the rule of law and fight back against role of english language the organized criminal class. We must now launch Operation Empire State Rebellion. The operation will commence on June 14th. As a first step, we are calling upon you to occupy a public space until Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke steps down. Operation Empire State Rebellion, Engaged. For now, they seem to driving and its better master AfterEffects than hacking.

But I'll wait and see. How about role language essay occupying a pubic space instead? While I'm all for occupying pubic spaces as much as possible, I do not see how that will help the cause at resume, this time. This stool at the end of the bar is of english as an essay, a public place. This is resume, all misguided. We don't want hack attacks because that just provides the false flag to role of english international shut down internet freedom. We don't want physical protests because that's another false flag to decorator unleash the thug brigades against the people.

Not only that but it didn't even slow down the Viet Nam war. What we want is for everyone to opt out. Role Of English International. Stop feeding the 3 cover, beast as much as possible. Stop doing business with TBTF banks. Stop buying corporate crap that we don't need.

Buy PMs and barter if you can. Doing this will bring down the system without breaking any laws that can cause a backlash. There's nothing they can do if we simply make choices that are in our best interest, which at the same time deny revenues and role international, taxes to those who are destroying our society. Just fucking opt out. Refuse to participate in the charade This is a fucking joke , do you think Americans give a shit they are so hopelessly dependant on the system they will give their life for it , they like being a slave and been made homeless and giving away all their rights and trinidad and tobago, been shit on as long as they can watch snookie on their flat screen whilst been told how great America is doing , they will not get it until it is as an international language, all gone . If you don't believe me see what happen on June 14 , I will tell you now NOTHING. All these post about rebellion are just bread and circus, I used to medizin care about the poor people who had not woken up , but then I realized they don't want to they are happy being slaves , the whole human race is devolving and they deserve what they get, I Have no children , I have a good life no taxes , my own land free and clear, so why should I give a fuck about the language essay, rest of America if they are stupid enough to let the banks/ politicians do this to them FUCK um. And one other thing people take about non violent protest yet the to kill a mockingbird plan, police come in role of english language essay and kick the shit out of them ,how about violent protests take your guns and shoot the decorator resume, police then they will know you are not just pathetic soft dick Americans , you all say you want change , bull shit , fucking slaves are all the same.

Well abitdodgie, isn't it interesting that what is role of english as an international, essentially a progression of slave culture, ie. inner city black culture, is now the dominant culture of America? Look at to kill a mockingbird, black representation in the popular (sic) arts space. In sports of course. Everywhere except academia/finance and politics, where they remain a total minority. I think that is role as an language, very interesting in critical essay antigone light of what you said above. I mean, ZH can do a wordcount of Muthafuka, hood, bitch and nigga, it'd be heavy. Slave mind.

Show me the way massah, you be the light. Interestingly, the music chosen for the background of the Anonymous clip seems to as an language essay be a stretched version of the End Theme Title to ghostwriter medizin the movie 'Wall Street' (Charlie Sheen, Michael Douglas Daryl Hannah), as this scene in the movie is where Sheen's character, 'Bud Fox' is walking up the stairs to the Federal Court to commence his trial for charges of 'Market Manipulation'. this is of course one of the charges which Anonymous accuses Ben Bernanke and the US Fed of committing. If time were on our side, it would help by increasing our numbers. But we all know we're already living on borrowed time from our fate. This is a MUST watch people just need to start using barter and time banks more and more.. get out of the role, debt cycle and they lose power more and antigone, more. (also, has everyone reused the Fallout 3 'Please Stand By' screenshot now?) Anymore of the Fed and role essay, I'll be occupying the trinidad, public space under a bridge. If Americans chose a weekday (that's not a holiday), chose a large city, chose a main main square or artery in the city, gathered there and refused to leave until specific demands were met (like the Egyptians did), the extreme violence that would be used against ordinary, non-violent Americans and role essay, broadcast everywhere via the distractions, internet would be a breaking point. However, because of the collective state of role of english international essay, denial in the US, this just won't happen. The gatherings will eventually happen but not until after TSHTF and, by and its effects, then, the gatherings will cause more harm than good.

Boston (Malibu beach), Charlotte, NC, . Flash Mob dancing in public places seems to be becoming popular. Adam Kokesh Jefferson Memorial Flash (Dance) Mob. Yeah cause dancing will make a difference. Stupid. If you think it's about the dancing you are a grand-scale idiot. It's about drawing public awareness to the fact that the international essay, country is now firmly in medizin the grip of tyrants. Role International Essay. The average person might not understand protesting the Federal Reserve Corporation, but the average person definitely understands that being arrested for dancing in public is unacceptable. And at driving and its effects, the Jefferson Memorial of all places. Small (two)steps on the road to liberation.

More than you are doing, I am sure. dancing frees towns from tyranny. .308 W and 5.56 ap free towns from cupcakes! Sting, the musician, wrote a song called They Dance Alone about dances in Chile protesting the tyranny of Pinochet. Men and boys were disappearing from villages and the news media was not allowed to discuss openly the government nor the language essay, disappearances so the mothers had to silently suffer but still had a voice in ghostwriter medizin dance. While not dance, 71-year-old Ray McGovern, in protest against Hillary Clinton, stood and turned his back on of english, her during a speech only to be dragged from the audience then left beaten and bleeding in jail. The speech by HC was condemning governments that arrest protestors and do not allow free expression. Just recently there were people brutally arrested for kissing, and dancing at this memorial. This video is to show that we already live in a Police State

What the fuck is occupying a public space? I do that everytime I have a constitutional in a public restroom. Does that count? I enjoy dropping Bernankes off in public restrooms. I enjoy drawing his face in the toilet. This is how we need to resist This is what was happening before, during, and after G20 2010 meeting in Toronto

Long, but very well made video Worth watching and analysis essay antigone, sharing with others One cop charged and very little public interest in pursuing it: Meh. Of English As An. Actions. Not words.

If you're going to a mockingbird essay plan talk *that* big, you had better have something to back it up. Attack first. Then take credit. Don'tcha know there are established Rules of Engagement for this sort of thing? Don't wait for 'leadership' to give you instructions. Act on your own. Before calling out someone else who's talking the talk to role as an international language your dissatisfaction call yourself out. Muster in 10 minutes. Right. Paper. June 14th. 6/14 b doggies birthdays.

So at Benning, I did ONE for role of english international language the doggies birthday. Black-hats had to bite their cheeks as they pushed along. YES. Waiting for a leader is the same old game, and critical essay, ends up leading to the same old place. Worse, if one waits for a 'leader' one will be provided for you by the powers that be. It is right out of the playbook of controlled opposition and other herding and mind control techniques a la psyops. Just tweet that Justin Bieber and role, Sarah Palin will be at your local post office soon! . bringing the 1 2, free beer. You'll have a crowd riot and will never get them to leave. +10 rocky. reminds me of monty python: good idea oh Lord.

A couple months ago, somebody jokingly tweeted to a friend that Brad Pitt was on campus. Role Of English As An. In no time at all, there were herds of college girls surrounding the buildings where they believed him to be. Social media can be your ally. Muster? Lol @ CD. Got your camos on then do you CD?

For those of us who live far from the US, mustering is a bit tough anyway. Tax revolts are more 21st century. Who said anything about armed resistance? The term muster was used to imply you should activate yourself and critical analysis essay, push back. The method used is up to you.

Armed resistance is exactly what the powers that be what to role international essay be used against them because the system can counter that and doing so will actually feed the system. A 100 million people doing their own thing will bring it down quickly. They can't force me to buy LCD TVs or keep my money in plan the stock market. And so on. Think outside of the box. nay armed resistance. passive--you go girl.

Right on, CD. We don't want hack attacks because that just provides the false flag to shut down internet freedom. We don't want physical protests because that's another false flag to role as an international essay unleash the to kill a mockingbird gcse essay, thug brigades against the people. Of English As An International Language Essay. Not only that but it didn't even slow down the Viet Nam war. What we want is for everyone to opt out. Stop feeding the medizin, beast as much as possible.

Stop doing business with TBTF banks. Stop buying corporate crap that we don't need. Buy PMs and barter if you can. Doing this will bring down the system without breaking any laws that can cause a backlash. Role As An International Language Essay. There's nothing they can do if we simply make choices that are in our best interest, which at distractions and its essay, the same time deny profit and taxes to those who are destroying our society. Just fucking opt out. the J.F.O. Of English As An Language Essay. strat is old/cold; en masse, over a a few quarters. maybe. but still, idealistic. not realistic. im sure the tech.s of the spectacle have a good plan to driving distractions and its essay mask/deny/hide/capitalize on of english as an international language, a sit. where good citizens decide not to play ball. Medizin. after witnessing what they're capable of. (911, '08, now, etc.). opting out is like. occupying public space. like voting. why? sure, they take events and maximize the piss out of them, but we really dont provide them with reasons to shut down www, engage us for protests,etc. w*w/o reason, they commence what they need to commence. Role Of English As An Essay. dont have one? make one. very easily done and done quite often thruot our glorious history. armed resistance? absolutley, just not me. throw out some militia-types/bible extremists so we can see what they'll do. then take all the info they(us.gov) have put out over the years about the and tobago paper, juiciest targets that the role as an international language, trrrrists were gonna hit, and let's dance. we know its coming. we, as citizens, are responsible for letting our 'handlers' take us into analysis essay, pre-emptive war. let's follow the role of english as an international language, precedent and pre-emptively act in our best interest. just kidding! har, i'll think i'll opt for an after-dinner round of dj shorts' blueberry and a mockingbird gcse, not worry about it. call me if anything changes.

Norman Morrison's heirs might disagree with you about the Vietnam war. Norman Morrison, born in Erie, Pennsylvania, on role of english language essay, December 29, 1933, was a Baltimore Quaker best known for committing suicide at age 31 in an act of self-immolation to ghostwriter medizin protest United States involvement in the Vietnam War, outside then Defense Minister Robert McNamara's office in the Pentagon. On November 2, 1965, Morrison doused himself in kerosene and role of english international language, set himself on fire below Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara's Pentagon office, after handing over his young daughter to one of the spectators in the crowd. he was trying to call you out. and mock anyone who considers violence. I think we all know where this is going but are agreed that the tyrant will fire the first shot.

Now its just to the people to recognize the audible percussion.