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Lesson Plan 5: The Cover Letter Training Lesson - …

Plan cover letter

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Lesson Plan 5: The Cover Letter Training Lesson - …

authors intent essay Affordable, High Quality Custom Writing Services. Plan Cover? Essay writing has always been a challenge that many students of all level and degrees face every once in on summer vacations a while. It is a part of their academic life, a test to determine their literacy, fluency and analytical skills. For some who likes writing a lot, essay writing can be a friend they enjoy to be with. Plan? But for those who are having difficulty with it even in just constructing a simple decent paragraph, it is indeed a foe a very cruel one that would cause them a red mark or a flat 5 in their report cards. Thinking Projects? Often times, these students are those who have no idea what they are doing. Cover? They would write an essay because their instructor required them to. Paying Someone? They write without a purpose. They start with their essays without knowing why they are writing in the first place. A purpose is the sole reason why you are writing an essay or article. It is your definite aim; how you would want your paper to plan letter, communicate with the readers.

Discovering this is one of the to write, many basic challenges you will encounter when writing an essay or article. A purpose of an essay can either be one or more of the following: to inform; to persuade; to call readers to letter, action; to change attitudes; to analyze; to argue; to theorize; to summarize; to essay, evaluate; to cover, recommend; to projects for students, request; to propose; to provoke thought; to cover, express feelings; to fontaine, entertain; or to plan cover, give aesthetic pleasure. Model Middle School? To know the purpose of your paper is tricky. Fortunately, instructors often specify first-hand what type of paper they expect from plan, their students. However, when your instructor gives you the freedom to write any type of paying someone papers, essay, you might have problems identifying or choosing a purpose. The following tips below will guide you and help you with this problem. Ask yourself the basic questions. Many students fall prey to misjudgment and misconception when trying to determine the purpose or purposes of their essays.

The reason for this is because they often overlook the instructions their professors gave them, or they lack the vision for plan, identifying purposes. On Drug? Fortunately, the difficulty of identifying the purpose of an essay can be lessened by asking these simple basic questions: who; what; when; where; how; and why . First, ask yourself: “ who are my readers?” Your readers can be anyone from fellow students, professors to community citizens. For instance, when your teacher asks you to write an essay about ethnic discrimination in school, it is fitting enough to assume that your readers would be your fellow students, specifically those who belong in the ethnic minority group. By having an idea who your audiences are, you will have more opportunity and confidence developing a purpose for your essay as you can easily determine what you want to communicate or to letter, share with them. Next, you should ask yourself: “what do I want to communicate with my readers?” Do you want to share with them the model, prevalence of ethnic discrimination within your campus? Or do you want to talk about the causes and plan letter, effects of ethnic discrimination? Basically it’s up to thinking projects for students, you to cover letter, decide, but always remember to take your readers into consideration what they want to know or what they find interesting. Then there is the question “when”.

Basically, “when” refers to the time a certain event took place, is taking place or will take place. In other words, you have to know which specific timeline your essay will focus into. Sur La De La? For example, are you going to focus on previous discrimination cases that took place within the campus years ago? Are you going to investigate for current cases? Or are you going to predict or analyze ethnic discrimination within the campus in the next five years? Your decision here will basically affect how you would come up with your purpose. Plan? The next important thing to determine is the setting. In other words, ask yourself “where” your information will be obtained, and where your audiences are located.

Are you going to focus inside or outside the campus? By knowing or deciding a specific setting, you will be able to help yourself develop a purpose that is limited only within that location. Fable? After determining “where ”, you should now determine “how ” you will write your paper. Reflect deep in your thoughts and ask yourself how you can obtain the information you are planning to share or discuss, how you are going to reach and cover letter, relate with your readers using that information, and critical, how you are going to approach your paper. Are you going to plan cover, investigate through survey or are you going to rely on previous literatures? Knowing these things will basically help you decide a purpose for your study. Finally, after asking yourself and answering the questions, who, what, when, where and how, it’s time for you to answer the most important question why?

Think deeply and ask why do you plan to reach a group of readers, why you want to edgar allan paper introduction, share with them specific information, and letter, why do you want to search for literatures or to survey for critical projects, opinions. Do you want to inform them? Do you want to persuade them? Is your information sufficient enough to build an argument? It is basically your call to decide the purpose of your essay but always remember that before asking the question why, you should first ask and answer who, what, when, where and how.

A purpose is one of the few important factors to consider when assessing the writing situation. Identifying a purpose for your chosen subject is like giving it a straight path that leads directly to cover, the thoughts and hearts of the readers. By knowing your purpose, your readers will easily understand what you are trying to allan paper introduction, convey and why you are trying to plan, reach or communicate with them. Model Essay School? Remember, when identifying your purpose, analyze and cover, ask the questions who, what, when, where, how, and edgar, why . Brent Tyler is a senior writer/researcher/editor for My Writing Assistant. He has a masters degree in communication research and has a writing experience of 5 years. Currently, Brent is assigned to write weekly tips for My Writing Assistant's official website. Copyright 2006 My Writing Assistant.com. Do not republish without permission.

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Bank Internal Auditor Resume Sample. This resume is a sample for the post of Bank Internal Auditor. In many countries female auditors have less practical experience than male due to some domestic or locality reasons nonetheless they possess strong command on the main concept. Plan? A Bank Internal Auditor is mostly required in those organizations that are female oriented e.g. female colleges, universities, banks and any other industry. This culture prevails primarily in essay vacations Asia. How you can build a resume for female? we give you below a resume sample to help you create an impressive and convincing resume. Show all your practical experiences, and if it is a big organization that you are applying for mention it clearly with either underline or in bold letters.

Always try to be honest and clear while writing education and skills as mostly interviews are taken within the plan, information provided in your resume data. A good resume pays a vital role for critical thinking for students a good job win. Bank Internal Auditor Resume Sample. Date of Birth : Day Month Year. Marital Status : Married. Visa Status : Husband Visa. Applied For: Bank Internal Auditor/Hotel Internal Auditor/Mall Internal Auditor/Professional Auditor. To pursue a challenging career in plan a progressive environment where learning, innovation and paper creativity are encouraged, where my skills knowledge can be enhanced to their maximum potential to contribute to the overall success and growth of the organization. More than 2 Year Experience as Accountant and Audit Assistant in India.

Proficient in Computer Applications [MS OFFICE, TALLY ERP 9]. Ability and skill to motivate co-employees resulted in the attainment of goals and objectives of the team. as Bank Internal Auditor. Coordinate activities between the organization and the chief auditor for a successful audit Check revenue and expenses accounts to cover judge the amount of total debts and credibility of the organization Make certain the balance sheets, assets liabilities, and profit and loss accounts display the poe research introduction, true financial position of the letter, organization Compute the tax liability of the organization and projects support the organization in making tax payments on time. Verify the supporting documents of bills, receipts and reconciliation statements Find out any discrepancies within the documents and statements and post relevant entries to make corrections. Reconciliation of Bank/Inter Company / Principal/Supplier Accounts Coordinate with auditors both internal external during audits. Inventory management include verification of New/Used/Work in Progress. Co-ordination with Auditors for the Finalisation and preparation of the necessary schedules other documents for the Audit Periodical in house Statements from Trail Balance to Final Accounts consolidation of cover letter divisional/associated company accounts. Maintenance of accurate records in the proper manner and tracking the same and dissertation fable capacity to draft the letters correspondence.

Verification of Sales Bill and Supervising recording of plan letter sales entry Credit control and collection of accounts payables and receivables. Prepare profit and edgar poe research loss statements and letter monthly closing and cost accounting reports. Compile and research paper analyze financial information to prepare entries to accounts, such as general ledger accounts, and plan letter document business transactions Establish, maintain, and coordinate the implementation of accounting and accounting control procedures. Thinking Projects For Students? Monitor and review accounting and cover related system reports for accuracy and completeness Handling Cash collection and easy essay book keeping Provide accounting policy orientation for new staff. Resolve accounting discrepancies Preparing day book, cash book and ledger. Responsible for all the Local Purchase Order, Quotations, Enquiries, and cover letter other related correspondence. Prepare and review budget, revenue, expense, payroll entries, invoices, and other accounting documents Preparing Journal Entries Preparing Bank reconciliation statement.

Preparing monthly report for essay middle school Manager Representing the organization before various statutory authorities Helping smooth internal audit Conducting stock audits. Expert in Computer Languages such as C++, Tally ERP Internet and Ms Office, Outlook, Excel, Word, PowerPoint) A Anantha Shankaran (Chartered Accountant) I am keen to continue my career and prepared to work hard in order to achieve my organization objectives and I hereby declare that the information furnished above is true to the best of my knowledge. The resume sample is for the post of Senior Auditor. A Senior Auditor distinguishes himself due to plan cover his prevailing knowledge and edgar poe research introduction tackling multiple assignment expertise. When an audit officer performs his duties in manufacturing units, processing units, banks and service units, he gathers plenty of letter valuable knowledge and skills. Easy Essay On Summer Vacations? So for the post of senior audit officer employer’s main thinking is to hire a person with experience that he has earned during his big and multiple-type industrial encounters.

Mostly Senior Auditors are required in those charted accountant professional firms or group of companies where they already have audit officers hence adding further challenges to your post as controlling, managing and maintaining your employees. Your application for this job must be perfect e.g. your Senior Auditor Resume Sample, presentation, current world knowledge, related accounting standard, and up-to-date international market condition. So how you build a good resume for plan cover letter this challenging job? A sample is provided below to help you well-construct your resume. It is started with an introduction followed by your objectives. Critical For Students? (Career objective is plan cover letter very important for research paper on drug this post so write it very carefully mentioning all your areas of expertise.) At the end of letter resume provide some references. Seeking a long-term opportunity within the business community, where my professional experience, education, and research paper abilities would be advantageous to the growth of plan letter my employer and dissertation sur la fable de la myself. Around 6 years of practical experience in the field of financial accounting, financial statements and reporting, bank reconciliations, project accounting, cost and management accounting, budgeting and planning, financial forecasting, accounts receivables/payable, and internal/external auditing.

Worked in leading multicultural organizations with expertise in: Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable and Fixed assets management. Letter? Finalization of quarterly, half yearly and full yearly financial statements in compliance with IFRS and GAAP. Reviewing of General Ledger (GL), Accounts payables (AP), Fixed Assets (FA) and Inventory at different clients. Research Paper On Drug? Expertise in following accounting tools and MS Office applications: Peachtree (Sage 50 Accounting) QuickBooks Tally ERP MS Excel, MS Word MS Power Point Article ship completed from Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan. Demonstrated history of establishing accounts department, implementation of financial policies and development of SOPs for plan cover letter different organizations. Reviewed and dissertation fontaine implemented following systems at different levels, Sales system Purchase system Inventory system. January 2014 to November 2014 Senior Accountant. Dynamic Builders (Pvt) Limited.

September 2011 to January 2014 Assistant Manager – Accounts Audit. Supervisor – Audit Assurance. HLB International Chartered Accountants, Kabul, Afghanistan. June 2009 to September 2011 Senior Auditor. NEXIA International, Riaz Ahmad and plan cover Company. Chartered Accountants, Islamabad, Pakistan. Dynamic Builders (Pvt) Limited, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Senior Accountant January 2014 to November 2014. Dynamic Builders (Pvt) Limited stretches back its origin to 1990, is a combination of different task oriented entities engaged in the business of construction and erection. The company through its advanced approach and easy essay on summer vacations techniques become one of the most developed construction companies of the country. The company has substantially increased its scope of work. Key Responsibilities and Duties. Established and monitored the implementation and maintenance of accounting control procedure, Maintained general ledger, trial balance, profit and loss account, balance sheet and letter other financials Closing with full responsibility of the account receivable, account payable and fixed assets function, Ensured accurate and appropriate recording and analysis of dissertation sur la revenues and expenses, Analysed and advised on business operations including revenue and expenditure trends, financial commitments and future revenues, Made regular reports to the management on income, expenditure and any variations from budgets. HLB International , Ijaz Tabussum Co. Chartered Accountants, Kabul. Assistant Manager – Accounts Audit April 2013 to January 2014. Supervisor – Audit Assurance (Article Ship) September 2011 to letter April 2013. A member firm of HLB International stretches its origin back as far as 1970.

The firm today, through successful growth, is a strong and independent practice with four offices in Pakistan. Paper Introduction? The company widened its scope to be a part of technology revolution resulting into the formation of cover Business Process Outsourcing arm. Key Responsibilities and Duties. During the period of dissertation de la 2.3 years with the plan cover letter, firm, I was involved in various assignments in Assurance and Advisory Services. The various sectors I worked in ranged from manufacturing industry to service industry. The assignments include full scope audits, internal controls, agreed upon allan paper, procedure, bookkeeping, forensic auditing and special assignments. My services as “Assistant Manager Accounts Audit and plan Supervisor Audit Assurance” also include: Maintenance of accounting controls by establishing a chart of accounts; defining accounting policies and procedures, Preparation and supervision of monthly and quarterly Management Accounts i.e.

Balance Sheet, Profit Loss and on drug Cash Flow statement disclosures and other customized reports. Cover? Management of all income, expense, accounts receivable and easy essay vacations fixed assets resources. Planning, execution and cover supervision of assignments of External Audits on various private, Public and Government Clients. Allocation of to write papers audit team to different areas under audit. Review of audit work at initial stage. Riaz Ahmad Company , NEXIA International, Chartered Accountants, Islamabad. Senior Auditor (Article Ship) June 2009 to September 2011. A member firm of NEXIA International stretches its origin back as far as 1956.

The firm today, through successful growth, is a strong and plan cover independent practice with four offices in Pakistan. Previously it was a member firm of KPMG, Ernst Young International, KMG and Shaffer Champness International. Key Responsibilities and Duties. During the period of 2.3 years with the research, firm, I: Conducted assignments to review of accounting and internal control system. Supervised and administered maintenance of books of accounts and preparation of different level financial statements. Performed external audit services in accordance with the approved International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs), International Standards on Auditing (ISAs) and local laws. MAJOR ASSIGNMENTS PPERFORMED. Following is the list of major clients handled during my stay at HLB and plan cover Nexia International Chartered Accountants: Date of Birth: 29.01.1979.

Marital status: Married. Will be furnished upon request. Audit Assistant Manager Resume Sample. This resume sample is for the post of Executive Audit Manager. Easy On Summer Vacations? An Auditor’s post is considered to be very significant in the entire world. For this post you must have proper knowledge of this field. An A.C.C.A. degree with article is essential. Mostly an A.C.C.A. qualified person during his study audits different companies and organizations.

So while constructing your resume do discuss all your past experiences and letter credits, especially of model essay school those organization that are recognized worldwide. The employer is mostly interested in your past profile. Plan Letter? Below we give you an effective sample that will help you how you can well construct a resume. Down you will see guidance in explaining all key skills and areas where he have had great experience. And finally confidence is always famous for turning things into your favor. Planning audits and developing audit strategies along with identification of potential risk areas. Identifying critical risks, systems’ evaluation and recommending improvements therein. Delegation and review of work and easy essay resolving issues in liaison with the letter, management. Preparing tax computations and reviewing their compliance with local laws and paying regulations. Checking that financial reports and records are accurate and reliable. Ensuring procedures, policies, legislation and regulations are correctly followed and complied with.

Co-ordination with professionals of various fields including legal, actuarial and IT. Perform audit tasks monitoring team. Audit Assistant Manager Resume Sample. Experience: 3 Years in letter Accounts, Finance and Audit. Address Burjuman Dubai UAE. Visa Status: Visit Visa.

To be a part of a dynamic reputed team of professionals striving for critical projects for students excellence in delivering quality services and products; inspiring mutual growth and contributing creative solutions towards the achievement of organizational targets. CA Finalist (1 paper Left to qualify) from Institute of cover Chartered Accountants of England and. Wales (ICAEW) – In progress. ACCA from Association of Chartered Certified Accountants UK – February 2012. B.COM from University of Sindh Jamshoro – July 2011. Higher Secondary Certificate – Intermediate Board Karachi – 2008. Secondary School Certificate – Matriculation Board Karachi – 2006. 3+ Years of experience in Accounts, Audit, Internal Audits and Business Analysis From Deloitte . Dissertation Sur La De La? Professionally qualified with ACCA (Association of Certified Chartered Accountants) and ICAEW(Institute of Chartered Accountancy of England and Wales (1 paper left) Have excellent skills in accounting can handle up to letter finalization Skilled in financial management, auditing, internal auditing costing and critical projects for students financial accounting, and plan letter intercompany reconciliations Experience of handling SOX Rules based Projects Self-motivated finance professional with achievements in budgetary control, cost reduction, controlling of finance and reporting to the top management Aware of Code of easy vacations Corporate governance High proficiency in all aspects of plan letter International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) Strong grip on financial and business analysis and have good business sense Well versed in computerized accounting environment like MS Office with advanced spread sheet skills, Tally ERP, Quick Book and Peach Tree. Adept at reviewing accounting records and other financial data to assess accuracy, completeness and conformance with company policies and applicable reporting standards. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES:

Prepares asset, liability, and capital account entries by compiling and analyzing account information. Documents financial transactions by entering account information. Recommends financial actions by analyzing accounting options. Summarizes current financial status by collecting information; preparing balance sheet, profit and loss statement, and other reports. Substantiates financial transactions by auditing documents. Maintains accounting controls by preparing and recommending policies and procedures.

Guides accounting clerical staff by coordinating activities and answering questions. Reconciles financial discrepancies by collecting and paper analyzing account information. Plan? Secures financial information by completing data base backups. Maintains financial security by following internal controls. Prepares payments by verifying documentation, and requesting disbursements. Answers accounting procedure questions by researching and interpreting accounting policy and research regulations. Plan Cover Letter? Complying with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Prepares special financial reports by collecting, analyzing, and research paper on drug summarizing account information and trends.

Maintains customer confidence and protects operations by keeping financial information confidential. Preparing Bank Reconciliations, Suppliers reconciliations and Receivables aging Analyze business operations, trends, costs, revenues, financial commitments, and obligations, to plan cover project future revenues and middle expenses or to provide advice. Develop, maintain, and analyze budgets, preparing periodic reports that compare budgeted costs to actual costs. Develop, implement, modify, and document recordkeeping and accounting systems, making use of current computer technology. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: Planning audits and developing audit strategies along with identification of plan cover potential risk areas Identifying critical risks, systems’ evaluation and recommending improvements therein Delegation and review of poe research paper introduction work and resolving issues in liaison with the management Preparing tax computations and reviewing their compliance with local laws and regulations Checking that financial reports and plan letter records are accurate and model middle school reliable Ensuring procedures, policies, legislation and regulations are correctly followed and complied with Co-ordination with professionals of various fields including legal, actuarial and IT Perform audit tasks monitoring team Performing Internal audits, special assignments , agreed upon cover letter, procedures Establish, maintain, and coordinate the implementation of accounting control procedures Monitoring and review accounting and research related system reports for plan cover accuracy and completeness Implementation of to write papers Accounting information and Internal Control System in the Organization Ensuring compliance with the cover, management policies and reviewing existing systems to identify any control weaknesses Ensuring whether the rules of SOX are applied properly Ensuring compliance with the code of corporate governance Assessment of the financial statements in order to thinking for students ensure their compliance with the requirements of the local laws, Regulation and International Financial reporting Standards (IFRS) Drafting reports for Internal clients , with experience of discussing findings with the top management of the client Reporting to Managers and Partners. and issuing Final Reports. Following is the cover letter, list of clients handled:

Visa Worldwide Singapore PTE Limited Dalda Foods Private Limited Wazir Ali Industries Limited (WIL) Tuwairqi Steel Mills limited TSML Salfi Textile Mills Limited Island Textile Mills Limited Diamond International Corporation limited Tata Textile Mills Limited National Industrial Parks Development Management Company (NIP) United Bank Limited. TECHNICAL PROFESSIONAL SKILLS: QUICK BOOKS, TALLY , PEACH TREE MS-EXCEL, MS-WORD, MS-POWER POINT Aware of Deloitte Software AS 2 User level knowledge of different ERPs used by client Can work under pressure and sur la fable fontaine meet deadlines Have excellent communication interpersonal skills Self-motivated, comfortable in taking initiative and working independently. Attended various professional development seminars and training sessions including Deloitte Audit Methodology and updates in ISAs /IFRSs . Completed mandatory and optional training courses arranged by Employer regarding updating IFRS/ISAs, Industry specific courses, Financial management courses, Ethics based courses . Working at the Deloitte Pakistan Firm has enabled me to develop comprehensive understanding of the letter, competitive and regulatory environments of diversified industries and edgar allan poe research paper the accounting and internal control systems implemented at various organizations. During my training period at letter firm I was engaged as member of audit team senior for thinking projects for students special assignments, Internal Audits and agreed upon procedures, of various renowned listed and other clients. This is a sample resume for Internal Auditor. An Internal Auditor’s job is to keep a check and balance on the sale and purchase of the company. Cover Letter? He monitors and accounts the different transactions made by projects the company throughout the year. As this job is pretty responsible one so the employer would want to hire an employee with some experience in this field. Below we have devised a resume sample for you to plan help you explain yourself in an easy but impressive and grasping way.

Adding previous credits and performances is definitely a plus for the employer’s attention. Last Post: Internal Auditor / Trainee Audit Officer. “To seek a challenging dynamic career oriented position, in the field of Accounting, Audit and Finance that offers opportunity for my professional growth and development and where I can add value in achieving organizations’ goals objectives, by utilizing my experience, knowledge skills”. DESIGNATION : Accounts Officer. Reconciled Hospital Inventory Fixed Assets additions from January 2014 To July 2014. Reported other income to Assistant Finance Manager from January 2013 to July 2014 Submitted Revenue and Operating Expenses break-up summary to Management from allan paper introduction January 2014 to September 2014.

DESIGNATION : General Accountant. Responsible for Assets and inventory management accounting. Plan Cover Letter? (Depreciation, Amortization, Repair Maintenance, Up-gradation Disposals, write off obsolete stock etc.) Responsible for Liquidity, Cash Flow Working Capital management. (Cash/ Bank Balances, Debtors, Inventories Suppliers payments Management) Recognized managed Gratuity, Leave Salary, Air fare, Trade and easy essay on summer vacations Other Creditors Provisions and Liabilities in Financial Statements according to applicable UAE Labor law and IAS. Responsible for Group Consolidated Revenue, Expenses, Accruals, Reconciliation Payroll recognition management. Finalized monthly, quarterly and annually Audit Files and year end closing entries in plan letter Financials and easy essay on summer vacations organized managed financial information Documentations. Responsible for cover Group projects costing (related to Material, Labor Assets) Variance Analysis (Material price and usage, Labor rate and efficiency and Assets rates, efficiency and usage variances). DESIGNATION : Internal Auditor.

Reported accounts staff deficiencies in expenses recognition and amortization of thinking for students prepaid expenses to CEO. Evaluated internal control deficiencies and provide recommendation for improvements to CEO. Plan Cover? Evaluated group’s financial statements integrity, completeness and accuracy by monitoring adherence and compliance of financial statements principles, policies and procedures to International Accounting Standards and paying someone to write international financial reporting standards. Evaluated Group’s resources and operations economy, efficiency and effective (3E’s) and reported misuse of resources and abuse towards SOP’s. Communicated with group’s external auditor for quarterly and year end audit. Assisted in preparation of monthly depreciation schedules for School Building, classroom and office furniture. Followed up and updated books of accounts for tuition fee receivable from students. Recorded and updated accounts department records, Files and Documentations systematically and plan as per paying someone to write policies and procedures of plan cover letter Organization.

Assisted in the monthly, quarterly, and year end closing of accounts. Prepared, managed and essay on summer documented export related documentsg. Commercial invoices, packing lists. Plan Cover? Associated with opening, Endorsement, Retirement and Management of Letter of Credits (LC). Encoded Advance Payments to suppliers in research Local and Foreign Currencies.

Achieved 98% marks (Highest Ever) in letter theoretical Knowledge test, for the position of accountant in paying to write papers Emirates Petrochemical Services Scaffolding Group. Got employment confirmation within 3 months (of total 6 months) probation period along with promotion (from “Accountant” to “Accountant General”) with 20% salary increment in Emirates petrochemical Services Scaffolding Group. Implemented rationale Customer Screening process for Trading division of Emirates Petrochemical Services Scaffolding Group (which accounted for 20% of Group revenue) for reduction in plan cover letter risk of Bad Debts. Successfully executed “ CUSTOMIZED PETTY CASH ACCOUNTING SOFTWARE” in administration department of easy Group which helped to encode petty cash transactions systematically and generated timely MIS reports for management, along with proper system generated documentations. Will be furnished on demand. Working Capital, Voucher, Treasury Petty Cash Management. Stock Control Inventory Management. Planning Budgeting Forecasting. Payroll Processing Management. Payments and Settlements.

International Standards on Auditing. International Accounting Standards. Fixed Asset Management. Financial Statement Analysis. Plan? Corporate Tax Filings. Capital Rationing Budgeting. Costing Variance analysis.

Provisions Liabilities Management. Finance Control Manager Resume Sample. This resume is a sample for the post of Financial Control Manager. A Financial Controller plays a very important role in the prosperity of a company or an model essay middle school, organization.He performs several major responsibilities including supervising, administration and letter Finance areas with reporting to local management and to headquarters. Management information system reports, Cash Flow management and facilitating financial problems for sur la fable customers. Accounting, Costing, Forecasting, Budgeting and Credit monitoring related to Collections. Sample of Financial Control Manager is given below to help you create a convincing resume. Your resume must entails that you are talented with great moral character. Plan Cover? Finally adding references to a resume is definitely go in to stand your (Finance Control Manager ) resume out among others. Finance Control Manager Resume Sample.

Status : Married/ Single. Applied For: Finance Control Officer/Budget Manager/Deputy Finance Manager/Financial Flow Manager. Interested in a challenging position as an Audit Manger/Finance Manager with a reputed organization where I can put to practice my management and audit skills and further my career and easy on summer vacations Experience. Ability to work in dynamic environment, self- motivated, creative and hard working.V.Good internal audit, financial analysis ability and make comparison analyses and cover V.Good in business development and alternate investment preparation. 15 years experience work in MNC auditing and accounting field (Auditing Finance) of Hospitality, Real Estate , Contracting, Manufacturing and Trading Companies), V Good in risk assessments, compliance and control and also have V.Good analysis ability, Good knowledge of all financial aspects of a business including Budgets, Variance and Cash Flows, Trial Balance and Balance. V.Good background of IAS and GAAP. Current position : Asst.CFO. Current Company : A.H Group of Companies Sharjah-UAE.

M.Com (Masters of Commerce)-Auditing and Costing .Osmania University Hyderabad. CIFP (Certified Islamic Finance Professional ) Shariah and Islamic Finance from INCEIF Malaysia. MA (Masters in Public Administration) Completed first year and discontinued final. Paying To Write? Osmania University. Plan Cover Letter? Completed 3 Years of Article ship from Institute of Charted Accountant of India with Giri Kumar Associates. Diploma in Management Accountancy sponsored Program me. Completed course in Bank Operations at Mahesh Bank -Hyderabad Currently pursuing CIA.

MH Group of easy on summer vacations Companies: Diversified group consists of Real Estate, Hospitality, Contracting, Manufacturing and Trading /April 1997 – 2001 as. Financial Control Cum Internal Auditor. The company is branch of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, Qatar, Spain and German, company, and specialized in manufacturing pipes, A/c chillers and consists of cover 5 hotels in Sharjah and 4000 commercial and residential units for Middle East region. Reporting to the Audit Manager in Kuwait. Conduct audit filed work as per thinking projects audit plan and letter schedule. Essay Vacations? Audit planning, execution filed work,Ensuring audit is conducted in accordance with audit programs, Evaluate and document the plan cover, client’s accounting and internal control system, Designed and carried out tests of someone to write control and substantive tests, Assuring compliance with financial reporting statutory framework. Draft audit report and file audit papers accordingly. Reviewed audit work done by other junior staff. Plan Cover Letter? Conducted various types of research audits : Operational Audit Finance Audit, Cost Audit, Financial Reporting Audit and Special Audit.

Controls Audit Risk Assessment. Consulting or special audits A.H Group of Companies: Finance Supervisor (Manager) for plan cover UAE Operations. The tasks focuses on market, insurance, operation risk, credit and liquidity risk and also oversee the control environment and on summer provide early warning solutions regarding risk or control issues. The tasks also include substantial exposure to senior management, where you I have to bolster business decisions with expert opinions.

The tasks also include developing audit strategies into effective audit procedures, generating and plan cover implementing ideas to maximize assignment profitability, the main tasks will be to produce assignment budgets and timetables, identify efficiency improvements and to coach other members of staff. Finance Manager along with Audit Supervisor/April 2005 – Present. Reporting MD, DMD CFO. Additional Main responsibilities: -Budgeting, Forecasting Report, – Manage the Team of auditors and someone papers supervise and finalize reports and communicate. – Supervise and resource allocation as per available audit resources and conduct training. – Risk assessment and finalize risk priorities and maintain risk register. -Follow-up recommendation with management for corrective action.

– Prepare Financial Statement, reports, analysis as per management direction. -Monitor group financial activates, receipts, disbursements and prepare daily report. – Monthly Report of CGS, and Result of operating Activities, – Monitor Bank Transfer, Loan portfolio and facilities funding and non-funding and. – Maintain group cash flow, short term borrowing and terms loan repayments (treasury management) Long term loans follow up in terms of repayments, interest and cover letter cash flow. – Monitor and prepare reports on Banks Reconciliation for the major transactions of group. -Presentations of projects, feasibility, investment proposals and essay middle school business development. – Prepare Costing Report, Analyses Report, Projected Monthly Cash Flow. -Review facility management contracts of substantial value and major procurement.

-V.Good background of International Accounting Standard, and GAAP, – V.Good communication skills with accounting staff other related Department. : V.Good in Oracle Programming, Visual Basic and MS Access. :Well aware of ERP structure and learn course in Oracle Financial and Oracle Data Base Administration. Well aware with hardware and plan cover letter web based technology. Apex Hospitals Ltd: Sr.

Financial Accountant. Both In-patient and Out-patient. Edgar Allan Poe Research? Book Keeping and general accounting, costing and plan letter regular accounting functioning up to paying finalization. Preparing cash flow, receivable management, disbursements, handling bank and its related matters, external auditors and cover preparing various reports for decision making process. Daily hospital report to MD on finance, patient management, Housekeeping, medical legal cases, pharmacy issues and other administrative issues. Giri Kumar Associates and Consultants Worked as Article’s from 1988-1990. Learn basic auditing techniques like vouching, tracing, footing, preparing files, working papers, preparing reports, preparing financial reports, industries knowledge, communication procedures, financial analysis, irregularities, frauds, and essay middle basic auditing.

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The Times's Dealings With Julian Assange. This past June, Alan Rusbridger, the cover letter editor of The Guardian, phoned me and asked, mysteriously, whether I had any idea how to arrange a secure communication. Essay Middle. Not really, I confessed. The Times doesn’t have encrypted phone lines, or a Cone of plan letter, Silence. Well then, he said, he would try to speak circumspectly. In a roundabout way, he laid out an model essay school unusual proposition: an organization called WikiLeaks, a secretive cadre of antisecrecy vigilantes, had come into possession of a substantial amount of classified United States government communications.

WikiLeaks’s leader, Julian Assange, an eccentric former computer hacker of cover, Australian birth and no fixed residence, offered The Guardian half a million military dispatches from the battlefields of Afghanistan and Iraq. Research. There might be more after that, including an immense bundle of confidential diplomatic cables. The Guardian suggested — to increase the impact as well as to share the labor of handling such a trove — that The New York Times be invited to share this exclusive bounty. The source agreed. Was I interested? I was interested. The adventure that ensued over the next six months combined the plan cover cloak-and-dagger intrigue of handling a vast secret archive with the more mundane feat of sorting, searching and understanding a mountain of data. As if that were not complicated enough, the project also entailed a source who was elusive, manipulative and essay vacations, volatile (and ultimately openly hostile to The Times and The Guardian); an international cast of journalists; company lawyers committed to cover keeping us within the bounds of the law; and an array of government officials who sometimes seemed as if they couldn’t decide whether they wanted to engage us or arrest us. By the end of the year, the story of this wholesale security breach had outgrown the story of the actual contents of the secret documents and generated much breathless speculation that something — journalism, diplomacy, life as we know it — had profoundly changed forever. Soon after Rusbridger’s call, we sent Eric Schmitt, from edgar allan poe research, our Washington bureau, to London. Schmitt has covered military affairs expertly for cover letter years, has read his share of classified military dispatches and has excellent judgment and an unflappable demeanor.

His main assignment was to get a sense of the material. Was it genuine? Was it of public interest? He would also report back on the proposed mechanics of our collaboration with The Guardian and the German magazine Der Spiegel, which Assange invited as a third guest to his secret smorgasbord. Schmitt would also meet the WikiLeaks leader, who was known to a few Guardian journalists but not to us. Schmitt’s first call back to The Times was encouraging.

There was no question in his mind that the Afghanistan dispatches were genuine. They were fascinating — a diary of a troubled war from the ground up. And there were intimations of more to come, especially classified cables from the entire constellation of American diplomatic outposts. WikiLeaks was holding those back for now, presumably to see how this venture with the establishment media worked out. Model Essay School. Over the next few days, Schmitt huddled in a discreet office at The Guardian, sampling the plan letter trove of war dispatches and discussing the complexities of critical projects, this project: how to organize and plan, study such a voluminous cache of information; how to securely transport, store and share it; how journalists from three very different publications would work together without compromising their independence; and fable de la fontaine, how we would all assure an appropriate distance from Julian Assange.

We regarded Assange throughout as a source, not as a partner or collaborator, but he was a man who clearly had his own agenda. By the time of the meetings in London, WikiLeaks had already acquired a measure of international fame or, depending on your point of view, notoriety. Shortly before I got the cover letter call from The Guardian, The New Yorker published a rich and colorful profile of Assange, by Raffi Khatchadourian, who had embedded with the group. WikiLeaks’s biggest coup to that point was the release, last April, of video footage taken from one of two U.S. helicopters involved in model essay middle firing down on plan cover letter a crowd and research paper, a building in Baghdad in 2007, killing at least 18 people. While some of the people in the video were armed, others gave no indication of menace; two were in fact journalists for the news agency Reuters.

The video, with its soundtrack of callous banter, was horrifying to plan watch and was an edgar embarrassment to the U.S. Cover. military. Model. But in plan cover letter its zeal to make the video a work of antiwar propaganda, WikiLeaks also released a version that didn’t call attention to an Iraqi who was toting a rocket-propelled grenade and packaged the manipulated version under the tendentious rubric “Collateral Murder.” (See the edited and non-edited videos here.) Throughout our dealings, Assange was coy about where he obtained his secret cache. But the suspected source of the video, as well as the military dispatches and the diplomatic cables to come, was a disillusioned U.S. Army private first class named Bradley Manning, who had been arrested and was being kept in solitary confinement. On the fourth day of the London meeting, Assange slouched into The Guardian office, a day late. Schmitt took his first measure of the man who would be a large presence in our lives. “He’s tall — probably 6-foot-2 or 6-3 — and lanky, with pale skin, gray eyes and a shock of white hair that seizes your attention,” Schmitt wrote to me later. “He was alert but disheveled, like a bag lady walking in off the dissertation de la street, wearing a dingy, light-colored sport coat and cargo pants, dirty white shirt, beat-up sneakers and filthy white socks that collapsed around his ankles.

He smelled as if he hadn’t bathed in days.” Assange shrugged a huge backpack off his shoulders and pulled out a stockpile of plan letter, laptops, cords, cellphones, thumb drives and memory sticks that held the WikiLeaks secrets. The reporters had begun preliminary work on the Afghanistan field reports, using a large Excel spreadsheet to vacations organize the material, then plugging in search terms and combing the documents for newsworthy content. They had run into plan cover a puzzling incongruity: Assange said the data included dispatches from the beginning of 2004 through the end of 2009, but the dissertation fable fontaine material on the spreadsheet ended abruptly in April 2009. A considerable amount of material was missing. Assange, slipping naturally into cover letter the role of office geek, explained that they had hit the limits of Excel. Open a second spreadsheet, he instructed.

They did, and easy vacations, the rest of the plan data materialized — a total of 92,000 reports from the battlefields of Afghanistan. The reporters came to think of paper, Assange as smart and well educated, extremely adept technologically but arrogant, thin-skinned, conspiratorial and oddly credulous. At lunch one day in cover The Guardian’s cafeteria, Assange recounted with an air of great conviction a story about the archive in Germany that contains the files of the former Communist secret police, the Stasi. This office, Assange asserted, was thoroughly infiltrated by former Stasi agents who were quietly destroying the dissertation fable de la documents they were entrusted with protecting. The Der Spiegel reporter in plan cover the group, John Goetz, who has reported extensively on the Stasi, listened in amazement. That’s utter nonsense, he said.

Some former Stasi personnel were hired as security guards in the office, but the records were well protected. Assange was openly contemptuous of the American government and certain that he was a hunted man. He told the paper reporters that he had prepared a kind of doomsday option. Letter. He had, he said, distributed highly encrypted copies of his entire secret archive to a multitude of supporters, and if WikiLeaks was shut down, or if he was arrested, he would disseminate the key to edgar introduction make the information public. Schmitt told me that for all Assange’s bombast and dark conspiracy theories, he had a bit of Peter Pan in him.

One night, when they were all walking down the street after dinner, Assange suddenly started skipping ahead of the group. Schmitt and cover, Goetz stared, speechless. Then, just as suddenly, Assange stopped, got back in step with them and returned to the conversation he had interrupted. For the research paper rest of the week Schmitt worked with David Leigh, The Guardian’s investigations editor; Nick Davies, an investigative reporter for the paper; and Goetz, of Der Spiegel, to organize and sort the plan cover letter material. With help from two of paying someone to write papers, The Times’s best computer minds — Andrew Lehren and Aron Pilhofer — they figured out how to cover letter assemble the material into a conveniently searchable and secure database.

Journalists are characteristically competitive, but the group worked well together. Research Paper. They brainstormed topics to plan letter explore and exchanged search results. Der Spiegel offered to check the logs against incident reports submitted by model, the German Army to its Parliament — partly as story research, partly as an additional check on authenticity. Assange provided us the data on the condition that we not write about plan, it before specific dates that WikiLeaks planned on posting the documents on a publicly accessible Web site. The Afghanistan documents would go first, after we had a few weeks to search the material and write our articles. The larger cache of Iraq-related documents would go later. Such embargoes — agreements not to publish information before a set date — are commonplace in middle journalism. Everything from cover, studies in medical journals to the annual United States budget is released with embargoes. They are a constraint with benefits, the principal one being the research on drug chance to actually read and reflect on the material before publishing it into public view. As Assange surely knew, embargoes also tend to build suspense and amplify a story, especially when multiple news outlets broadcast it at once. The embargo was the plan cover only condition WikiLeaks would try to impose on us; what we wrote about the material was entirely up to us.

Much later, some American news outlets reported that they were offered last-minute access to WikiLeaks documents if they signed contracts with financial penalties for early disclosure. The Times was never asked to sign anything or to pay anything. Dissertation De La Fontaine. For WikiLeaks, at least in plan letter this first big venture, exposure was its own reward. Back in New York we assembled a team of reporters, data experts and editors and quartered them in an out-of-the-way office. Andrew Lehren, of our computer-assisted-reporting unit, did the first cut, searching terms on his own or those suggested by other reporters, compiling batches of relevant documents and summarizing the dissertation fontaine contents. We assigned reporters to specific areas in which they had expertise and gave them password access to rummage in the data. This became the routine we would follow with subsequent archives. An air of intrigue verging on plan paranoia permeated the project, perhaps understandably, given that we were dealing with a mass of classified material and a source who acted like a fugitive, changing crash pads, e-mail addresses and cellphones frequently.

We used encrypted Web sites. Reporters exchanged notes via Skype, believing it to be somewhat less vulnerable to eavesdropping. On conference calls, we spoke in amateurish code. Assange was always “the source.” The latest data drop was “the package.” When I left New York for two weeks to model essay school visit bureaus in Pakistan and Afghanistan, where we assume that communications may be monitored, I was not to be copied on message traffic about the letter project. I never imagined that any of dissertation sur la fable de la, this would defeat a curious snoop from the letter National Security Agency or Pakistani intelligence. And I was never entirely sure whether that prospect made me more nervous than the cyberwiles of WikiLeaks itself. At a point when relations between the paper news organizations and WikiLeaks were rocky, at least three people associated with this project had inexplicable activity in their e-mail that suggested someone was hacking into their accounts.

From consultations with our lawyers, we were confident that reporting on the secret documents could be done within the law, but we speculated about what the government — or some other government — might do to impede our work or exact recriminations. Cover Letter. And, the law aside, we felt an enormous moral and ethical obligation to use the material responsibly. While we assumed we had little or no ability to influence what WikiLeaks did, let alone what would happen once this material was loosed in the echo chamber of the research blogosphere, that did not free us from the need to exercise care in our own journalism. From the beginning, we agreed that in our articles and in plan cover any documents we published from the secret archive, we would excise material that could put lives at risk. Guided by reporters with extensive experience in the field, we redacted the names of ordinary citizens, local officials, activists, academics and others who had spoken to American soldiers or diplomats. Edgar Allan Paper Introduction. We edited out any details that might reveal ongoing intelligence-gathering operations, military tactics or locations of material that could be used to fashion terrorist weapons. Three reporters with considerable experience of handling military secrets — Eric Schmitt, Michael Gordon and C. J. Chivers — went over the documents we considered posting.

Chivers, an ex-Marine who has reported for plan cover us from several battlefields, brought a practiced eye and cautious judgment to the business of redaction. Thinking Projects For Students. If a dispatch noted that Aircraft A left Location B at a certain time and plan letter, arrived at Location C at a certain time, Chivers edited it out on the off chance that this could teach enemy forces something useful about the capabilities of that aircraft. The ?rst articles in the project, which we called the War Logs, were scheduled to go up on easy on summer vacations the Web sites of cover, The Times, The Guardian and Der Spiegel on Sunday, July 25. We approached the middle school White House days before that to get its reaction to the huge breach of plan, secrecy as well as to specific articles we planned to thinking projects write — including a major one about Pakistan’s ambiguous role as an American ally. On July 24, the day before the letter War Logs went live, I attended a farewell party for Roger Cohen, a columnist for The Times and essay school, The International Herald Tribune, that was given by Richard Holbrooke, the Obama administration’s special envoy to Afghanistan and Pakistan. A voracious consumer of inside information, Holbrooke had a decent idea of what was coming, and plan cover letter, he pulled me away from the crowd to show me the fusillade of cabinet-level e-mail ricocheting through his BlackBerry, thus demonstrating both the frantic anxiety in the administration and, not incidentally, the edgar paper introduction fact that he was very much in the loop. The Pakistan article, in particular, would complicate his life. But one of cover letter, Holbrooke’s many gifts was his ability to make pretty good lemonade out of the dissertation sur la fable de la bitterest lemons; he was already spinning the reports of Pakistani duplicity as leverage he could use to pull the Pakistanis back into closer alignment with American interests. Five months later, when Holbrooke — just 69, and seemingly indestructible — died of a torn aorta, I remembered that evening. And what I remembered best was that he was as excited to be on the cusp of a big story as I was.

We posted the articles on NYTimes.com the next day at 5 p.m. — a time picked to reconcile the different publishing schedules of the three publications. I was proud of what a crew of great journalists had done to fashion coherent and instructive reporting from a jumble of raw field reports, mostly composed in a clunky patois of military jargon and plan letter, acronyms. The reporters supplied context, nuance and skepticism. There was much in that first round of someone to write, articles worth reading, but my favorite single piece was one of the simplest. Chivers gathered all of the plan cover letter dispatches related to a single, remote, beleaguered American military outpost and stitched them together into a heartbreaking narrative. The dispatches from easy, this outpost represent in miniature the audacious ambitions, gradual disillusionment and ultimate disappointment that Afghanistan has dealt to letter occupiers over the centuries. If anyone doubted that the essay vacations three publications operated independently, the letter articles we posted that day made it clear that we followed our separate muses.

The Guardian, which is an openly left-leaning newspaper, used the first War Logs to emphasize civilian casualties in critical projects for students Afghanistan, claiming the documents disclosed that coalition forces killed “hundreds of letter, civilians in unreported incidents,” underscoring the fable de la fontaine cost of what the paper called a “failing war.” Our reporters studied the same material but determined that all the major episodes of letter, civilian deaths we found in the War Logs had been reported in dissertation fable fontaine The Times, many of them on the front page. (In fact, two of our journalists, Stephen Farrell and Sultan Munadi, were kidnapped by the Taliban while investigating one major episode near Kunduz. Munadi was killed during an ensuing rescue by British paratroopers.) The civilian deaths that had not been previously reported came in ones and twos and did not add up to cover anywhere near “hundreds.” Moreover, since several were either duplicated or missing from the reports, we concluded that an overall tally would be little better than a guess. Another example: The Times gave prominence to the dispatches reflecting American suspicions that Pakistani intelligence was playing a double game in paper Afghanistan — nodding to plan cover American interests while abetting the Taliban. We buttressed the interesting anecdotal material of Pakistani double-dealing with additional reporting. Someone To Write Papers. The Guardian was unimpressed by plan, those dispatches and treated them more dismissively. Three months later, with the French daily Le Monde added to the group, we published Round 2, the Iraq War Logs, including articles on how the United States turned a blind eye to the torture of prisoners by model middle school, Iraqi forces working with the U.S., how Iraq spawned an extraordinary American military reliance on private contractors and how extensively Iran had meddled in the conflict. By this time, The Times’s relationship with our source had gone from plan cover letter, wary to hostile. I talked to Assange by phone a few times and heard out model middle school, his complaints.

He was angry that we declined to link our online coverage of the War Logs to the WikiLeaks Web site, a decision we made because we feared — rightly, as it turned out plan letter, — that its trove would contain the names of low-level informants and make them Taliban targets. “Where’s the respect?” he demanded. “Where’s the respect?” Another time he called to thinking for students tell me how much he disliked our profile of Bradley Manning, the Army private suspected of being the source of WikiLeaks’s most startling revelations. The article traced Manning’s childhood as an outsider and his distress as a gay man in the military. Assange complained that we “psychologicalized” Manning and gave short shrift to his “political awakening.” The final straw was a front-page profile of Assange by John Burns and Ravi Somaiya, published Oct. Plan Letter. 24, that revealed fractures within WikiLeaks, attributed by Assange’s critics to his imperious management style. Critical Projects. Assange denounced the article to me, and in various public forums, as “a smear.” Assange was transformed by his outlaw celebrity. Plan Cover Letter. The derelict with the backpack and the sagging socks now wore his hair dyed and easy, styled, and plan, he favored fashionably skinny suits and ties. He became a kind of cult figure for the European young and leftish and was evidently a magnet for women. Two Swedish women filed police complaints claiming that Assange insisted on having sex without a condom; Sweden’s strict laws on nonconsensual sex categorize such behavior as rape, and a prosecutor issued a warrant to question Assange, who initially described it as a plot concocted to silence or discredit WikiLeaks.

I came to someone to write think of cover letter, Julian Assange as a character from a Stieg Larsson thriller — a man who could figure either as hero or villain in one of the megaselling Swedish novels that mix hacker counterculture, high-level conspiracy and sex as both recreation and violation. In October, WikiLeaks gave The Guardian its third archive, a quarter of critical, a million communications between the U.S. State Department and its outposts around the globe. This time, Assange imposed a new condition: The Guardian was not to share the material with The New York Times. Indeed, he told Guardian journalists that he opened discussions with two other American news organizations — The Washington Post and the McClatchy chain — and intended to letter invite them in paper on drug as replacements for The Times. He also enlarged his recipient list to include El Pais, the leading Spanish-language newspaper. The Guardian was uncomfortable with Assange’s condition. Letter. By now the model essay middle school journalists from The Times and cover letter, The Guardian had a good working relationship. School. The Times provided a large American audience for the revelations, as well as access to the U.S. Letter. government for comment and context. Essay. And given the plan cover potential legal issues and public reaction, it was good to have company in dissertation sur la de la fontaine the trenches.

Besides, we had come to believe that Assange was losing control of his stockpile of secrets. An independent journalist, Heather Brooke, had obtained material from a WikiLeaks dissident and joined in a loose alliance with The Guardian. Over the coming weeks, batches of cables would pop up in newspapers in Lebanon, Australia and plan letter, Norway. David Leigh, The Guardian’s investigations editor, concluded that these rogue leaks released The Guardian from any pledge, and he gave us the cables. On Nov. 1, Assange and thinking for students, two of plan, his lawyers burst into Alan Rusbridger’s office, furious that The Guardian was asserting greater independence and suspicious that The Times might be in allan poe research paper introduction possession of the embassy cables.

Over the course of an eight-hour meeting, Assange intermittently raged against The Times — especially over our front-page profile — while The Guardian journalists tried to calm him. Plan Cover. In midstorm, Rusbridger called me to report on edgar introduction Assange’s grievances and relay his demand for a front-page apology in The Times. Plan Cover Letter. Rusbridger knew that this was a nonstarter, but he was buying time for someone to write papers the tantrum to plan cover letter subside. In the end, both he and Georg Mascolo, editor in chief of Der Spiegel, made clear that they intended to continue their collaboration with The Times; Assange could take it or leave it. Given that we already had all of the documents, Assange had little choice. Over the next two days, the news organizations agreed on a timetable for publication. The following week, we sent Ian Fisher, a deputy foreign editor who was a principal coordinator on our processing of the embassy cables, to London to research paper on drug work out final details.

The meeting went smoothly, even after Assange arrived. “Freakishly good behavior,” Fisher e-mailed me afterward. “No yelling or crazy mood swings.” But after dinner, as Fisher was leaving, Assange smirked and offered a parting threat: “Tell me, are you in plan cover contact with your legal counsel?” Fisher replied that he was. “You had better be,” Assange said. Fisher left London with an understanding that we would continue to have access to the material. But just in edgar poe research paper introduction case, we took out a competitive insurance policy. We had Scott Shane, a Washington correspondent, pull together a long, just-in-case article summing up highlights of the cables, which we could quickly post on our Web site. If WikiLeaks sprang another leak, we would be ready. Because of the cover letter range of the material and the very nature of diplomacy, the embassy cables were bound to be more explosive than the War Logs. Dean Baquet, our Washington bureau chief, gave the White House an early warning on Nov. 19.

The following Tuesday, two days before Thanksgiving, Baquet and two colleagues were invited to allan paper a windowless room at the State Department, where they encountered an unsmiling crowd. Representatives from the plan cover White House, the thinking for students State Department, the letter Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the C.I.A., the Defense Intelligence Agency, the F.B.I. and the Pentagon gathered around a conference table. Others, who never identified themselves, lined the walls. Critical. A solitary note-taker tapped away on a computer. The meeting was off the record, but it is fair to say the plan letter mood was tense. Scott Shane, one reporter who participated in research paper on drug the meeting, described “an undertone of suppressed outrage and frustration.” Subsequent meetings, which soon gave way to daily conference calls, were more businesslike.

Before each discussion, our Washington bureau sent over a batch of specific cables that we intended to plan cover letter use in the coming days. They were circulated to regional specialists, who funneled their reactions to a small group at State, who came to research on drug our daily conversations with a list of priorities and arguments to back them up. Plan Cover. We relayed the government’s concerns, and our own decisions regarding them, to the other news outlets. The administration’s concerns generally fell into research paper on drug three categories. First was the letter importance of protecting individuals who had spoken candidly to American diplomats in oppressive countries. We almost always agreed on those and were grateful to the government for pointing out some we overlooked. “We were all aware of dire stakes for some of the people named in the cables if we failed to obscure their identities,” Shane wrote to me later, recalling the nature of the meetings. Like many of us, Shane has worked in countries where dissent can mean prison or worse. “That sometimes meant not just removing the name but also references to institutions that might give a clue to an identity and sometimes even the dates of projects for students, conversations, which might be compared with surveillance tapes of an American Embassy to plan reveal who was visiting the diplomats that day.” The second category included sensitive American programs, usually related to intelligence. We agreed to withhold some of this information, like a cable describing an intelligence-sharing program that took years to arrange and might be lost if exposed. In other cases, we went away convinced that publication would cause some embarrassment but no real harm.

The third category consisted of cables that disclosed candid comments by and about foreign officials, including heads of state. The State Department feared publication would strain relations with those countries. Essay Vacations. We were mostly unconvinced. The embassy cables were a different kind of plan cover, treasure from the War Logs. For one thing, they covered the entire globe — virtually every embassy, consulate and interest section that the United States maintains. They contained the makings of many dozens of stories: candid American appraisals of foreign leaders, narratives of complicated negotiations, allegations of corruption and duplicity, countless behind-the-scenes insights. Paper. Some of the material was of narrow local interest; some of it had global implications.

Some provided authoritative versions of events not previously fully understood. Some consisted of rumor and flimsy speculation. Unlike most of the military dispatches, the embassy cables were written in clear English, sometimes with wit, color and an ear for letter dialogue. Edgar Allan Poe Research Introduction. (“Who knew,” one of our English colleagues marveled, “that American diplomats could write?”) Even more than the military logs, the diplomatic cables called for context and analysis. It was important to know, for example, that cables sent from an embassy are routinely dispatched over the signature of the ambassador and those from the State Department are signed by the secretary of state, regardless of whether the ambassador or secretary had actually seen the material. It was important to know that much of the plan letter communication between Washington and its outposts is given even more restrictive classification — top secret or higher — and essay on summer vacations, was thus missing from this trove. We searched in vain, for example, for military or diplomatic reports on the fate of plan, Pat Tillman, the former football star and Army Ranger who was killed by easy essay, friendly fire in Afghanistan. We found no reports on how Osama bin Laden eluded American forces in the mountains of Tora Bora. (In fact, we found nothing but second- and thirdhand rumors about bin Laden.) If such cables exist, they were presumably classified top secret or higher. And it was important to remember that diplomatic cables are versions of events. Plan Cover Letter. They can be speculative. Poe Research Introduction. They can be ambiguous.

They can be wrong. One of our first articles drawn from the diplomatic cables, for plan cover letter example, reported on a secret intelligence assessment that Iran had obtained a supply of advanced missiles from North Korea, missiles that could reach European capitals. Outside experts long suspected that Iran obtained missile parts but not the entire weapons, so this glimpse of the official view was revealing. The Washington Post fired back with a different take, casting doubt on whether the missile in paying someone to write papers question had been transferred to Iran or whether it was even a workable weapon. We went back to the cables — and the experts — and concluded in cover letter a subsequent article that the evidence presented “a murkier picture.” The tension between a newspaper’s obligation to inform and the government’s responsibility to protect is hardly new. At least until this year, nothing The Times did on my watch caused nearly so much agitation as two articles we published about tactics employed by the Bush administration after the introduction attacks of letter, Sept. 11, 2001. The first, which was published in 2005 and won a Pulitzer Prize, revealed that the National Security Agency was eavesdropping on domestic phone conversations and e-mail without the legal courtesy of a warrant.

The other, published in research paper 2006, described a vast Treasury Department program to screen international banking records. I have vivid memories of sitting in the Oval Office as President George W. Bush tried to persuade me and the paper’s publisher to withhold the eavesdropping story, saying that if we published it, we should share the blame for the next terrorist attack. We were unconvinced by plan letter, his argument and published the story, and the reaction from the government — and conservative commentators in particular — was vociferous. This time around, the Obama administration’s reaction was different. It was, for the most part, sober and professional. Dissertation Sur La Fable De La Fontaine. The Obama White House, while strongly condemning WikiLeaks for making the documents public, did not seek an injunction to cover halt publication. Paper. There was no Oval Office lecture.

On the contrary, in our discussions before publication of our articles, White House officials, while challenging some of the conclusions we drew from the material, thanked us for plan cover letter handling the documents with care. Model Essay. The secretaries of cover, state and defense and the attorney general resisted the thinking projects opportunity for a crowd-pleasing orgy of press bashing. Cover Letter. There has been no serious official talk — unless you count an ambiguous hint by Senator Joseph Lieberman — of pursuing news organizations in the courts. Though the release of paying to write, these documents was certainly embarrassing, the cover letter relevant government agencies actually engaged with us in an attempt to model essay prevent the release of material genuinely damaging to innocent individuals or to the national interest. The broader public reaction was mixed — more critical in the first days; more sympathetic as readers absorbed the articles and the sky did not fall; and plan cover letter, more hostile to middle WikiLeaks in plan letter the U.S. than in Europe, where there is often a certain pleasure in seeing the essay last superpower taken down a peg. In the days after we began our respective series based on the embassy cables, Alan Rusbridger and plan cover, I went online to answer questions from readers. Research Paper On Drug. The Guardian, whose readership is more sympathetic to the guerrilla sensibilities of WikiLeaks, was attacked for being too fastidious about redacting the documents: How dare you censor this material? What are you hiding? Post everything now! The mail sent to cover letter The Times, at least in the first day or two, came from the opposite field. Paying Papers. Many readers were indignant and alarmed: Who needs this?

How dare you? What gives you the letter right? Much of the concern reflected a genuine conviction that in perilous times the president needs extraordinary powers, unfettered by Congressional oversight, court meddling or the strictures of middle school, international law and certainly safe from nosy reporters. Plan Cover. That is essay school compounded by a popular sense that the elite media have become too big for their britches and by the fact that our national conversation has become more polarized and strident. Although it is our aim to be impartial in our presentation of the news, our attitude toward these issues is far from indifferent. The journalists at The Times have a large and personal stake in the country’s security.

We live and work in a city that has been tragically marked as a favorite terrorist target, and in the wake of 9/11 our journalists plunged into the ruins to tell the story of what happened here. Moreover, The Times has nine staff correspondents assigned to the two wars still being waged in the wake of that attack, plus a rotating cast of photographers, visiting writers and scores of local stringers and support staff. They work in plan cover this high-risk environment because, while there are many places you can go for on summer vacations opinions about the war, there are few places — and fewer by the day — where you can go to find honest, on-the-scene reporting about what is happening. We take extraordinary precautions to cover keep them safe, but we have had two of our Iraqi journalists murdered for doing their jobs. We have had four journalists held hostage by the Taliban — two of them for seven months. We had one Afghan journalist killed in edgar allan introduction a rescue attempt.

Last October, while I was in Kabul, we got word that a photographer embedded for us with troops near Kandahar stepped on an improvised mine and lost both his legs. We are invested in the struggle against murderous extremism in another sense. The virulent hatred espoused by terrorists, judging by their literature, is directed not just against our people and our buildings but also at our values and at our faith in cover the self-government of an informed electorate. If the freedom of the press makes some Americans uneasy, it is anathema to the ideologists of terror. So we have no doubts about where our sympathies lie in this clash of values. On Drug. And yet we cannot let those sympathies transform us into propagandists, even for a system we respect. I’m the first to plan letter admit that news organizations, including this one, sometimes get things wrong. We can be overly credulous (as in some of the prewar reporting about Iraq’s supposed weapons of mass destruction) or overly cynical about official claims and motives. We may err on the side of keeping secrets (President Kennedy reportedly wished, after the fact, that The Times had published what it knew about the planned Bay of Pigs invasion, which possibly would have helped avert a bloody debacle) or on projects the side of letter, exposing them.

We make the easy on summer best judgments we can. When we get things wrong, we try to correct the letter record. A free press in essay on summer vacations a democracy can be messy. Cover. But the alternative is to give the government a veto over what its citizens are allowed to know. Anyone who has worked in sur la fable fontaine countries where the news diet is controlled by the government can sympathize with Thomas Jefferson’s oft-quoted remark that he would rather have newspapers without government than government without newspapers. The intentions of our founders have rarely been as well articulated as they were by Justice Hugo Black 40 years ago, concurring with the plan cover Supreme Court ruling that stopped the government from suppressing the model essay secret Vietnam War history called the Pentagon Papers: “The government’s power to plan letter censor the press was abolished so that the press would remain forever free to censure the government. Critical Projects. The press was protected so that it could bare the secrets of government and letter, inform the people.” There is no neat formula for maintaining this balance. In practice, the tension between our obligation to inform and the government’s obligation to protect plays out in a set of rituals. As one of my predecessors, Max Frankel, then the Washington bureau chief, wrote in a wise affidavit filed during the Pentagon Papers case: “For the vast majority of ‘secrets,’ there has developed between the government and on summer, the press (and Congress) a rather simple rule of thumb: The government hides what it can, pleading necessity as long as it can, and the press pries out what it can, pleading a need and plan letter, a right to paying papers know. Each side in this ‘game’ regularly ‘wins’ and plan letter, ‘loses’ a round or two.

Each fights with the weapons at its command. When the government loses a secret or two, it simply adjusts to a new reality.” In fact, leaks of classified material — sometimes authorized — are part of the to write papers way business is conducted in Washington, as one wing of the bureaucracy tries to one-up another or officials try to shift blame or claim credit or advance or confound a particular policy. For further evidence that our government is highly selective in its approach to secrets, look no further than Bob Woodward’s all-but-authorized accounts of the innermost deliberations of our government. The government surely cheapens secrecy by deploying it so promiscuously. According to letter the Pentagon, about 500,000 people have clearance to use the database from paying someone, which the secret cables were pilfered. Weighing in on the WikiLeaks controversy in cover The Guardian, Max Frankel remarked that secrets shared with such a legion of “cleared” officials, including low-level army clerks, “are not secret.” Governments, he wrote, “must decide that the random rubber-stamping of critical thinking, millions of papers and computer files each year does not a security system make.” Beyond the plan cover letter basic question of whether the press should publish secrets, criticism of the WikiLeaks documents generally fell into three themes: 1. That the documents were of dubious value, because they told us nothing we didn’t already know. 2. That the disclosures put lives at risk — either directly, by identifying confidential informants, or indirectly, by complicating our ability to build alliances against terror. 3. That by edgar poe research, doing business with an organization like WikiLeaks, The Times and other news organizations compromised their impartiality and independence. I’m a little puzzled by the complaint that most of the embassy traffic we disclosed did not profoundly change our understanding of plan letter, how the world works.

Ninety-nine percent of what we read or hear on the news does not profoundly change our understanding of how the world works. News mostly advances by inches and feet, not in great leaps. Someone To Write. The value of these documents — and I believe they have immense value — is not that they expose some deep, unsuspected perfidy in high places or that they upend your whole view of the cover world. For those who pay close attention to foreign policy, these documents provide texture, nuance and drama. They deepen and correct your understanding of essay vacations, how things unfold; they raise or lower your estimation of cover letter, world leaders. For those who do not follow these subjects as closely, the essay middle school stories are an opportunity to plan learn more. Thinking Projects For Students. If a project like this makes readers pay attention, think harder, understand more clearly what is being done in their name, then we have performed a public service.

And that does not count the impact of these revelations on the people most touched by them. WikiLeaks cables in which American diplomats recount the letter extravagant corruption of Tunisia’s rulers helped fuel a popular uprising that has overthrown the government. As for the risks posed by these releases, they are real. WikiLeaks’s first data dump, the publication of the Afghanistan War Logs, included the someone names of letter, scores of Afghans that The Times and poe research introduction, other news organizations had carefully purged from our own coverage. Several news organizations, including ours, reported this dangerous lapse, and months later a Taliban spokesman claimed that Afghan insurgents had been perusing the WikiLeaks site and making a list. I anticipate, with dread, the plan day we learn that someone identified in those documents has been killed.

WikiLeaks was roundly criticized for its seeming indifference to projects for students the safety of those informants, and in its subsequent postings it has largely followed the example of the news organizations and redacted material that could get people jailed or killed. Assange described it as a “harm minimization” policy. In the case of the cover Iraq war documents, WikiLeaks applied a kind of robo-redaction software that stripped away names (and rendered the documents almost illegible). With the embassy cables, WikiLeaks posted mostly documents that had already been redacted by The Times and its fellow news organizations. And there were instances in which WikiLeaks volunteers suggested measures to model middle school enhance the letter protection of edgar paper, innocents. For example, someone at WikiLeaks noticed that if the redaction of a phrase revealed the exact length of the words, an alert foreign security service might match the number of letters to plan a name and paying someone to write, affiliation and thus identify the source. WikiLeaks advised everyone to substitute a dozen uppercase X’s for each redacted passage, no matter how long or short. Whether WikiLeaks’s “harm minimization” is adequate, and whether it will continue, is beyond my power to predict or influence. WikiLeaks does not take guidance from The New York Times. In the end, I can answer only for what my own paper has done, and letter, I believe we have behaved responsibly. The idea that the mere publication of such a wholesale collection of secrets will make other countries less willing to poe research do business with our diplomats seems to plan me questionable.

Even Defense Secretary Robert Gates called this concern “overwrought.” Foreign governments cooperate with us, he pointed out, not because they necessarily love us, not because they trust us to keep their secrets, but because they need us. Essay Middle. It may be that for letter a time diplomats will choose their words more carefully or circulate their views more narrowly, but WikiLeaks has not repealed the laws of self-interest. A few weeks after we began publishing articles about the embassy cables, David Sanger, our chief Washington correspondent, told me: “At least so far, the evidence that foreign leaders are no longer talking to American diplomats is scarce. I’ve heard about nervous jokes at the beginning of meetings, along the lines of ‘When will I be reading about this conversation?’ But the conversations are happening. . Paying Papers. . . American diplomacy has hardly screeched to a halt.” As for our relationship with WikiLeaks, Julian Assange has been heard to boast that he served as a kind of puppet master, recruiting several news organizations, forcing them to work in concert and plan letter, choreographing their work. This is characteristic braggadocio — or, as my Guardian colleagues would say, bollocks. Essay. Throughout this experience we have treated Assange as a source. I will not say “a source, pure and simple,” because as any reporter or editor can attest, sources are rarely pure or simple, and Assange was no exception. But the plan letter relationship with sources is straightforward: you don’t necessarily endorse their agenda, echo their rhetoric, take anything they say at face value, applaud their methods or, most important, allow them to shape or censor your journalism. Your obligation, as an independent news organization, is to research paper on drug verify the material, to supply context, to exercise responsible judgment about what to letter publish and what not to middle school publish and to make sense of it. That is what we did.

But while I do not regard Assange as a partner, and I would hesitate to describe what WikiLeaks does as journalism, it is chilling to contemplate the possible government prosecution of WikiLeaks for making secrets public, let alone the passage of new laws to punish the dissemination of classified information, as some have advocated. Taking legal recourse against a government official who violates his trust by divulging secrets he is sworn to protect is one thing. But criminalizing the letter publication of such secrets by someone who has no official obligation seems to me to model middle school run up against the First Amendment and the best traditions of this country. As one of my colleagues asks: If Assange were an understated professorial type rather than a character from a missing Stieg Larsson novel, and plan letter, if WikiLeaks were not suffused with such glib antipathy toward the United States, would the reaction to the leaks be quite so ferocious? And would more Americans be speaking up against the threat of reprisals? Whether the arrival of WikiLeaks has fundamentally changed the way journalism is made, I will leave to others and to history. Frankly, I think the impact of WikiLeaks on the culture has probably been overblown.

Long before WikiLeaks was born, the Internet transformed the landscape of journalism, creating a wide-open and critical, global market with easier access to audiences and sources, a quicker metabolism, a new infrastructure for sharing and letter, vetting information and a diminished respect for notions of privacy and paper, secrecy. Plan Cover. Assange has claimed credit on several occasions for creating something he calls “scientific journalism,” meaning that readers are given the raw material to paper judge for themselves whether the plan letter journalistic write-ups are trustworthy. But newspapers have been publishing texts of someone papers, documents almost as long as newspapers have existed — and ever since the Internet eliminated space restrictions, we have done so copiously. Nor is it clear to plan cover letter me that WikiLeaks represents some kind of sur la de la, cosmic triumph of transparency. If the official allegations are to be believed, most of WikiLeaks’s great revelations came from a single anguished Army private — anguished enough to risk many years in prison. It’s possible that the creation of online information brokers like WikiLeaks and OpenLeaks, a breakaway site announced in December by a former Assange colleague named Daniel Domscheit-Berg, will be a lure for whistle-blowers and malcontents who fear being caught consorting directly with a news organization like mine. But I suspect we have not reached a state of information anarchy. At least not yet. As 2010 wound down, The Times and its news partners held a conference call to discuss where we go from here.

The initial surge of articles drawn from the secret cables was over. More would trickle out but without a fixed schedule. We agreed to continue the redaction process, and letter, we agreed we would all urge WikiLeaks to do the fable de la same. Cover Letter. But this period of intense collaboration, and of regular contact with our source, was coming to a close. Just before Christmas, Ian Katz, The Guardian’s deputy editor, went to edgar see Assange, who had been arrested in London on plan letter the Swedish warrant, briefly jailed and research on drug, bailed out by wealthy admirers and letter, was living under house arrest in a country manor in East Anglia while he fought Sweden’s attempt to paper on drug extradite him. The flow of donations to WikiLeaks, which he claimed hit 100,000 euros a day at its peak, was curtailed when Visa, MasterCard and PayPal refused to be conduits for contributors — prompting a concerted assault on cover letter the Web sites of those companies by Assange’s hacker sympathizers. He would soon sign a lucrative book deal to finance his legal struggles. The Guardian seemed to have joined The Times on dissertation fontaine Assange’s enemies list, first for sharing the diplomatic cables with us, then for obtaining and cover, reporting on the unredacted record of the Swedish police complaints against Assange. (Live by the leak. Paying. . Letter. . Critical Thinking. .) In his fury at cover letter, this perceived betrayal, Assange granted an interview to The Times of London, in which he vented his displeasure with our little media consortium. If he thought this would ingratiate him with The Guardian rival, he was naive.

The paper happily splashed its exclusive interview, then followed it with an editorial calling Assange a fool and essay vacations, a hypocrite. At the letter mansion in East Anglia, Assange seated Katz before a roaring fire in the drawing room and ruminated for four hours about the research paper on drug Swedish case, his financial troubles and plan, his plan for easy vacations a next phase of releases. He talked vaguely about secrets still in his quiver, including what he regards as a damning cache of plan, e-mail from inside an American bank. He spun out an elaborate version of a U.S. Justice Department effort to exact punishment for his assault on American secrecy. Dissertation Sur La Fable. If he was somehow extradited to the United States, he said, “I would still have a high chance of plan letter, being killed in the U.S. prison system, Jack Ruby style, given the continual calls for essay my murder by letter, senior and someone, influential U.S. politicians.” While Assange mused darkly in his exile, one of his lawyers sent out a mock Christmas card that suggested at plan cover, least someone on the WikiLeaks team was not lacking a sense of the absurd. Santa is Mum Dad. Bill Keller is the executive editor of The New York Times. Paying Someone. This essay is adapted from letter, his introduction to “Open Secrets: WikiLeaks, War and American Diplomacy: Complete and Expanded Coverage from The New York Times,” an ebook available for sur la fable purchase at nytimes.com/opensecrets. After years as the letter industry’s top African-American talent agent, Charles D. King is building an audacious new production company — with a vision for bringing long-neglected stories to allan poe research the screen.

Exploring nearly 30 years of genre-bending, improvisational work. Attempts by governments to rein them in might instead have to resemble diplomacy — a cautious search for detente with institutions that ultimately get to set their own laws.

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100 years of Bear Bryant; 100 facts you may not know. Gallery: Paul Bear Bryant, 100 years - 1950s-60s at Alabama. on September 11, 2013 at 7:22 AM, updated September 11, 2013 at 3:37 PM. Plan Cover Letter! Paul Bear Bryant was born 100 years ago today, on Sept. 11, 1913. Essay! To mark the occasion, here are 100 facts you may or may not know about the legendary Alabama football coach, presented in chronological order. 1. Paul William Bryant was born in letter, Moro Bottom in paper, south central Arkansas. Moro Bottom is not an actual town, but rather a plot named for cover letter, nearby Moro Creek.

2. Bryant was the 11th of 12 children, three of whom died as infants. Bryant's father, Monroe, was a farmer, and research paper, his mother, Ida Mae, cared for the family, which later moved a few miles south of plan cover letter, Fordyce, Ark. 3. Legend has it Bryant got his nickname around the year 1927 by research wrestling a muzzled bear from a local traveling carnival. The story goes he did it to impress a girl and for the money -- one dollar per minute -- but the plan letter, bear's owner left town without paying. 4. Model Essay Middle! Bryant was known as the other end on Frank Thomas' 10-0 Crimson Tide team in 1934.

The reason: He played with Don Hutson, who is considered by many to be football's first modern wide receiver. 5. Alabama upset Stanford at the Rose Bowl in the 1934 season. Bryant later admitted that he and some teammates pooled their money together and bet five dollars on cover letter the underdog Crimson Tide. We made a killing, about a buck apiece, Bryant said. 6. Bryant secretly married college sweetheart Mary Harmon Black in 1935. Edgar Allan Poe Research Paper! Frank Thomas didn't want his players to be married, and Bryant feared the loss of plan cover letter, his scholarship. 7. Bryant played Tennessee in 1935 with a broken bone in paper introduction, his leg. Atlanta Constitution sports editor Ralph McGill was skeptical of the plan cover, story, drove to Tuscaloosa and demanded to see the X-rays. He apologized to Bryant, who told the editor, It was just one little bone.

Georgia fans cheered Bryant's toughness before the next game. 8. During Bryant's senior year, Frank Thomas suggested Bryant visit Union College in Jackson, Tenn., to teach the research paper, team Alabama's offense. The Union coach left Bryant alone to run the practices. Early coaching years. Cover! 9. Paper On Drug! Frank Thomas offered Bryant a job as an Alabama assistant making $1,250 a year, plus housing and transportation. He became a line coach for the varsity team in 1936, the same year his first child was born. 10.

While at the Rose Bowl with Alabama's team in 1937, Bryant got a screen test with Paramount Studios to become an letter actor. He was offered a contract, but his wife wouldn't move to California. 11. Bryant took an assistant coaching job at Vanderbilt in 1940 under Red Sanders. He had a falling out with Sanders after one year and, with the help of New York Yankees catcher Bill Dickey, had the inside track for the Arkansas job.

12. Pearl Harbor was bombed on Dec. 7, 1941. School! Bryant enlisted for the Navy the next day. Letter! 13. Bryant was sent to serve in North Africa. While on easy on summer the USS Uruguay, his troop ship was rammed by another ship.

Bryant disobeyed orders to plan letter, abandon ship and survived. At least 200 soldiers and sailors died. 14. For Students! Bryant went to North Carolina in 1944 as a lieutenant commander to train enlistees. He assembled the North Carolina Navy Pre-Flight football team, which later became the nucleus of his first winning team at plan, Maryland.

15. Technically, Bryant's first win as a head coach was with the Carolina Cloudbusters -- the North Carolina Navy Pre-Flight School football team. Duke counts the Cloudbusters' 13-6 win on Oct. 7, 1944. Bryant's victories with the paper, team aren't counted on his resume. 16. Bryant's quarterback on the flight school team: Otto Graham, the cover letter, Northwestern star who would win more championships than any quarterback in pro football history. Becoming a head coach. 17.

Bryant became Maryland's coach in 1945 and turned around the Terrapins with a 6-2-1 record. He left for Kentucky after one year because he felt his authority had been undermined by Maryland President Curley Byrd over the suspension of a player. 18. Kentucky went from 2-8 to 7-3 in its first season under Bryant. By year two, the Wildcats reached their first bowl game.

19. Bryant initially used George Blanda as a blocking back at Kentucky, neglecting his throwing, running and kicking skills that made him a multi-threat pro star. Projects! Bryant popularized the maxim that three things can happen when you go back to pass, and only one of them is good. 20. The Wildcats won their first SEC title in 1950 under Bryant, who then beat Oklahoma at the Sugar Bowl to end the Sooners' 31-game winning streak. If you give us the bid, Bryant said, I will guarantee you we will beat Oklahoma's ass. 21. After a 7-2-1 record at Kentucky, Bryant asked to be released from his contract to coach at Texas AM. The reason for Bryant's decision to leave is often traced to cover letter, Kentucky basketball coach Adolph Rupp. 22. At Texas AM, Bryant inherited another woeful team.

Fewer than 30 players returned with him from a brutal practice session at essay on summer vacations, Junction, Texas. 23. Cover Letter! The Aggies went 1-9 in Bryant's first season and were put on NCAA probation for recruiting violations under Bryant. 24. Bryant became the first Texas AM coach to ever defeat rival Texas on the road, in 1956. 25. Critical Thinking Projects For Students! Bryant once famously said, At Alabama our players do not win Heisman Trophies, our teams win national championships.

Bryant's only Heisman winner was John David Crow at Texas AM in cover letter, 1957. Returning to Alabama. 26. Alabama brought Bryant back for the 1958 season. Paying Someone To Write Papers! I left Texas AM because my school called me, Bryant said.

Mama called, and when Mama calls, then you just have to come running. 27. Letter! As Bryant did at other coaching jobs, he was determined to get rid of Alabama players who had been given scholarships because of political class. 28. Bryant told Alabama alumni upon someone to write his hiring not to get involved recruiting players. If you are giving anybody any money, for anything, I want you to stop right now, Bryant said. I've done it, and I've found out if you pay 'em, they'll quit on plan you. 29. Alabama had four straight losing seasons under Harold Red Drew and critical thinking for students, J.B. Ears Whitworth before Bryant was hired. Alabama improved from letter, 2-7-1 to de la fontaine, 5-4-1 in his first season.

30. Letter! Bryant's first win in the Iron Bowl came in 1959, ending Alabama's five-game losing streak to Auburn. Bryant had a 19-6 record against Auburn. 31. Bryant accepted a bid to the Liberty Bowl after the 1959 season to play Penn State, the first integrated team Alabama had ever played. Penn State won 7-0.

32. Alabama-Georgia in 1960 was the first live sports telecast for Roone Arledge, who became a legendary television programming pioneer for ABC and vacations, helped make legends out of college coaches. Championships and controversies. 33. Bryant was criticized for coaching dirty play when Alabama's Darwin Holt smashed into Georgia Tech's Chick Graning on a punt return in 1961. Bryant insisted he did not encourage such tactics. 34. With national attention focused on the Graning play, Bryant had an plan letter Alabama assistant show Alabama reporters all of Georgia Tech's violations. In hindsight, Bryant said years later, doing that showed no class. If I had to dissertation sur la fable de la, do it over, I wouldn't, but our people thought the Atlanta writers were trying to letter, destroy me. 35.

The play contributed to a feud between Bryant and Georgia Tech coach Bobby Dodd. Alabama and Georgia Tech stopped playing when the Yellow Jackets left the SEC. 36. Years later, Bryant offered to sponsor Georgia Tech to return to the SEC. Projects For Students! 37. Bryant's 1961 team won the plan letter, first of his six national championships at Alabama.

38. The Saturday Evening Post published a story in 1963 accusing Bryant and Georgia athletics director Wally Butts of someone papers, having fixed the cover, 1962 Alabama-Georgia game. Butts won a lawsuit against edgar poe research, the magazine, and Bryant settled for $360,000. The cases helped put the magazine out of business. 39. During the plan cover, controversy, Bryant met with U.S. Attorney General Robert Kennedy in 1963. Paying! Bryant said Kennedy told him he thought there was nothing to the game-fixing allegation. Plan Letter! 40. Bryant's meeting in 1963 with Kennedy occurred as the attorney general was waging an intense fight with Alabama Gov. George Wallace and the University of Alabama over integrating the university where Bryant coached.

41. Bryant would wake up in a cold sweat many nights during the game-fixing ordeal and often slept alone. Paying! I didn't want Mary Harmon to know what I was going through, Bryant wrote in his autobiography. 42. National attention off the field resurfaced when Bryant suspended quarterback Joe Namath for his behavior. Bryant received criticism from some Alabama fans for the first time. 43. Bryant entered the field for a game at Georgia Tech in 1964 wearing a football helmet.

Whiskey bottles were tossed at him two years earlier. 44. Alabama won national titles in 1964 and 1965 under Bryant to plan cover, become the first repeat champion since Oklahoma in 1955 and 1956. 45. Bryant insisted his 1966 team was the essay school, best I ever had and got done in cover, by the ballot box. Undefeated Alabama didn't win the national championship. 46. Pat Trammell, quarterback of de la, Bryant's first national championship team, died in 1968 of cancer at the age of 28. Bryant later called Trammel's death the saddest day of my life.

47. Bryant received 1.5 votes for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1968 at the contentious Democratic Convention. 48. In 1969, Bryant initially decided to leave Alabama to coach the Miami Dolphins for more money before having a change of heart. The Dolphins hired Don Shula. 49.

The Afro-American Student Association at Alabama sued Bryant, the university, its president and the Board of Trustees in 1969, alleging that Alabama did not recruit black athletes with as much diligence as white athletes. 50. Plan Cover! In 1970, USC became one of the someone to write papers, first integrated college football teams to play in Alabama. A myth later emerged that Bryant brought Sam Cunningham, a black USC star, into Alabama's locker room and told his players that's what a football player looks like. Plan Cover Letter! Many ex-Alabama players said that never happened and Cunningham couldn't remember it occurring.

51. Bryant, who once said he wanted to be the Branch Rickey of football, admitted in his autobiography that he delayed recruiting black players for years because he believed the middle school, time wasn't right in the mid-1960s. 52. Alabama's first black scholarship football player was Wilbur Jackson, who signed with Bryant on Dec. 13, 1969. 53. Bryant unveiled his new wishbone offense he studied from Texas coach Darrell Royal and stunned Southern Cal in 1971.

54. Bryant on why he liked the wishbone: You get one-on-one coverage every time. Then it's just a matter of whether you can hit the cover, receiver. 55. Alabama and Notre Dame played in 1973 for the first time. Notre Dame won 24-23 in a classic game pairing Bryant against Ara Parseghian. 56. Parseghian wrote Bryant a letter two weeks later.

Relations thawed between Alabama and Notre Dame and turned into mutual respect. 57. Bryant won 54 of model essay school, 60 games in a five-year run from 1971 to 1975. His only SEC loss in that period was the Punt, Bama, Punt defeat to Auburn. 58.

Bryant collapsed due to congestive heart failure in 1977. He checked into an alcohol rehabilitation clinic in Shelby County several months later, stayed a month and plan cover, later resumed drinking. 59. Model Middle School! In 1978, Bryant endorsed Bill Baxley as governor due to concerns about letter, having an Auburn man, Forrest H. Fob James Jr., in the governor's mansion. James won anyway. 60. Alabama defeated No. 1 Penn State on a famous goal-line stand to win the research, 1978 national title, a play that would haunt Joe Paterno in his career. 61.

Bryant won his sixth and final national championship in 1979. Plan Cover Letter! 62. Poe Research Paper! Bryant told Time magazine in 1980 he didn't know better about how he treated the Junction Boys at Texas AM. They had to plan cover, put up with my stupidity. I believe if I had been one of those players, I'd have quit, too. 63.

Bill Battle, Alabama's current athletics director, became Bryant's agent in 1981 and heavily marketed the coach, such as Bear Bryant Coke bottles. 64. Bryant's famous remark in a commercial for South Central Bell -- Have you called your mama today? -- was an ad-lib by Bryant. 65. Bryant advised Pat Dye, a former assistant, not to take the Auburn job. Pat, you know you ain't gonna beat me, Bryant told him. Said Dye: Coach, you know you're not going to allan poe research introduction, be at Alabama forever. 66. Alabama defeated Auburn 28-17 in 1981 for Bryant's 315th career victory, surpassing Amos Alonzo Stagg as the winningest coach in college football history. 67. Bryant told The Huntsville Times in 1982 that he had wasted so much valuable time in plan cover, his life.

When I look back, there are good things I wouldn't take anything for. But still, you never know if it has been worth it. 68. Associated Press writer Herschel Nissenson broke a morning story in 1982 that Bryant would be retiring, beating The Birmingham News, which was preparing the paying someone, story but was an afternoon paper at letter, the time. Paper On Drug! 69. Jeremiah Castille intercepted three passes in plan cover, the Liberty Bowl on Dec. 29, 1982, for Bryant's 323rd and dissertation fontaine, final victory. 70. Bryant suffered a heart attack on Jan. 26, 1983, and died at the age of 69. 71.

When Bryant died, the only piece of jewelry he was wearing was a ring given to him by the Junction Boys from his first training camp with Texas AM. 72. An estimated quarter of a million people -- one out of 12 Alabama citizens -- paid respect on the 55-mile route from plan, Tuscaloosa to Birmingham, where Bryant was buried at Elmwood Cemetery. 73. Super Bowl XVII was dedicated to Bryant. Several planes from Maxwell Air Force Base in paying to write, Alabama performed the missing-man formation over the Rose Bowl in his memory.

74. President Ronald Reagan posthumously awarded Bryant with the plan cover, Presidential Medal of Freedom in February 1983. 75. Actor Gary Busey starred as Bryant in the 1984 movie The Bear. 76. Bryant was honored with a U.S. Allan Paper! postage stamp in 1997. 77. Alabama's online shop currently sells 44 items connected to Bryant's famous houndstooth hat, including thongs, robes, bath wraps and plan cover, beer Koozies. Bryant's coaching numbers. Someone! 78.

Bryant had a losing record against plan cover, five Hall of Fame coaches: Robert Neyland (0-5-2), Bowden Wyatt (2-4-1), Darrell Royal (0-3-1), Ara Parseghian (0-2) and Dan Devine (0-2). Bryant's won-lost percentage against Hall of Fame coaches was .661. 79. Bryant was 43-6 against former players and assistants. Among those on fable de la fontaine his coaching tree: Danny Ford, Howard Schnellenberger, Gene Stallings, Charley McClendon, Paul Dietzel, Jerry Claiborne, Sylvester Croom, Jim Owens, Jackie Sherrill, Charley Pell, Bill Battle, Pat Dye, Steve Sloan, Joey Jones, Mike Riley and David Cutcliffe. 80. If Steve Spurrier averages six SEC wins a year for the next seven seasons, he would surpass Bryant's record of 159 SEC victories. 81.

Bryant won a record 14 SEC championships. The next closest coaches are John Vaught, Vince Dooley and plan cover letter, Steve Spurrier with six each. They said it about Bryant. 82. His nickname was Bear. Now imagine a guy that can carry the nickname Bear. Research On Drug! -- Alabama quarterback Joe Namath. 83. Paul Bryant was just tougher than the rest of us. That, plus his ability to make everybody believe in plan letter, him, made his teams hard to beat. Dissertation De La! -- Texas coach Darrell Royal.

84. He wasn't just a coach. He was the plan cover, coach. -- USC coach John McKay. 85. Paul Bryant is changing the way football will be played in the Southeastern Conference from edgar, this day forward with Alabama's helmet-busting, gang-tackling style of defense. -- Auburn coach Ralph Shug Jordan. 86. George Wallace called Bryant weekly. The reason was he was scared that Bryant would run for governor, because he'd win. Auburn people would vote for plan letter, him, too, so he'd not coach anymore. -- Alabama offensive lineman John Hannah. 87.

I thought this must be what God looks like. Edgar Paper Introduction! -- Pro Football Hall of Famer George Blanda, who played for Bryant at plan letter, Kentucky. 88. Bryant can take his'n and beat your'n, and then he can turn around and to write papers, take your'n and beat his'n. -- NFL coach Bum Phillips. 89. If not for Osama bin Laden, September 11 would only be remembered as Bear Bryant's birthday. -- Actor and plan, former Tennessee Sen.

Fred Thompson on a Law Order episode. Bryant in his own words. 90. Never quit. It is the easiest cop-out in the world. Fable De La Fontaine! Set a goal and cover letter, don't quit until you attain it. When you do attain it, set another goal, and paying someone, don't quit until you reach it. Never quit. 91.

If anything goes bad, I did it. If anything goes semi-good, we did it. If anything goes really good, then you did it. That's all it takes to cover letter, get people to win football games for you. 92. It's not the will to to write papers, win that matters -- everybody has that. It's the cover letter, will to prepare to win that matters.

93. I'll never give up on a player regardless of his ability as long as he never gives up on himself. In time he will develop. 94. The biggest mistake coaches make is taking borderline cases and trying to save them.

I'm not talking about dissertation sur la fable, grades now, I'm talking about character. Cover Letter! I want to know before a boy enrolls about his home life, and what his parents want him to be. 95. If wanting to easy essay, win is a fault, as some of my critics seem to insist, then I plead guilty. I like to win. I know no other way. Plan Cover Letter! It's in my blood. 96. Edgar Allan Introduction! I tell young players who want to be coaches, who think they can put up with all the headaches and heartaches: Can you live without it? If you can live without it, don't get in it. 97.

Be aware of 'yes' men. Generally, they are losers. Plan Cover! Surround yourself with winners. Never forget -- people win. 98. In a crisis, don't hide behind anything or anybody. They're going to essay middle school, find you anyway.

99. Cover! You take those little rascals, talk to them good, pat them on essay the back, let them think they are good, and cover, they will go out and beat the biguns. Paper! 100. Mama wanted me to be a preacher. I told her coachin' and preachin' were a lot alike. * The Last Coach: A Life of Paul 'Bear' Bryant by cover Allen Barra, 2002. * Bear: The Hard Life and critical thinking projects for students, Good Times of Alabama's Coach Bryant by Paul Bryant and John Underwood, 1975. Plan! * Top 50 quotes from Bear Bryant by Saturday Down South, 2012. * Football's Supercoach by Time Magazine, 1980. Critical Thinking Projects For Students! * Archived articles from plan letter, The Birmingham News, The Birmingham Post-Herald and The Huntsville Times. Registration on or use of this site constitutes acceptance of our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. 2017 Alabama Media Group.

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cognos cover letter Glossary of plan cover letter, Book Publishing Terms. AP Advertising and promotion, part of the work of the sales and marketing department. A3, A4, A5 etc Standard size cut paper sheets used throughout Europe and the Far East. ISO A0 paper is 1189 ? 841mm in size ( ie one square metre, with an aspect ratio of 1:v2), A1 is half that size, A2 is a quarter of A0, A3 an eighth, so A4 is one sixteenth of a square metre, 297 ? 210mm. B-size sheets are used for posters etc, and thinking for students C-sizes for envelopes. Cover Letter! RA and SRA paper sizes are for research untrimmed paper sheets, and are about cover letter, 5% or 10% larger in area than the research on drug corresponding A size, so SRA4 is 320 ? 225mm (remember, A4 is 297 ? 210). These ISO 216 paper sizes are not used in North America, where Letter paper – shorter and slightly wider than A4 – is more common. A-format Standard book format (TPS = 178 ? 111mm), typically used for most mass market paperbacks; (US: equivalent typical mass market size is called rack size). AAC Advanced Audio Compression.

Improved system for compressing audio files to save storage or reduce download time. Used for cover letter files in papers the iTunes store. Sacrifices a little less quality than MP3 compression. AAs (Author’s Alterations) Also known as ACs, Author’s Corrections. Changes in copy or artwork after it has been typeset. Plan Letter! Additional costs incurred for AAs are in general charged to the client, not the supplier, though most typesetting quotations have a certain level of paper, ‘allowable AAs’ built in. ABA American Booksellers Association; UK equivalent is the BA. Accessible editions General term for plan large print, Braille editions, e-books and audiobooks that can be used by the blind and paying papers partially-sighted, by dyslexics or others who cannot use a conventional physical book. Acid-free paper Higher quality paper treated so it doesn’t yellow as quickly as normal paper. Acquisition Beginning of the plan cover letter publishing process – agreeing the contract and purchasing the rights to publish a work. Acrobat Computer application for vacations viewing PDF files.

Some versions of Acrobat allow (very) limited editing of letter, PDFs. This can include the de la annotation of the plan cover PDF with virtual sticky notes, the combination of multiple PDFs into a single file (called 'consolidation') or deletion of allan poe research paper introduction, pages from the letter PDF. To Write! Most edits are at page level – the content of individual pages can usually not be edited. Acrobat Distiller Computer application for ‘distilling’ or translating Postscript files into PDF files. The PDFs can then be viewed with Acrobat.

Addendum Extra agreements or clauses added to the end of an existing contract. Adobe RGB An improvement on the sRGB colourspace. It allows for a wider gamut, and particularly extends the range of greens that can be described, but at plan letter, the expense of a little precision. However, monitors that support the easy vacations full Adobe RGB gamut are rare and letter very expensive in comparison to normal (sRGB) monitors. Adshel Poster placed on easy essay on summer vacations bus shelter, often illuminated.

Advance Money paid to cover an author once the author’s book is acquired but before it is poe research paper introduction published. The advance is normally paid in several instalments: on signing of the contract, on cover delivery of the final typescript, on research paper on drug hardback publication and/or on paperback publication. Advances are paid against letter, future earnings (royalties), which means the author doesn’t receive further royalty payments until the advance has been earned out. Advance copies (Advances) Early finished copies of someone papers, a book, arriving before the main print run and often used for publicity purposes, reviews etc . AI The native file format of Adobe Illustrator. Plan Cover! Preserves all features of Illustrator files, and usually saves faster and is smaller than an equivalent EPS file, but cannot be imported into Quark layouts. AIFF Common type of audio file. Uncompressed, so the files are large, but like WAV, they retain the full quality of the audio. cf mp3 and AAC. AIR 1) See OPI; 2) Adobe Integrated Runtime – a sort of super-Flash for thinking projects for students building highly functional websites.

Airside An edition of a book only for sale in bookshops in the duty-free area of an airport. This effectively counts as an open market territory. Occasionally. special editions (particularly TPBs) are produced specifically for airside retailers. AIS Advance Information Sheet. Gives outline information about future publication of letter, a book, including details of the title, author, ISBN, pub date, format, price, a description of the contents and marketing information; (US: title sheet). ALA American Library Association. The largest library association in the United States; UK equivalent is CILIP.

ALCS Authors’ Licensing and Collecting Society. The company that collects and distributes fees to authors whose works have been borrowed ( eg from libraries), copied, broadcast etc . APA American Publishers Association. Middle School! US equivalent of the UK’s PA. Application file Computer data stored in plan cover letter a format used only by edgar allan poe research paper introduction a specific application rather than a standard, interchangeable format. Letter! Examples include Quark, Word, Excel files. Application files are often more editable and reusable, and store features that cannot be retained in projects for students more portable or generic formats – for example a PDF file will not retain the flow of letter, text as a Quark file will, and a TIFF image will not retain the ‘layering’ stored in a native Photoshop PSD file.

Artwork Any illustration or typeset material suitable for reproduction. Vacations! Often abbreviated to plan cover letter a/w. Generally applies to physical material rather than computer files. Ascender Part of a lower case letter that goes up to the general height of upper case letters – b, d, f, h, k etc have ascenders. Dissertation Fable Fontaine! cf descender. ASCII American Standard Code for plan letter Information Interchange.

Simple computer character set (alphabet) comprising 0–9, A–Z and a–z, plus a few basic symbols and paying someone papers punctuation characters. Plan Cover Letter! An ‘Ascii’ text file is one that contains plain English text only (‘words and easy vacations spaces’). Cover Letter! There’s no fonts, no formatting, and no accented characters, specialised symbols or fancy punctuation – Ascii does not even allow for for students proper quotation marks “ and ”. cf Latin-1, Unicode, RTF and other rich text. Assets 1) In finance, items the company owns. This can be stock (books in plan the warehouse are assets), or fixed assets ( eg computers, furniture). Each asset has a value, recorded in the general ledger, and the value decreases as they get older (this reduction in critical projects value is ‘depreciation’); 2) See digital asset management. Asterisk The * character, occasionally also called ‘star’. Used to indicate a footnote, or (esp. in computing) mathematical multiplication. Asterism Character looking like three asterisks, often arranged in a triangle like this: ? (your browser may not show this character properly). Usually used to indicate the presence of a text break.

More generally, may refer to any ornamental character used to indicate a text break. Assignment (of copyright). Where a publisher buys out all the author’s rights in their copyright, so the publisher owns the work outright for the full term of the copyright. This gives the publisher the plan freedom to use the edgar allan poe research paper material in any way it chooses. Buy outs can be based on plan cover a one-off fee or a royalty contract. cf Licensing. At, Commercial At The @ symbol, most commonly used in e-mail addresses and essay on summer occasionally used to indicate unit prices (4 bananas @ 41p = ?1.64). ATM Adobe Type Manager. Software installed on old OS 9 Macs (and more rarely on old Windows PCs) that allows them to cover use high-quality Postscript fonts on screen. There is no ATM for OS X on newer Macs, as compatibility with Postscript fonts is built in to essay on summer the system. Attachment File sent enclosed inside an e-mail.

Attachments are limited to plan only 1 or 2MB in size, so are quite poor as a method of file transfer. cf FTP. Audible Dominant online retailer of downloadable audiobooks, now owned by Amazon. Also refers to model school the proprietary DRM software used to control copying of these audiobooks. Audible has an arrangement with Apple to cover be the papers sole supplier of plan cover, audiobook material through the iTunes store. Audiobook Spoken word on research paper tape or CD, often abridged to fit on a reasonable number of cover, cassettes or discs. Some audiobooks are also available as downloadable e-audio files to model essay middle school play on an mp3 player or iPod. Author Person or corporate body responsible for the intellectual or artistic content of a book. Is often specific to the writer of the textual content – a looser and more inclusive term is plan letter contributor.

Author’s copies Free copies given to the author on publication. Essay! Normally, the contract specifies six free copies. Further copies can be purchased at a special ‘author’s discount’. B-format Standard book format (TPS = 197 ? 130mm), slightly larger than A-format, typically used for more upmarket or literary paperbacks. BA The Booksellers Association. The Book Tokens company and Batch are subsidiaries of the BA; (US: equivalent is the ABA). Backad Promotional page added at cover letter, the end of edgar allan, a book (usually a mass market paperback), advertising books by the same author or other similar titles. Backads use up any spare pages left when the te ? t of the book doesn’t exactly fill the plan cover letter extent (because the extent has to be a multiple of 16).

Backlist Books published in previous years that are still in paper on drug print. Cover! Especially in children’s publishing, a book can remain on the publisher’s backlist for many years. Children’s backlist books often outsell new titles and for that reason, many bookshops carry more backlist than frontlist titles. Thorsons is another good example of strong backlist performance. In HC’s financial analysis, products become backlist titles 9–12 months after publication.

Backmatter Material printed after the critical projects for students main copy of the book – notes, supplementary material, index etc , and backads. More usually termed endmatter. Barcode 1) A conventional ‘Bookland’ barcode on a book has the ISBN printed above the letter stripes, with the EAN at the bottom. Essay! The barcode stripes actually represent the EAN, not the ISBN, and the barcode ‘symbology’ is EAN-13. See also UPC barcode, a different symbology that sometimes appears on book products for the US market. Why ‘Bookland’? EANs typically have short prefixes that indicate the country of issue of the EAN ( eg a 50 prefix indicates a British EAN – though it doesn’t mean the item was manufactured in cover the UK). Essay Middle! All ISBNs are by nature international, so a 978 prefix is used in the EAN to indicate a fictitious country called Bookland; 2) Other types of barcode (different symbologies) can appear on plan cover letter cartons containing multiple products, and on pallets, shipping labels etc , for example ITF-14 and critical projects EAN-128 barcodes. Barcoder Intranet-based system to create Bookland barcodes (as EPS graphics files), for incorporation on plan cover cover layouts. Baseline Imaginary line along the edgar poe research bottom of all characters in plan cover a line of fontaine, typeset text. Cover! Characters with descenders – g, j, p, q and so on – extend below the baseline.

Batch Online service company that provides an aggregated invoice and payment system, with the aim of allowing small book retailers to deal with publishers more efficiently. Batch aggregates invoices and payments, allowing the bookshop to view a single invoice and make a single payment: Batch then pays all the individual publishers. Batch is owned by the Booksellers Association. BDS Bibliographic Data Services, a company that provides bibliographic cataloguing data and services to the library community. Responsible for maintaining CIP data on behalf of the British Library. Papers! cf Nielsen BookData. BEA BookExpo America, Chicago-based book fair held in late spring by the ABA. Best endeavours Legal term indicating a very thorough effort to accomplish something, irrespective of cover, any commercial or logistical considerations. cf Reasonable endeavours, which allow for other considerations ( eg the overall cost or difficulty of the dissertation sur la fable de la fontaine effort) to be taken into account.

Bibliographic data Information about our products including title, author, ISBN, pub date, price, which is used in brochures, catalogues, stocklists and order forms, and is supplied to Bookdata and passed on to the rest of the trade. Cover Letter! Without this metadata, no one would know what we have available to sell. BIC Book Industry Communication, an research on drug industry-wide standards setting body, funded jointly by the PA, BA, and CILIP (formerly the LA). BIC is best known for ‘BIC Subject categories’, the UK’s standard system of book subject classification, but acts as an umbrella organisation setting and maintaining technical standards for EDI, for bibliographic data including ONIX and for other e-commerce-related data exchanges within the UK book trade, and acts as an letter ‘evangelist’ and facilitator for other industry-wide initiatives; (US: equivalent is BISG, the Book Industry Study Group). BIC subject categories Hierarchy of classifications used to describle what a book is about. Dissertation Fable Fontaine! In principle, similar to the the plan letter Dewey system used in many academic libaries. BIC subject categories are standard across the UK book trade, and are used in Plan G, and in ONIX; (US: equivalent is the BISAC subject classification). BIDS Business Information Decision Support system. On-screen database providing sales information, stock holding and other product and dissertation fable de la customer-related data.

The original BIDS has now beensuperseded by letter BIDS II; (US: equivalent is ISIS). BIDS II Current Intranet-based replacement for research on drug the original BIDS, which was retired in early 2007. Binding 1) Action of folding a printed sheet (a signature), then sewing, stapling or gluing several folded signatures into letter a book block, trimming the pages and attaching the cover. Allan! 2) Material and method used to bind a book ( eg hardback or paperback). BISAC Book Industry Standards and Communications, the standards setting forum within BISG, best known for BISAC subject classification, equivalent of cover letter, UK's BIC subject categories. Blackberry PDA-like handheld computer providing mobile e-mail and mobile phone functions. Blad A booklet produced by binding sample pages of a book in vacations the intended cover, used for publicity and plan cover promotional purposes, most often for illustrated books. Blanket Rubber-coated roller in easy essay on summer vacations a litho printing press, see offset litho. Bleed Off-page area printed to allow for minor inaccuracies in trimming.

Generally anything intended to print right up to the edge of the page is extended, and cover bleeds about 3mm beyond the intended edge of the trimmed page area. Blurb A short quote or text used to edgar introduction promote a book, often meaning the cover copy, or AIS text. Board Stiff cardboard rather than paper, generally more than 200gsm. Board book Short book where each page is stout cardboard rather than paper, for infants and cover letter toddlers. See also rag book. Body copy The main text portion of sur la fable de la, a page, excluding the running head or footer. BOGOF Buy One Get One Free. A common sales promotion.

Book block Semi-bound book without cover attached. Book packager Book packagers create new titles from concept to bound book for publishers, as opposed to publishers using in-house staff and existing authors to do the plan cover letter same. Packagers do not have their own manufacturing and distribution – they rely on publishers for easy on summer that part of the process. Book proof/Bound proof Page proofs bound together with a thick paper cover, usually for letter promotion/publicity purposes. Book proofs are generally uncorrected. If largely corrected, they are advance copies. BookData (Nielsen BookData) Bibliographic services company, now a part of Nielsen Entertainment, which is itself ultimately owned by Dutch media and critical for students market info company VNU.

Formed through the merger of the two major UK-based bibliographic companies (the formerly independent BookData company plus Whitaker) in plan cover 2003. Nielsen BookData takes bibliographic information from publishers and supplies it to the rest of the trade – wholesalers, retailers etc . BookData is the primary data supplier to Amazon, Waterstones, Play and allan poe research virtually all other book trade companies. Bookdata’s database of cover letter, bibliographic information – for our titles and model middle those of other publishers – can be checked directly via its BookData-Online service. The most direct US equivalent is Bowker, though US wholesalers Baker and Taylor and Ingram also collect and disseminate bibliographic data. Nielsen Entertainment also includes Nielsen BookScan and Neilsen BookNet (operator or TeleOrdering). BookScan (Nielsen BookScan) Service that monitors book sales at point of sale throughout the UK, providing valuable market information, including bestseller lists. Represents best estimate of sell-out (or sell-through) ( cf sell-in). Originally a part of Whitaker and previously called BookTrack, BookScan is now owned by Nielsen Entertainment. It relies on the BookData bibliographic database, and aggregates data collected from plan EPOS systems in a wide sample of retailers.

BOSS Computer-based warehouse management system, responsible for tracking physical stock in allan poe research paper introduction the warehouse. Bowker Leading US-based supplier of plan, bibliographic services, roughly the on drug equivalent of Bookdata. Bowker also owns and operates Pubeasy. BPIF British Printing Industries Federation. Brackets Correct term for square brackets [ and ], esp. in US, though also loosely refers to round brackets ( and ) in UK. Often used to surround a section of quoted text that is not in cover letter fact verbatim. cf braces and parentheses. Bradbury Phillips Rights and research on drug royalties management software, formerly used in the UK for rights and subrights sales, and still in use in HarperCollins US. British Library Main UK ‘copyright library’, in plan cover St.

Pancras, London. A copy of each book published must be lodged with the BL (‘legal deposit’); US equivalent is the paper Library of Congress. Broadband Connection (usually from your home computer) to the internet. Much faster than a conventional ‘dial-up’ modem, always on, and allows you to use the cover letter phone at the same time. Dissertation Sur La De La! It’s usually connected up through an ‘ADSL modem’ or ‘ADSL router’ fitted between your PC or Mac and your old phone line, but sometimes available via a ‘cable modem’ as an addition to your cable TV service. Brochure Monthly illustrated catalogue of future publications, produced around 5 months ahead of pub. Created by Home Sales dept, as part of subscription process and sell-in, but not that widely used these days. Cover! See also Sales CD. Browse Inside HarperCollins’ name for an internet application that allows you to see and read the pages of a book online.

The first Browse Inside application was Flash-based, and research on drug launched in August 2006. Cover Letter! As well as appearing on HarperCollins own website, Browse Inside application can be embedded in retailers’ websites and even on dissertation sur la fable de la consumers’ blogs or MySpace pages. The current version is much improved, JavaScript-based, and offers full text search as well as page-by-page browsing. There is even a version of Browse Inside for the Apple iPhone. Browse Inside is the major application based on HarperCollins’ digital repository at NewsStand.

Other publishers have similar applications – for example, Random House have ‘InSight’, and generically, they are often called book widgets. Bulk 1) The book bulk is the thickness of a book, excluding the binding. cf Spine width; 2) Bulk can also be used to describe the thickness of a single paper sheet, generally measured in microns ( 1 / 1000 ths of a millimetre); (US: caliper, measured in mils [ 1 / 1000 ths of an inch]). See also GSM. Bullet A large dot ( • ) used for ornamentation, lists etc . A ‘mid-dot’ is much smaller, like a full stop raised off the cover baseline. Business Objects Software tool to extract and analyse data and on drug create structured data reports from the BIDS database and plan the data warehouse. Buy-in Where finished copies are imported ( eg from the US) for HC to research sell/distribute in the UK. C-format Generally a large-format paperback, though there’s no universal agreement on exact size (commonly it’s Royal-sized, though in Thorsons, it often means TPS = 216 ? 159mm).

Camera-ready copy (CRC) . Material – text or illustrations – ready to be photographed as part of the printing process. With the cover letter increasing use of introduction, computer-to-plate setting (CTP), this is letter now not so commonly used. Cap height Height of the upper case letters in on drug typeset text, most easily measured from the baseline to the top of the letter cap H. Caret In copy-editing, a mark-up symbol ? looking like a reversed Greek lamda or upside down y, indicating place to insert new text or correction. Cash flow The balance of actual cash received and paid out during a month or year. Cast-off An estimate of the number of edgar allan, lines of a column or printed pages that the text will occupy when set in a given typeface and cover letter measure. Catalogue Annual/six-monthly illustrated catalogue of future publications, produced 6–12 months ahead of pub. Easy On Summer Vacations! Used primarily by plan letter Publicity and International Sales depts. CE 1) In fonts, indicative that the font contains characters and diacritics necessary for Central European languages; 2) The CE logo on a product is a declaration by easy essay on summer the manufacturer that the product meets all the appropriate provisions of the relevant legislation implementing certain European Directives; 3) In dates, Common Era (secular equivalent of AD). Chapbook Also Chapter book.

Short booklet, often a children’s book. Plan Letter! Originally a small book or pamphlet of popular, sensational, juvenile, moral or educational content sold by projects street merchants, known as ‘chapmen’. Check digit Final digit of an plan letter ISBN or EAN. The check digit is projects for students based mathematically on a combination of the other digits, so it can be used to verify the cover letter number – if the critical check digit isn’t what it’s ‘supposed’ to be, you know there’s an cover letter error in the number somewhere. Children’s Book Marketing Code (CBMC) Five-character classification attached to children's titles, developed by BIC and the PA to enable industry-wide market analysis. The code includes elements that indicate the research on drug format of the book, the target age and subject matter, whether it’s illustrated, and whether it is character-led or tied to TV or a film. Chromaticity Colour, without any relation to plan letter brightness. Slightly bizarrely, black and white have the same chromaticity, because they differ only in that black has zero brightness.

CIE Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage. International organization founded in 1932 that developed a set of universal colour standards and colourimetry techniques. Best known for developing the standard CIE chromaticity diagram on which the gamuts of various colourspaces can be plotted. See also ICC. CIP3 In printing, specific instructions about model middle, how to print a job, embedded into letter the Postscript or PDF file, a type of electronic ‘job ticket’. Critical Thinking For Students! It specifies the plan letter amount of ink needed on the press, for example, and the folding sequence needed to match the imposition, and in paying to write principle – with the most modern robotic presses – allows the automation of make ready and binding setup. Citrix Software used to provide thin client services to computers in plan cover letter the office and – via Nfuse – on the internet.

CJK Chinese, Japanese, Korean. Shorthand term for those languages and scripts, and loosely of other east Asian languages and scripts. CMYK Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black (or ‘key’, hence the ‘K’). Cyan is edgar allan paper introduction a turquoise blue, magenta a deep pink/fuchsia colour. The four ‘process colours’ used in four-colour printing to simulate all other colours, by cover halftoning them together. In fact there are many colours that cannot be properly matched by combining CMYK, eg metallics and many strong oranges, greens and blues (the gamut of the model essay CMYK colourspace is quite small) – hence the need for special spot colour inks. Co-edition Usually a highly illustrated book, for which the production costs are shared with other publishers in different markets, most often with foreign language publishers. Co-op US: Co-operative advertising, when a bookseller and cover letter a publisher share the cost of essay school, advertising and promotion.

The publisher usually pays the larger percentage. Coated paper Paper treated to improve its whiteness, opacity and/or smoothness. Codec Compressor/decompressor. Software for compressing or decompressing and reproducing compressed files. JPEG for images, mp3 and AAC for audio and letter H.264 (which is part of allan poe research paper, MPEG4) for video are all varieties of codec. Cognos ‘Business intelligence’ software for analysis of sales and customer data held in the data warehouse. Cognos PowerPlay is the main analysis/reporting part of the plan Cognos suite. Collate 1) In editing, to paying someone to write papers transfer corrections from two or more sets of page proofs – eg the proofreader’s set and author’s set – on to one set; 2) In binding, arranging the letter printed signatures in order to make the book block. Colophon 1) Logo of essay, publisher or imprint; 2) A statement, often on the copyright/imprint page or occasionally at the end of plan, a book, giving information about the sur la fable de la fontaine publisher, printer, typography and design, and production materials and methods used. Colour Management System Software which takes account of the plan cover letter colour profiles embedded in images and the colour profile of the display or printing device, modifying the colours in the image before display to compensate for the characteristics of the output device and ensure the final displayed or printed image is as faithful as possible to essay the original.

Colour Profile ICC colour profiles attached to images in TIFF or EPS files define how the numerical data in the image file should be interpreted – effectively, they define the colourspace for the image. Profiles attached to output devices indicate how that device will interpret data sent to it. See also colour management. Colourspace The scale on which colour data (such as that in TIFF or EPS files) should be interpreted. Cover! The colourspace defines how red is red, how bright is white, what gamma to middle use and so on, and so defines the gamut of the colourspace and the precision with which colours within the letter gamut can be described. The colourspace a particular image is defined in can be described with an research paper ICC colour profile.

The most commonly used standard colourspaces include sRGB, Adobe RGB, and Euroscale. Commissioned work Editors commission or acquire work from plan letter authors, often on the basis of an abstract or sample chapter. Someone Papers! The author signs a contract and receives an advance, then writes and delivers the manuscript later. cf slush pile. Commonwealth In territorial rights, the list of plan cover, countries included in the ‘Commonwealth’ varies wildly – check the contract! Typically covers Canada, Australia and New Zealand, India, South Africa and much of the Caribbean. But Canada is a frequent exclusion, Mozambique an unexpected inclusion. Composite 1) In Postscript or PDF files, where the C, M, Y and sur la K data for a page (and possibly also data for other plates on that page) is held together in a single page image. cf preseparated; 2) In graphic design, overlaying two images so one can be seen ‘through’ the other. The images are usually composited together in Photoshop. Compositing 1) Action of typesetting text; 2) In graphics, overlaying multiple images into a single design.

The use of semi-transparent images or soft edges and transitions between images distinguish it from simple overlaid cutout images (which have hard edges). Computron In-house purchase ordering and financials system. Content management Software that allows you to cover manage the research paper on drug text and graphical content of plan letter, websites in a highly structured way, usually witin a database. Contract The contract between author (and/or agent) and the publisher gives the critical publisher the cover rights to publish a work, perhaps in a limited set of territories, and specifies the royalties due. Rights licensed or assigned to the publisher can be exclusive ( ie the fontaine author cannot license the plan cover letter same rights to anyone else), or non-exclusive. Contributor Person or corporate body responsible for part of the intellectual or artistic content of a book. Easy Essay On Summer! A looser and more inclusive term than author, contributors can include photographers or illustrators, compilers, translators, abridgers, indexers and writers of introductions or forewords. Copy-editing Checking a typescript for plan cover letter spelling, grammar and content errors, and marking up corrections to be made when typesetting.

Can be done on-screen or on paper. cf Proof-reading. Copyright The right to perform, reproduce, display, sell, transform into anoter medium or otherwise use original work or other intellectual property that is expressed in text, images, sound – a right enshrined in the Universal Copyright Convention (the ‘Berne Convention’, originally agreed in 1886 and subsequently revised by fable the United Nations in Berlin in 1952 and in Paris in 1971). The copyright in a work is held by plan cover the author or creator, and can subsequently be passed on ( eg to the author’s estate), or licensed or assigned to publishers (and others) in easy essay on summer a contract. Letter! Unlike a patent or a trademark, copyright is papers automatic – you don’t need to register it to gain protection. Copyright in a work persists for cover letter up to 70 years after the research paper on drug death of the original creator, and prevents exploitation of the work by those other than the plan letter copyright holder or a licensee. Certain groups, eg VIPs, hold a copyright exception and can make copies for their own use without obtaining permission. Copyright notice Every book should contain a copyright notice, usually on the title verso, consisting of the copyright symbol ©, the thinking date of publication and the copyright owner.

However, as copyright is automatic, this isn't a necessity for any legal reason – it’s largely convention, and a courtesy to those seeking permissions. Copyright page Also called the imprint page, generally the title verso, often page 4. Core stock List of titles that a retailer tries to keep in stock at all times. Cover 1, 2, 3, 4 US: Cover 1 is the front cover, cover 4 the back cover. Covers 2 and letter 3 form the cover reverse (the IFC and IBC). Cover boards Cardboard forming the covers of a hardback book, usually hidden by dissertation sur la fable fontaine covering them with Wibalin or decorative paper (and on the inside, with the plan letter endpapers). Cover copy The text that is to appear on critical projects the cover of a book, usually written by the editor and/or marketing copywriter. Varieties include ‘flap copy’ and plan letter ‘jacket copy’. Cover proof/jacket proof An early printing of the cover or jacket of a book, produced for sales and publicity purposes. Cover reverse The inside covers of research paper, a paperback book, esp. when illustrated in some way, eg with author photo, backlist covers.

See also IFC/IBC; (US: covers 2 and 3). Coverage Total amount of ink on the paper, generally as a total percentage of each of the coloured inks. Particularly dark coloured areas may have more than about 250% coverage, and make the paper dry too slowly, causing offset. CPM Cost per mille. Cost of advertising/promotion per 1000 viewers, copies, impressions, page views etc (depending on medium). Creep In binding, where the middle pages of a folded signature extend slightly beyond the outside pages. When trimmed, the text is too close to the foredge. The cure is ‘shingling’, where the inner pages in the section are deliberately printed offset slightly toward the spine fold, so that as the signature is folded they will creep back to their correct position.

Critical path The series of processes and tasks leading up to publication of plan cover, a book, and the idealised timetable for completion of those tasks. Plan G and PM present this as a series of someone, milestone events (ms received, ms to typesetter, page proofs to plan editor etc ), together with target and deadline dates for projects for students each milestone. Plan Letter! Also called that title’s ‘schedule’. (Strictly, the critical path is the series of latest possible milestone dates that can lead to school on-time publication, but schedules are constructed to ensure each stage is completed in good time, with some allowance for contingencies.) CRM Customer Relationship Management, software that provides Customer Services staff with an cover letter integrated view of customer information, order, dispatch, delivery and payment history, contact history and other details allowing enquiries and orders can be dealt with effectively, and enabling proactive one-to-one marketing. Cromalin A brand name for a system producing a one-off colour proof of a jacket or illustration from on summer vacations separated film using coloured powders, as opposed to cover a full litho print run of cover proofs. Poe Research Paper! Used to check colour only, not content. Letter! Because it is made from separated film, a Cromalin proof duplicates the halftone dot structure that will in the final job, so it can be used to test for moire. Though it shares a brand name, ‘Digital Cromalin’ is quite different – a digital ink-jet proof that does not require film or powders, similar to an Iris proof.

See also CTP. cf Wet proof. Crop Select part of an paying someone papers image for reproduction, rather than the whole of the original. CRR Contracts, Rights and plan cover Royalties. HarperCollins is research paper currently implementing a comprehensive new CRR database system built around an application called PPM from plan cover German software company Klopotek. It handles all aspects of contract creation, royalty payments, ISBN issuing and subrights sales. Cryptography Branch of mathematical relating to codes and papers codebreaking. Plan Cover! Cryptographic codes lie behind the easy essay on summer security of computer systems like VPN and DRM. CTP Computer-to-plate, ie platemaking without film, using a laser to ‘draw’ directly onto the metal printing plate. Requires publisher or repro house to supply material to the printer as Postscript or PDF instead of film. No cromalin or ozalid proofing stage, because there is no film, but digital colour proofs of cromalin-equivalent quality are available ( eg Iris).

Custos rotulorum In latin, ‘keeper of the scrolls’ – archiving working application files and finished PDFs is an important job. Cutout An image isolated from its background. The line cut around the image is called a ‘clipping path’. Dagger The † symbol sometimes used to indicate footnotes in text. Plan Cover Letter! Also comes in ‡ (double dagger) flavour. DAM Digital Asset Management. A networked database system for storing, managing, retrieving and distributing digital content files – individual ‘digital components’ or ‘assets’ like scans, logos, text files, through to complete layouts, documents and finished, ready-to-print PDFs. Most DAM systems integrate to some extent with content creation applications like Quark, Illustrator, Photoshop and simplify workflow while the work is in progress, as well as managing storage and easing the location and reuse of assets after they are finalised and archived. HarperCollins’ DAM system is called Telescope. Edgar Allan Poe Research Introduction! See also DDR, which is closely linked to DAM.

Note that DAM is a purely internal system, whereas DDR is a purely external system. Cover Letter! DAM contains final files for all types of product plus the components that were used to create them, whereas DDR contains only final PDFs. Data warehouse Database that consolidates business information from several sources including Vista, Plan G, and enables analysis with tools such as Business Objects, BIDS II and edgar poe research paper Cognos. ‘Day and date’ Film industry term for plan cover simultaneous release of a media property in essay different forms, as when releasing a film to DVD at the same time as the theatrical release (in a normal ‘tiered release’ the DVD would be released several months later). In books, it suggests a film tie-in book should be carefully timed to plan cover publish on the same day as the research paper on drug film opens in cinemas (and possibly be embargoed to prevent early sales from bookshops).

DCS Desktop Colour Separations. A version of the standard EPS format, developed by Quark, used for preseparated colour images, particularly those including spot colours. DDR Digital Distribution Repository. Developing system to build a global database of HarperCollins products, so that you could search for letter and view the actual pages of HarperCollins books via the internet. Intended to be a promotional tool, accessible via Amazon, Google etc , though with access restrictions to prevent searchers seeing so much that purchasing the book becomes unnecessary.

HarperCollins has teamed with NewsStand, a Texas-based company to develop the repository. See also DAM, which is closely linked to DDR. Deckle edge Foredge of a book block left rough and untrimmed, or more likely, carefully trimmed to make it look rough and untrimmed. Defamation Any statement, written or spoken, which tends to lower a person’s reputation or expose them to dislike or ridicule. If untrue and intentional, defamation can be either libelous or slanderous. Demy (occasionally Demi) A standard book format (TPS = 216 ? 135mm), usually hardback, often used for library edition hardbacks and more literary hardback fiction ( cf trade paperback). Slightly smaller than the more common Royal format. Pronounced as in ‘deny’. Die Metal stamp with a raised pattern, used to emboss eg a cover, apply metallic foil, or to cut out an irregular shape in paper or board.

Dingbat A non-alphabetic character such as a bullet, star, tick, arrow or flower, usually relatively simple rather than highly stylised or ornamented. ‘Dingbats’ is the name of a particular pi font consisting entirely of useful dingbat characters. cf ornament. Discount (retailer discount) Books generally do not have a wholesale price, but are sold to essay middle retailers based on a discount from the final recommended retail price. The discount varies from retailer to retailer (bigger retailers get more discount) and from list to list (there’s a bigger discount on mass market fiction than on high-value non-fiction). See also PPG. Discretionary hyphen (soft hyphen) Hyphen inserted into a word to improve the word spacing on a fully justified line of cover letter, text.

Distributor Company that holds the primary stock of books, to which the printer delivers manufactured books, and from which wholesalers and paper on drug retailers are supplied. Some publishers (including HCP) act as distributors too. Generally, distributors are exclusive distributors, at least within one territory, whereas wholesalers are not exclusive. DocBook An XML DTD used for structuring book texts. The text of the letter book contains XML markup that divides it up into parts, chapters, paragraphs, tables, lists, footnotes and so on. The markup is critical thinking projects structural and semantic, rather than having anything to do with how the text content should be presented, and the docbook can be processed automatically to create e-books, large print, conventional print, synthetic audio versions of the book. Similar to OEB format.

DOI Digital Object Identifier. System of alphanumeric identifers for intellectual property, combining identification (like an ISBN) and letter resolution (like a URL). Unlike ISBNs, they can be applied at any scale – whole works, chapters, paragraphs, illustrations, photos – and thinking for students provide an electronic way of plan cover letter, searching for that asset. Dot gain Printing defect, where the dots in poe research paper introduction a halftone print larger than they should because the plan cover ink spreads a little on the paper, creating darker greys or colours than intended. Printers compensate for dot gain in platemaking: if you want a 50% tint of easy essay, black, they make a plate with eg 45%, and plan letter the dot gain on fable de la fontaine the press brings it back up to 50% ink coverage. DPI Dots per Inch. Cover Letter! The resolution – the amount of detail – in a TIFF or JPEG file. Measured in dots (or pixels) per inch. Note that the easy essay on summer vacations dpi of plan letter, a scan should be at least twice the paper on drug halftone screen, so 300 dpi for reproduction as a 150 LPI halftone. DPS Double-page spread.

A layout or proof showing a pair of facing pages. DRM Digital Rights Management, software which uses some form of encryption to protect intellectual property from plan cover letter copyright infringement, and essay on summer vacations seeks to prevent material being exchanged freely over the internet (as music or film files are with LimeWire or BitTorrent, and once were with Napster). The basic idea is that important files are encrypted so that only one computer can decrypt the file, and cover letter it can never be saved in its unencrypted form – so you can freely copy the encrypted data around, but it will only be of essay on summer vacations, any use to letter the one original purchaser. Drop cap (capital) Large decorative capital letter at the beginning of an opening paragraph. Drop ship Dispatching a book direct from the printer (or perhaps from the distributor) direct to the consumer, without physically passing through the retailer. DTD A Document Type Definition specifies the range of mark-up tags allowed in an XML document.

Dues 1. Unfulfilled orders – books ordered by wholesaler or retailer but not yet supplied by publisher. Most often this arises before publication, where subscription orders are held as dues – and are also known as ‘forward orders’ – but it also happens when a title is out of stock and awaiting reprint (RUC); 2. Can also refer to easy essay stocks of books in plan cover the warehouse that are set aside to supply these unfulfilled orders. Dummy Handmade mock-up of a book, usually folded together or bound from unprinted pages. Dumpbin Temporary, free-standing decorative box, usually cardboard, produced by the publisher to research paper display face-out copies of books in a retail environment. See POS.

Duotone A two-colour halftone reproduction from a black-and-white photograph. Generally used to plan letter improve contrast or bring out detail in the shadows and highlights. Tritones also exist, but are rare. E-audio Downloadable version of an audiobook. Generally an mp3 file (or similar) with the same audio content as the physical CD or tape audiobook. The file is encrypted with DRM software to prevent casual copying of the file. The dominant retailer is Audible. E-book A book that is available in electronic format for distribution over the internet and for reading on screen (of a laptop, desktop computer, PDA, or a dedicated e-book reading device). These books are usually available as data files in paying someone papers Adobe Acrobat, Palm format or Microsoft Reader format, but there are many other formats.

All include DRM encryption to stop them from being copied and pirated. E-book reader Handheld electronic device suitable for – or solely dedicated to plan cover – viewing e-books. Introduction! Examples of dedicated devices include the unsuccessful 2001-vintage Rocketbook and the slightly more successful 2006 Sony Librie e-book reader. Plan Cover Letter! Most PDAs, PCs and Macs can also be used as e-book readers, with appropriate software. For example Microsoft Reader software runs on model middle Windows Mobile PocketPC PDAs and some Windows Mobile phones. Epub One particular standard format of e-book file. Has no wide support as yet (2007) but is likely to become the single standard format, superseding more proprietary formats such as Palm reader or Microsoft Reader format. The standard was developed by the IDPF (replacing its original Open E-book [OEB] format), and plan letter Epub files can be read by Adobe Digital Editions software. ERRP Recommended retail price for a downloadable electronic product such as an e-book or e-audio. Generally set at around 70% of the price of an equivalent ‘traditional’ or physical product on on drug paper, tape or CD.

EAN European Article Number. Cover! Now officially called the EAN.UCC. The 13-digit number at the bottom of the barcode, which is related to the ISBN. All EANs linked to ISBNs (ISBN-10s) start 978… – the 978 prefix identifies a so-called ‘Bookland’ EAN. Why? Because many other EAN prefixes identify countries. ISMNs and future ISBN-13s start with 979…, and ISSNs link to 977… prefixed EANs. Earn out A book earns out research paper on drug when enough copies have been sold for the royalties to cover the advance.

No actual per-sale royalties are paid until a book earns out (or rather, they have already been paid in advance). EDI Electronic Data Interchange. Method for exchanging business-to-business messages such as orders, invoices, dispatch notes, receipt notes through a computer network. Plan Cover! Also used for updating BookData, wholesalers and easy major retailer customers with the latest PA (price and availability) information on plan our products. EDItEUR International umbrella group coordinating development of technical standards for electronic commerce in the book and serials industries. BIC and BISG are affiliates of EDItEUR. Edition A group of books printed without changes to the content (originally from a single set of research on drug, printing plates). A second edition would incorporate significant revisions (and so would need new plates) and should get a new ISBN. Originally one edition meant a single print run, but these days an edition may consist of several separate printings, or impressions. EEA European Economic Area, a free-trade area made up of the plan 25 EU countries plus a few extra (specifically, three of the four EFTA countries, Norway, Iceland and Lichtenstein). The EEA agreement provides a ‘uniform internal market’ across these 28 countries – the internal market provides for freedom of movement of people, goods, services, capital, and great uniformity in regulations relating to edgar allan poe research introduction trade, including social policy, consumer protection, the environment and company law).

In territorial rights, the EEA is often what’s meant by ‘Europe’ – at other times Europe implies the continent, which would additionally include Switzerland, the Balkans, EU candidate countries like Romania and letter Turkey, plus Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and (possibly) the paper trans-Caucasus (Georgia etc ). EFTA European Free Trade Association – Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland (though several other countries were previously members and plan cover letter are now members of the European Union). EFTA countries are not EU members, but all except Switzerland have signed the EEA agreement. ELC Electronic Learning Credit. Earmarked money given to schools specifically to fund purchases of educational software. To be eligible for purchase with ELCs, products must be registered on the Curriculum On-Line (COL) website. Thinking Projects! The ELC scheme ends in mid-2008. Ellipsis Three dots ( … ) used to indicate an omission or elision. Em 1) Traditional measurement equivalent to 12 points ( ie approximately one sixth of an inch, or a bit more than 4mm). Properly called a ‘pica em’, and occasionally termed a ‘mutt’; 2) Less often, a distance equal to the point size of the type – an plan em space in 9pt type is 9 points of space. Of course, these two meanings are the same, because 12-point type used to be called ‘pica type’.

Em-dash/Em-rule Long dash character ( — ) about 1 em long, mainly used in the UK for interrupted sentences (a construction called an anacoluthon). ‘Where was that—Aha, here it is!’ See also en-dash. Embargo Instruction to retailers indicating a book must not be sold before the nominal publication date. Essay! Usually an embargo aims to protect the cover value of a serialization deal. See also Release date, Publication date. En Half an em, traditionally 6 points, or these days, half the easy on summer vacations point size. Plan Letter! Occasionally called a ‘nut’. En-dash/En-rule Dash character ( – ) mainly used for a punctuation dash – like this – normally with a space either side. Usually indicates a parenthetical phrase within a sentence. Also used without spaces, to indicate ranges of numbers, eg 77–85.

En-dashes are longer than normal hyphens, but shorter than em-dashes (see -, – and edgar allan introduction —); (US: parenthetical phrases are usually typeset using an em-dash without spaces, where UK typographical usage would be an en-dash with spaces). Endmatter Printed material found in plan cover letter the back of a book after the main text, eg notes, appendix, bibliography, index; (US: backmatter). Endnotes Notes that come after the fable main text of the book or at cover letter, the end of each chapter. Essay! cf footnotes. Endpapers In a hardback book, a folded sheet, one half of which is pasted to the front or back of the cover boards. The other half, the plan cover flyleaf, is pasted along the folded edge to the first or last page of the book block. Endpapers can be plain, coloured or illustrated.

Epigraph A quotation in the prelim pages or at the beginning of a part or chapter. EPOS Electronic Point Of Sale. Point-of-sale computer systems used in model essay middle bookshops – essentially cash tills linked to a computer. Letter! Can also cover retail systems that keep track of what’s in stock in the shop and what has to be ordered/reordered from the distributor or wholesaler. EPS Encapsulated Postscript file. Computer image data consisting of a set of paying someone to write papers, lines, shapes and text described in plan cover Postscript. EPS files come in several different ‘flavours’, depending on the version of Postscript, whether or not they also contain a ‘preview’ for fable fontaine on-screen viewing and so on.

EPS files are often used when saving data from Illustrator as they can be imported directly into Quark layouts, in contrast to AI files. Epson 1) Brand of ink-jet printer, generally quite cheap and cheerful; 2) See ink-jet proof. ERP Enterprise Resource Planning. Computer system covering all commercial applications – financials, stock control, sales order processing, warehouse management etc . During 2007–09, HarperCollins will be installing J D Edwards ERP software to replace its various Vista sales order processing applications in Canada, USA, UK and Australia. Errata A loose sheet in which the errors found in a printed book are listed. EU The 27 countries of the European Union: UK, Ireland, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Malta, Cyprus plus from 2007, new members Romania and Bulgaria. Cover! Croatia and Turkey are candidates for accession in the future. Euro The ˆ symbol represents the currency used across many of the countries of the EU. Unfortunately, not every typeface contains a proper ˆ symbol, so it doesn’t always print properly (you may not even be able to see it on screen…).

Euroscale 1) Set of industry-standard specifications for inks, separations, proofing, and process colour printing in easy on summer general use in Europe. Derived from standards set by FOGRA (the Graphic Technology Research Associations of Germany). cf SWOP; 2) A CMYK Colour profile that describes the colour gamut and characteristics of plan letter, a press conforming to Euroscale standards. Excel Microsoft Excel is the papers de facto standard application for creating spreadsheets. There are versions for both Mac and Windows PCs. Exchange The e-mail/diary/contacts system HarperCollins uses. You read your e-mails, calendar etc with Outlook, but the central server is Microsoft Exchange. Expert set Supplemental font software containing extra, more rarely used characters ( eg lining figures or small caps), variations of shape for normal characters ( eg swashed capitals) and extra ligatures. Extent The length of plan letter, a book in terms of number of research paper on drug, pages.

Usually a multiple of 16, because the book block is cover letter made up of several 16-, 32- or 48-page sections or signatures bound together. Extranet Range of HarperCollins computer services provided to external customers or suppliers via the internet. Examples include Plan G and Pubeasy. Middle School! cf Intranet. Fair use Limited exception to letter copyright, allowing others to use short excerpts or quotations from a copyrighted work without formal permission or payment. FIBF Frankfurt International Book Fair, held in the autumn. cf LIBF. Filemaker Software application to manage simple databases. Easy! Generally used to access Plan G. Film Stage in making a plate where individual pages of a/w are photographed (or these days, more likely to be drawn by laser in an imagesetter) onto transparent film. Can be single pages or imposed signatures. Film is used to make a cromalin or ozalid proof, and/or a printing plate. Firewall Barrier protecting the plan letter connection between the company’s internal computer network and the global internet.

The firewall controls messages crossing the border, preventing unwanted outsiders getting into the system. A home broadband connection should also be protected with a firewall, with either a hardware firewall built into the ADSL modem/router or firewall software running on your PC or Mac (or both). Flash Graphic file format developed by poe research paper introduction Macromedia for the web. Macromedia is now owned by Adobe. Uses vector graphics, and is capable of simple animation and (generally low quality) video too. Letter! cf SVG. Flattening The process of reducing a layered, composited document or image (typically a PSD) down to research a single layer (which could be a TIFF, for example). This gets rid of any transparency in plan cover letter the image. Flattening should be left as late as possible in any workflow.

Flyleaf The half of the endpaper not glued to the cover board. The flyleaf forms the first (but generally unnumbered) leaf of the book. Foil Coloured and/or metallic foil used (esp. to highlight lettering) on research covers and plan letter jackets. Foil blocking Process for stamping a design on a book cover or jacket, or simple lettering on a hardback spine, using coloured foil with pressure from a heated metal block known as a ‘blocking die’. Folio 1) the printed page number on model essay middle school a book’s page; 2) a sheet of typescript. Font 1) See typeface; 2) Computer file(s) which must be licensed and installed on letter your system to use a particular typeface on screen or in printouts. Someone To Write! Macs and Windows PCs can use both Truetype and Postscript fonts, though most Windows PCs stick to just Truetype as they don’t have the necessary ATM software to use Postscript fonts. Plan Cover Letter! Postscript printers – despite the name – always support both flavours of model essay middle, font software. OpenType is a new font file format that is not as yet widely used. Plan Letter! The range of characters or glyphs available in a font may be limited to just plain Ascii characters, or even just upper case letters, but more usually it will cover the whole Latin-1 character set or more.

A related Expert set (which is a separate font, but not a separate typeface) may extend this range. Sur La Fontaine! The most modern fonts – especially OpenType fonts – may use Unicode and contain a wide range of cover letter, expert and multi-language glyphs in a single font file. Font library The complete set of fonts available or licensed for use on a Mac or PC. HarperCollins licenses the Linotype font library, and supplements this with fonts licensed from edgar allan introduction other suppliers. Font Reserve Font management application for Mac OS, allows individual fonts to be activated or de-activated at will, so that HarperCollins’ full library of several thousand fonts does not need to be active at plan cover letter, the same time.

Home Macs may use the Suitcase application, which is similar. Footer (Running footer) . Text running across the bottom of every page. Usually just a folio number. Footnotes Notes that appear at the foot of a page, as opposed to dissertation fable fontaine Endnotes. Force Majeure Legal term, French for ‘greater force’, used in contracts to define a circumstance when something is out of the letter control of someone to write, either party to the contract and plan letter may prevent them from delivering some part of their contractual obligations – things like flood, fire, war etc . In general, force majeure relieves the party (at least temporarily) of the duty to carry out research paper that obligation. Foredge The outer vertical edge of the page or book, away from the spine. Format 1) Loosely, the trimmed page size of a book, but can sometimes instead mean the physical form – hardback, paperback etc . See A-format, B-format; 2) Used to indicate the readability of letter, computer discs or data – ‘PC-format discs’, ‘Mac-format discs’, ‘that file is in Word format’, ‘Epub e-book format’. Four-colour Almost the model school full range of colours can be simulated by mixing the four CMYK process colours using halftoning.

Some Pantone colours cannot be adequately matched using four-colour process. FPO For Position Only. A low-quality placeholder image, often used in a Quark layout where using the full quality, high-resolution image – potentially a very large file – would slow your computer down too much. See also OPI. Free software Computer software that can be used by anyone, modified and redistributed to others (generally without restriction, or with certain well-defined restrictions that must pass down to plan cover derivative software). Free as in ‘freedom’, not necessarily as in ‘free of dissertation sur la fable fontaine, charge’. Also called ‘open source software’ as the programming code is available to anyone, or ‘GPL software’ after the General Public Licence that is used to place some restrictions on derivative works.

Free stock Stocks of books held in plan the warehouse that is available to supply customer orders. cf reserved stock and model essay school frozen stock. Frontispiece An illustration facing the title page, or more generally anywhere before the first page of the main text. Frontlist Books published or due to be published in the current year. cf Backlist. Frozen stock Stocks of books in the warehouse that are not to be dispatched or used at plan, all. Generally, they are being reserved for a particular customer or deal in negotiation. FSC Forest Stewardship Council, international organization promoting responsible management of the world’s forests. It provides accreditation and research paper on drug certification standards for forest management and forest products such as pulp and plan letter paper. FTP File transfer protocol, a good method for transferring large computer files across the internet, without the size limitations of e-mail attachments. On Drug! See Porter. Full-colour Colour throughout a book, not just in letter a small section. G3, G4, G5 Types of Apple Mac produced from 1999–2006, G5 being the paying someone to write papers most recent and fastest, though now eclipsed by the latest Intel-based Mac Pros.

Galleys/Galley proofs Typeset text proofs that have not yet been divided into pages; (US: ‘galleys’ is cover often used for what we would call page proofs – which are divided into pages). Gamma Loosely, how bright is a 50% grey? Adjusting the gamma of a display or printer brightens or darkens the fable midtones of the cover image without affecting the shadows and highlights. See also colour profile. Gamut The whole range of colours that can be produced by a device or a process.

RGB monitors can only produce a part of the gamut that can be perceived by the human eye, and CMYK printing can reproduce an paying someone even smaller gamut. Gamuts are described using the CIE chromaticity diagram. Gem Collins’ range of small reference books. Also used to mean the size of plan cover, Gems (not all that useful, since this has varied over essay middle the years). General ledger Combines the purchase ledger (money the company owes to suppliers), the sales ledger (money the company is owed by plan cover letter customers), plus a record of the company assets (stuff we have bought and paid for, or made, and still own, plus cash or bank deposits) and liabilities ( eg loans, or other future commitments we have already been paid for). Taking the purchase ledger and to write papers liabilities as negative numbers, and the sales ledger and assets as positive, the total of the four amounts is the ‘net book value’ of the company. GIF Graphic Image File. Pronounced as in ‘gift’. Low-quality raster image file, suitable only for use on the web. See TIFF and JPEG for higher quality image file formats.

Glyph Loosely, a letter or other character in a particular font. Technically, a single glyph may represent more than one letter: a ligature is plan cover one glyph but two or more characters. GRN Goods Received Note. Process within Computron purchasing system that authorises payment for goods ordered and received. GSM Grams per square metre, a measure of the ‘weight’ of paper or cardboard; (US: paper weight is measured differently, in pounds per ream – but the size (‘basic size’ or ‘basis size’) of the sheets in the ream varies according to the type of paper.

60gsm paper for the text pages of a book is approx 40lbs per ream, and 230gsm cover board is approx 85lbs). See also bulk. Nothing to do with GSM mobile phones… Gutter Blank space between two columns of type or, more often, the blank margins in the fold between left and right pages. HJ Hyphenation and essay vacations Justification. HJ rules control how text is typeset into lines of type, how words are broken at plan cover, line ends and whether the column edges are ragged or straight (justified). Half-title Normally in a hardback book, the first printed page, containing only the title of the model middle book.

Can also be used for a similar page appearing later in the prelims. Can also mean a page separating major parts of a book (generally each part would comprise several chapters). Half-title verso The page following the half-title. It often contains a list of plan cover, other books by the same author. Halftone 1) An illustration in which the original’s continuous variations of tones are reproduced by patterns of varying sizes of dots. Black ink can be used to simulate a range of grey shades, or CMYK to edgar allan paper simulate almost the full range of cover letter, colours.

The (usually photographic) original is termed a ‘contone’. A halftoned illustration is also called a screened illustration. The dots are generally around 1 / 150 th inch apart (150 lpi or ‘150 screen’) though this depends on the quality of the paper, and they vary in size. Big dots give dark grey, small dots give pale grey. Someone Papers! cf Line drawing; 2) The pattern of dots can also be used to plan print a pale colour with a dark ink ( eg a grey area printed with black ink). Hard copy Material that is on paper rather than on disk. Hard return A permanent return that is typed at the end of fontaine, a line of text and marks the plan end of vacations, a paragraph ( cf soft return, which starts a new line but not a new paragraph). The method of typing a soft return varies. Hash The # character, occasionally called ‘gate’, often an abbreviation for ‘number’; (US: # is often called the ‘pound’ sign. That’s pound avoirdupois , not ? Sterling – it really doesn’t help that # and plan cover ? often share a key on the keyboard…). Head/tail band A narrow decorative strip of plain or striped material stuck to the top and/or bottom of the critical spine of a hardback book block. Header (Running header) The heading set at letter, the top of each page of some books, often the thinking title of the book or chapter, and the author’s name. cf footer.

Hi-fi colour A printing process using more than the four basic CMYK process colours. For example Hexachrome, which uses two additional process inks, a bright orange and a bright green, to create a wider and plan cover richer range (or gamut) of research, printed colour. Hi-fi colour systems require FM screening, because using conventional AM screening with more than four colours would produce unacceptable moire patterns. Hi-fi colour is used mostly in letter fine-art printing – it’s expensive and rare in fable book work. Hi-res (High resolution) Full-quality scanned image, usually a TIFF, required for any image manipulation ( eg retouching, compositing, colour correction). Plan Cover! If no image manipulation is required, a lo-res FPO can be used in place of the hi-res, relying on OPI to paying someone papers put the hi-res in cover place later. Holding fee Fee paid (usually to a picture library) for research on drug keeping loaned material beyond the agreed date. Holographic laminate Thin transparent matt or gloss film incorporating a hologram pattern, to give a sparkly 3D or metallic effect to a cover or jacket.

Home market ‘Home market rights’ generally comprise the United Kingdom (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales) plus the Republic of letter, Ireland. House style 1) A guide for model school spelling, punctuation, grammatical style and usage produced by a publisher to help maintain consistency in copy-editing and proof-reading; 2) A standard text or cover design, also called a series style. HTML Hypertext Markup Language. The system of mark-up used in documents and websites on cover letter the internet. ICC International Colour Consortium. Industry body set up in 1993 to create standardised colour management software, building on sur la de la the work of the CIE. ICC colour profiles are used in software such as Quark XPress or Adobe Photoshop to enable consistent colour across different applications, computers, monitors, scanners and printing equipment. IDPF International Digital Publishing Forum, formerly the OeBF (Open eBook Forum), a trade and standards association for the e-book and digital publishing industry. Plan Cover Letter! Developed the Epub e-book file format.

IFC/IBC Inside Front/Back Cover. Edgar Paper! The ‘back’ of the front cover, and the ‘front’ of the back cover. See also endpapers and cover letter cover reverse; (US: Cover 2 and Cover 3). Illustrator Adobe Illustrator, application software for drawing maps, diagrams, logos and easy essay other complex mechanical illustrations. Cover Letter! These are saved as AI files, or as EPS files for incorporation into page layouts. There are versions for poe research introduction both Macs and Windows PCs, though the Mac version is cover far more widely used in professional publishing. Imagesetter (filmsetter) Type of RIP which uses a laser to expose photographic film. In CTP, being superseded by ‘platesetters’ which draw directly onto the printing plate. Imposition Pages (esp. Thinking! pages of film) arranged so they can be folded together to create part of cover, a book.

Page 3 will not be imposed next to page 2, but will sit next to critical projects for students it after folding (folding is part of binding processs). Page 1 will be printed on plan letter the back of sheet where page 2 is printed. While pages 2 and 3 are a ‘reader’s pair’ or a ‘spread’, in that they lie together after folding – pages 2 and 15 could be a ‘printer’s pair’ in that they lie together in dissertation de la fontaine the imposition. See also signature. Imposition of plan cover letter, Postscript or PDF files implies modification of the files so that the edgar poe research paper text and graphics in the files are rearranged into an imposed pattern.

Impression A single print run of a book, as in plan cover letter ‘third impression’, the third batch of copies to be printed and bound. The impression number is usually marked on the copyright/imprint page, often with a sequence of numbers such as ‘4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3’, where the lowest number indicates the impression (in this case, the third). Research! All books in plan letter an impression are manufactured at the same time and are identical. There can be several impressions in an edition, all sharing the same ISBN. Imprint ‘Brand name’ used for a range of edgar allan paper, books, eg Voyager, Flamingo.

Imprints are the ‘public face’ of letter, a publishing company, and are much more visible to consumers than the company name. cf list or business unit, which are purely internal to the publishing company. In print The book is available, though it may be temporarily out of stock at the warehouse (awaiting a reprint). Indemnity Contractual agreement which agrees to compensation should a particular situation arise, eg breach of paying papers, any warranties given in the contract. InDesign Adobe’s InDesign software application is letter a competitor to critical for students Quark XPress, though is cover has a smaller market share. Inferior/Superior In typography and design, archaic (but perhaps more correct) names for subscript and research paper on drug superscript. Ink-jet 1) Printing system where text and graphics are printed by firing tiny drops of liquid ink at the paper, an alternative to offset litho; 2) A kind of cover letter, proof, sometimes also known as an Iris, Digital Cromalin or Epson. Ink-jet can be very high quality, and thinking projects for students colour fidelity to the final litho-printed work can be excellent, but they do not reproduce the letter halftone dot structure of the final job so cannot be used to judge the likelihood moire, for example. Integrated An integrated book has text and introduction illustrations printed together on the same pages, rather like the page layout of a magazine – as opposed to having illustrations in letter separate plate sections. Intellectual property A bundle of rights held over information or ideas, something intangible ( cf property, which is a bundle of rights conveying ownership of something tangible). Intellectual property rights give their owners some exclusive rights to papers exploit the underlying information or ideas. Plan! IP rights can take the form of patents, designs, trademarks and thinking projects for students copyrights.

A good overview is given in the recent Gowers Review of Intellectual Property. Internet Worldwide computer network, used for inter-company e-mail, web browsing and FTP. Intranet Collection of computer services available via a web browser to staff within the company ( ie on the internal company network). Examples include the Your HC intranet magazine, Plan G, Barcoder. cf Extranet. IP 1) Intellectual property; 2) In print; 3) Internet Protocol, a technical standard in computer networking. IRI Industry Returns Initiative.

New(ish) set of conventions and processes aimed at simplifying and automating the handling of returns, which have been widely adopted across the book trade since 2002. Plan Cover Letter! IRI covers the authorisation of returns, the easy essay issuing of credit notes, the physical handling of the returned products etc . Iris Brand name for high-quality ink-jet colour proofing system from Scitex. The digital equivalent of a Cromalin, and similar to Digital Cromalin. ISBN International Standard Book Number. Letter! Unique identifier for a book, or more specifically, of a tradeable item within the book trade. A different ISBN is required not only for allan poe research paper introduction each title (or work), but for plan cover each edition and binding (or manifestation) eg hardback, paperback, revised second edition all need different ISBNs. Different impressions, however, share the same ISBN. ISBNs use hyphens (or sometimes spaces) to divide the identifier up into fields – one field indicates the language group, another the publisher or imprint, and the last digit is a ‘check digit’. See also EAN and barcode, and ISTC. ISBN-10 Old-style ten-digit ISBN, used to dissertation fable fontaine distinguish the cover previous system (pre-2007) from the new ISBN-13 scheme. ISBN-13 Revamp of the ISBN numbering system introduced in January 2007, where the old-style ISBN-10 has been replaced with its equivalent Bookland EAN – 978 EANs as at present, plus a new range of 979 EANs.

Since EANs are 13 digits, the new scheme is called ISBN-13. By convention, the thirteen digit number is called an ISBN-13 or just an ISBN if it is papers hyphenated, and an EAN if it consists of digits only. ISDN Obsolete type of digital telephone system, used in the past (1990s) to transfer files from publisher to printer. Faster than a home modem, but much slower than today’s home broadband or corporate internet connections. Cover! Has generally been replaced by FTP for file transfer. ISMN International Standard Music Number – ISBN-like system for allan paper introduction numbering published sheet music. ISSN International Standard Serial Number. While ISBNs are for monograph publications, ISSNs are their equivalent for serial publications (magazines and plan cover letter periodicals). See also EAN. ISTC International Standard Textual Work Code. Proposed standard identification scheme for works, will come into use during 2008.

ISTCs are 16 hexadecimal digits long (the digits themselves can include 0–9 and research paper on drug A–F). All versions of plan letter, a particular work – hardback, paperback, versions by different publishers etc – share an ISTC, whereas their ISBNs vary. Abridgements, translations and thinking for students revisions (new editions) acquire new ISTCs, but also retain the plan ISTC of their ‘parent’ work. Italic Slightly sloped type, usually used for emphasis or for dissertation sur la fontaine foreign words. Oblique is synonymous with italic: serifed typefaces have italic weights, whereas oblique is letter sometimes preferred with sans serif typefaces. Typically, the thinking projects characters in an italic serifed typeface are not quite the same shape as normal roman or upright type. cf Slanted type. Jacket Illustrated dust cover wrapped around a hardback; (US: wrapper). JDE (J D Edwards) HarperCollins’ planned new ERP system, due for rollout in letter 2007–09. JDE will be a shared system with HarperCollins US, and will replace the Vista order-to-cash system.

JPEG Common data file format for a scanned image. It’s compressed, so usually a much smaller file than a TIFF, but sacrifices some quality – JPEG is a ‘lossy’ format, whereas TIFF is ‘lossless’. Critical Thinking Projects For Students! JPEG 2000 is a completely different and plan cover incompatible format for easy on summer lossy image compression. JPEG 2000 Less common, more modern image file format. Plan Cover! Not many applications can yet read JPEG 2000.

Generally makes smaller files than ordinary JPEG for a given image quality, and research paper on drug does not show the letter typical ‘quilted’ artifacts that JPEGs are prone to display. Justified (fully justified) Text typeset so that both left and right edges of the column are straight. See also HJ. cf ragged text. Kerning Reducing the space between letters that fit together, to improve the look of the setting. As in ‘WAVE’, where the A fits nicely between the W and the V, so the three letters can be closed up a little. One of the distinguishing marks of better-quality typesetting is the number of ‘kerning pairs’, combinations of letters that have been individually spaced like this. cf tracking, which is reducing the space between all letters equally, to reduce the length of a word or line. Key account One of the major retailers or chains – WHSmith, Waterstones, Amazon, Tesco etc . We generally focus sales effort at the chain’s head office rather than upon individual retail branches. Key title One of the most important titles published by a division. A division will publish – at most – a handful of Key titles per edgar poe research paper, month, and these will receive significant AP spend, marketing and sales support. Key titles are more critical than Lead titles.

Laid Paper retaining a textured finish from the wires or rollers used in the papermaking process. cf wove. Large print Books printed in bigger than normal type and plan letter often in a specially-designed typeface, one type of accessible edition intended for visually impaired readers. There is no widely accepted definition of how large the type has to be, as the degree and nature of impairment varies from reader to reader. ‘Traditional’ large print is often 12–14pt in an open typeface like Plantin, but this is barely suitable for many VI readers and is perhaps more properly termed ‘clear type’. The RNIB recommends ‘large print’ is least 16pt in a specially designed, high-contrast typeface like Tiresias LP, which covers most VI reader’s needs (only a very small proportion of dissertation sur la de la fontaine, VI readers would actually need Braille). Latin-1 ISO-standard for enhanced version of the Ascii computer character set. In addition to plan letter the usual Ascii characters, Latin-1 includes all the easy essay main alphabetic and puntuation characters required for major western European languages such as French, German, Italian, Spanish ( eg a, ?, e, i, o, n, ?), but not for Welsh, Scandinavian, central and eastern European – Latin-2, -3 and -4 cover those – or for Cyrillic scripts. Note that many Mac and Windows applications use character sets that are close to but not identical to plan Latin 1 – MacRoman and Windows-1252. cf Unicode. Launch 1) External event ( eg party) to mark publication of the book; 2) Internal meeting to brief Marketing and Sales departments on plans for book. Layout The overall design of a page or a cover, including typeface, running heads, page number and middle school graphics, showing how the page will look when printed; a guide for the repro house or junior designer.

Can also refer to the fully-finished page. Plan! Creating layouts using Quark XPress is the main work of the design and art depts; (US: scamp if only a sketch, comp or mechanical if fully finished). Lead title One of the more important titles published by a division. Typically, a division will publish only school a handful of Lead titles per month. Lead titles get significant promotion and publicity effort, but no large AP spend. cf Key title. Leading The (extra) spacing between lines of type. Pronounced ‘ledding’. Typical body copy in a book might be ‘10 on 12 point’, meaning 10 point text with 12 points spacing between lines, measured from baseline to baseline.

In common usage, this is 12 point leading, though strictly it’s just 2 points of cover, leading. Type set without leading ( eg 10 on someone 10 point) is said to be ‘set solid’ – very rare in books, as it’s difficult to read with a wide measure. Legal, Letter paper Common US paper sizes for office use. Letter is 8 1 / 2 ? 11 inches (or 216 ? 279mm), roughly equivalent to A4 but shorter and wider. The US Legal size is 8 1 / 2 ? 13 1 / 2 inches, taller than A4 (and roughly the same as the cover obsolete ‘foolscap quarto’ beloved of those who also fondly remember pre-decimal currency, the essay Light Programme, and rickets). The difference between Letter and A4 paper can cause problems in cover letter formatting and printing documents. LIBF London International Book Fair, held in the early spring. cf FIBF, BEA. Libel Publication of an intentionally untrue statement about a person that will harm their reputation, or tend to make them the target of ridicule, scorn, dislike or contempt. Paper! cf slander, which is the plan oral equivalent. Library edition Book supposedly (or actually) printed on allan poe research introduction a better quality of paper or with a stronger binding than the letter standard edition. Often, a hardback edition printed in small numbers at the same time as a mass-market paperback or trade paperback edition, where the hardback is model middle school primarily produced for the library market (but is otherwise unremarkable). Library supplier A wholesaler that specialises in selling books to libraries (both academic and public), such as Askews.

Licensing (of copyright). Where an cover author or other copyright holder grants a publisher limited rights to exploit a work, rather than assigning all rights to sur la de la the publisher. Licensed rights can be limited by territory, by time period ( eg audio rights are often for seven years only), by format ( eg book rights only, excluding digital or other rights) etc . Ligature Character groups like fi, ffi or fl, redesigned as a single symbol (or glyph), where the conventionally-shaped individual letters may overlap in an ugly way despite careful kerning. Plan Letter! The number of ligatures varies from allan poe research typeface to cover letter typeface. Ligatures are much more important in eg Arabic typesetting, where the individual letters change shape radically depending on easy on summer the letters on either side – as if an ‘s’ at the end of plan cover, a word was a completely different shape to an ‘s’ in the middle of someone, a word. Limp Limp covers include paperbacks and cover letter other flexible bindings in vinyl etc ; not hardback. Line art 1) An illustration that consists of black lines and paper solid areas, but no greys; 2) You can also have coloured line art, so long as there are no tints – the important factor is that all the process colours are printed solid and it can be reproduced without halftoning. cf Halftone. Lining figures Arabic numerals of equal height, usually same size as cap X. Numerals also usually have the plan same width, to make tabular material look neat. cf Non-lining figures. List The books a publisher or imprint has available for purchase or soon to be published.

Within a publishing house, there are usually separate lists for different types of books. cf Imprint. Literary agent People who represent authors and illustrators for a percentage of their client’s income. Logotype, logo Graphical device, emblem or text used to identify a company, brand, imprint etc , usually printed on the spine or title page. Long grain Paper where the majority of the research on drug fibres line up parallel to the longest edge of the sheet or web. Cover Letter! cf short grain. Lorem ipsum Latin sample text used in an design for easy on summer a page layout. Traditional versions of the Lorem ipsum text are based on a passage from Cicero, but Quark XPress can produce mock Latin automatically (via a feature called Jabberwocky). Loupe Magnifying glass on small folding stand, generally providing about plan cover, 5x magnification. Sometimes (and maybe more correctly) called a linen tester.

LPI Lines per inch. Sur La Fable! The fineness of the screening in a halftone, a measure of how far apart the halftone dots are. Typically images are printed at 133 to 175lpi (depending on the quality of the paper). cf DPI. LZW Lossless data compression technique named after its inventors (Terry Welch, Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv), used in TIFFs, mathematically making files smaller without sacrificing any quality. LZW TIFFs are almost always much smaller than the cover letter uncompressed originals, but do not lose any quality. cf lossy compression systems such as that used in JPEG or mp3, which sacrifice quality in model essay order to cover make files smaller. Mac, Macintosh Apple Macintosh computers are widely used in graphic art and design, particularly to run the three main graphic art and design applications, Quark XPress, Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop.

Macs use Mac OS 9 or OS X as their main system software (‘operating system’), instead of Windows on other PCs. cf MAC (in upper case), 48-bit Ethernet hardware address. Mac OS 9, X The main system software used by Apple Macintosh computers. The OS provides the software framework within which applications such as XPress, Illustrator or Photoshop run. Mac OS X is very different from its predecessors: not all older Macs can use it and it cannot run all software originally written for OS 8 or 9. Newer Macs (G5s and Mac Pros) will only run OS X. Essentially all Hammersmith and edgar paper Glasgow Macs run OS X; as yet, a couple of Cheltenham Macs do not. Plan Cover! OS X comes in versions including 10.3 (‘Panther’), 10.4 (‘Tiger’) and 10.5 (‘Leopard’). These major versions are further divided into releases like 10.4.5, 10.4.11 and so on, where the differences are minor and relate mostly to security and bug fixes.

MacRoman Character set used generally by older Mac software applications, similar to Latin-1. Newer OS X applications tend to someone to write use UTF-8 instead. Make ready Time spent preparing the printing press for the next job – wash-up (cleaning), changing the plates and adjusting the press to plan optimise print and colour quality for the new run. Manifestation In the on summer context of cover letter, intellectual property, technical term for ‘different versions of the same work’. For example, a hardback, paperback and e-book of the same title are all different manifestations. Manuscript Unedited text delivered by an author, these days usually a Word file on allan poe research paper disk, but may be typewritten or even handwritten. Abbreviated MS or ms ( pl MSS or mss).

These days, the term is plan cover letter being replaced by Typescript. Mark-up 1) Marks made on a typescript or page proof to model essay school indicate typographical instructions, corrections, insertions and letter deletions. BS-5261 part 2 (1976) describes the standard set of marks to be used for copy preparation and correcting typeset proofs. Download a good reference for the most common marks; 2) tags inserted into text to indicate its structure. For example a heading may be surrounded by tags like this: headHere is the heading/head. See also HTML and XML.

Mass market Small-format paperback edition of a book, usually commercial fiction, intended to sell in large numbers. Edgar Poe Research Introduction! Generally a US term, but is increasingly applied to A-format paperbacks in letter the UK. Matt laminate Thin film coating used to easy vacations give covers and jackets a matt finish. Also available in gloss, and with holographic patterns. cf UV varnish. Measure The width to which a complete line of type is set, or the width of a single column on multi-column pages.

MECS Marketing Expenditure Control System, computer application for tracking AP costs. Memory In computing, the amount of space within your computer for cover letter temporary storage of data while your applications are running. cf storage – note that when people say ‘My computer has run out of memory’, they often mean they have no permanent storage space left. Metadata Literally, data about data. In the context of the model essay book trade, refers to bibliographic data, title, author, ISBN etc , as well as richer, more descriptive data such as found on an AIS. Moire pattern An unwanted striped or checkerboard pattern in halftoned images, frequently caused by cover letter halftoning something that already has a halftone pattern. Paying To Write Papers! Akin to the distracting interference patterns seen in rows of railings ( eg on cover motorway bridges) or when someone on TV wears clothing with a small pattern ( eg a check jacket). Paying Papers! Also loosely called ‘screen clash’. Mono (Monochrome) A book published in black and white only, with no colour (though it can still have line drawings and halftones). Monograph A publication that’s complete in one part (or occasionally, in plan cover a small number of separate parts). Individual books (or occasionally, series of books) are monographs. cf serial publication.

Moral rights protect the author’s integrity and reputation, and are separate from copyright which protects the author’s commercial interest. Edgar Allan Paper Introduction! Moral rights include the right to be identified as the author. MP3 Common computer file format containing sound data, for letter example music or an audiobook – the poe research introduction audio equivalent of plan letter, JPEG: lossily compressed to save storage space or reduce downloading time, but sacrificing quality. cf AAC. MPEG A range of data file formats for moving images (video). For example, MPEG2 is the data format used on commercial DVDs, MPEG4 is on drug used in letter some cable TV systems and on mobile phones. Easy Essay On Summer Vacations! MPEG files are very complex, and each version has may different flavours, so an cover MPEG4 file is not just playable on all MPEG4 players – you need to ensure the ‘profile’ and particularly the ‘codecs’ used are appropriate. Essay! Note that mp3 is not MPEG3 (it's actually subsection 3 of plan cover letter, MPEG1). NBA Net Book Agreement, former retail price maintenance agreement to prevent discounting of books. Inoperative since the mid-1990s. To Write Papers! Books are now widely discounted from their RRP to encourage sales, albeit at letter, a lower profit per copy.

Net receipts Author’s royalty based on dissertation fable fontaine percentage of plan cover, publisher’s income, not the retail price. Uncommon for main volume rights, but fairly common for subrights and audiobooks. New cover reissue/reprint A book reissued/reprinted in a new cover design, but with no other substantial changes ( ie the size and binding stay the same and the content of the book remains unchanged), often as part of the repackaging of an author’s backlist. Does not need a new ISBN, as there is no change to the content of the easy book. News Corporation (News Corp, NWS) Originally Australian, but now US-based company that is the ultimate owner of HarperCollins.

Though it’s a public company with many other shareholders, News Corp is controlled by Rupert Murdoch and other Murdoch family members. Letter! News Corp also has interests in essay satellite and plan letter cable TV, film, newspapers and online, via Sky (satellite TV in Britain and Italy), Star TV (satellite TV in India and China), DirecTV (satellite TV in US, in process of critical thinking for students, being sold off to Liberty Media), Fox (US film and TV programming, plus news), News International (UK newspapers), News Ltd (Australian newspapers), New York Post (US newspaper), News America Marketing (newspaper and magazine promotions), TVGI (EPG data for cable and satellite systems and TV Guide Magazine, sold 2007 to Macrovision), NDS (smartcards and set-top boxes for cable and satellite systems) and Fox Interactive (which includes MySpace). For more information about letter, News Corp, you can register to use TheNewsCore website (NB only available to HC and other News Corp employees). NewsStand Company that runs HarperCollins’ digital distribution repository, through its Libre Digital division. Other publishers ( eg Bloomsbury, Faber). NewsStand also provides e-book conversion and other services to HarperCollins and many other publishers. Nfuse System that allows you to connect to the HarperCollins network from anywhere with internet access. Requires an ‘RSA keyfob’ to de la fontaine enhance security. Letter! You get – in effect – the same thin client system as you would have if you were physically in the office. cf old-style RAS access and newer VPN access which is gradually replacing both Nfuse and on drug RAS.

Oblique Synonymous with italic, but oblique is plan cover letter sometimes preferred for sans serif typefaces. Edgar Allan Poe Research Paper! cf Slanted. OCR Optical Character Recognition. Turning a printed page back into plain text, by letter scanning the page and using computer software to inspect and recognise the shapes of each letter. Generally not very successful… OCR-A, OCR-B Fonts optimised for OCR readability. Used as part of the barcode on a book, even thought the text above and below the bars is not intended to vacations be machine-read.

OEB format An XML DTD sponsored by cover the OeBF and used for structuring e-book texts. Conceptually similar to DocBook, but simpler, as it’s based on XHTML. Superseded by Epub format. Office Suite of Microsoft applications – Word for wordprocessing, the Excel spreadsheet and Powerpoint for presentations. Offset 1) To produce a book by reproducing from an paying to write already-existing book – eg an plan American edition – as opposed to model school typesetting the text from letter scratch. Originally offsetting was done using a duplicate copy of the film used to create printing plates, but now involves a set of application files or PDFs; 2) Printing fault where ink rubs off one page onto another, caused by too much ink coverage or poor drying; 3) see offset litho. Offset fee Fee paid to someone the originating publisher when publishing an cover offset edition.

Part of the fee covers a share of the original typesetting costs, and a (small) part pays for essay vacations delivery of the material used to create the offset edition ( eg the PDF file or application files). Offset lithography (litho) The printing process used to create almost all our book products. The distinguishing feature is that after ink is applied to the plate, the plate does not then touch the paper directly – ink is transferred from plate to paper via an cover intermediate rubber roller known as the ‘blanket’. Essay On Summer Vacations! See also sheet and web. ONIX Standard XML data format defined by plan cover EDItEUR for transmitting bibliographic data, for example to BookData, Bowker and poe research paper elsewhere. OP Out of Print. An out-of-print book is no longer in stock in the warehouse, will not be reprinted in future, and cannot be ordered. See RUC.

Opacity Different grades of letter, paper have different degrees of opacity of show-through. Open market Parts of the world where the normal territorial sales rights and someone to write papers restrictions do not apply – any publisher with rights to a title can sell its copies in the open market. This means countries outside the plan major controlled markets of North America and the Commonwealth, though often Europe is considered a controlled market too. Important OM countries for English-language books include Japan, Singapore, Malaysia and much of the Middle East. OpenType Latest computer font format that combines the features of Truetype and of Postscript fonts. Only OpenType fonts work fully with Unicode. Mac OS X supports OpenType fonts as well as original Postscript and Truetype, whereas OS 8 and middle 9 did not. However, note that not all OS X applications support OpenType or Unicode, even though the underlying OS does – for example Quark XPress 6. OPI Open Prepress Interface, also termed APR or AIR (Automatic Picture or Image Replacement). Plan! A system whereby designers can use FPO images while designing the thinking for students layout, which are then replaced automatically with the hi-res versions when making film or plates. OPS Out of Print, Substitute.

A book that’s OP, but where another equivalent book ( eg a revised edition with a different ISBN) can be substituted. Option Clause A clause in a publishing agreement that requires the letter author’s next work to be offered to the same publisher before being offered elsewhere. An option must usually be exercised by the publisher within a short period of time, or the author is then free to offer it to a new publisher. Ornament Decorative character or design, often an ornate star or flower ( cf Dingbat), or a patterned border or rule. Orphan The first line of a paragraph falling at the foot of a page or column of type. To be avoided in high-quality typesetting.

See also Widow. Outdoor Outdoor advertising on posters and billboards. Overprint In four-colour printing, where two inks are printed one over the other. For example, to print a dark blue circle inside a pink box, a cyan circle would overprint a larger magenta square (cyan + magenta = dark blue). The opposite is knockout, where the cyan circle punches a hole in the magenta box, resulting in a pale blue circle in model essay school the pink box. See also trapping. Overs/Unders The amount of printed materials that is over or under the originally specified print run.

Ozalid Proof for checking imposition only, as the content should have been signed off before the film was made. Originally an plan cover letter ozalid was a blue dyeline proof made from imposed film, but these days is often used loosely to dissertation sur la mean an inkjet print produced (without film) immediately prior to cover platemaking; (US: blue). PA updates The latest Price and Availability information on our products. Generally distributed daily to bibliographic agencies ( eg BookData), wholesalers and major customers by EDI. PL Profit Loss. Allan! On-screen system for raising costings and plan cover evaluating likely sales for potential acquisitions. PAF Postcode Address File. Data file available from the model middle Royal Mail containing postcodes and all 27 million postal addresses in cover the UK. Used to verify delivery addresses etc . Page proofs The text of a book typeset and laid out in pages (but not bound), ready for proof-reading and edgar allan poe research paper collating. Pantone Proprietary colour matching system consisting of cover letter, many hundred individually numbered colours, eg PMS 546 C is a particular shade of teal green. Used to specify spot colours and inks.

Many Pantone colours cannot be matched accurately using halftoned CMYK process colour inks. A better match, but still not perfect, is possible with hi-fi colour systems. Paper over boards Using plain or printed paper to cover the cover boards of a hardback, rather than the easy essay on summer vacations more common clothlike material known as Wibalin. Paperback Book with a paper or flexible card cover. Sir Allen Lane, founder of letter, Penguin Books, was credited with inventing the modern paperback when he published Ariel by essay vacations Andre Maurois with a paper cover in 1936. cf Hardback, with rigid board covers.

PBO Paperback Original. Book published straight into paperback, without a previous hardback edition. PDA Personal Digital Assistant. Small handheld computer providing diary and contacts functions. The most common PDAs are Palm Pilots, Psion Organisers and plan Blackberries. PDF Portable Document Format. Computer language for easy vacations describing printed documents, like Postscript but generally more sophisticated (and usually smaller files too). Letter! PDFs can be previewed on screen using Acrobat, and are a common format for delivery of finished work to printers. PDF comes in various ‘flavours’, PDF 1.3 being the most common and PDF 1.7 the research on drug most recent. PDF files can be composite or preseparated, and may include just one or multiple pages.

PDF files are in many ways similar to EPS files, and increasingly are used instead of plan cover letter, EPS as images that can be imported into Quark layouts. PDF/A Proposed variant of standard PDF aimed specifically at archival applications. PDF/X Highly standardised variant of PDF, which ensures the PDF file contains all data required to paper print the product. PDF/X-1a is based on PDF 1.3. Perfect binding Binding method in which the pages are bound together with glue (as opposed to being sewn with thread or stapled). PerfectBound 1) HarperCollins’ global e-book imprint, which also has its own e-book shop. Plan! Currently being phased out in favour of a plain ‘HarperCollins eBooks’ branding; 2) Rather imperfect way of research, binding paperbacks, by glueing the leaves together along the spine. Perfecting Type of printing press which can print on cover both sides of the paper at once. Permissions Acquisition of a right in paper on drug return for a permission fee, in order to plan cover letter reuse all or part of existing, copyrighted material within another work. Permissions are typically sought, for instance, when a publisher wants to excerpt part of a book to use in an anthology, or when a teacher wants to compile part of a book into critical for students a coursepack. Authors who wish to incorporate a portion of someone else’s work in plan letter their own creation are obliged to someone to write secure permissions.

Contracts normally require such authors to plan cover letter obtain and pay for critical thinking for students permissions, and to warranty that they have done so. Photoshop Adobe Photoshop. Computer software for manipulating scanned images and saving as TIFF or JPEG files for use in page layouts. There are versions for both Macs and Windows PCs, though the Mac version is more widely used in professional publishing. Pi font Typeface consisting of non-alphabetic characters, or sorts. They can be useful or decorative, usually with a particular theme eg a collection of chess piece and playing card characters, arrows, road signs. Cover Letter! Dingbats is one particular pi font which contains a general collection of useful symbols. Picture library Photographic agency that collects images and licences photographs for model middle school use in books, newspapers and plan letter magazines.

Hulton-Getty and Corbis are the two largest. Pilcrow Correct name of paragraph symbol ( ¶ ) looking like a backwards P. Plan G On-screen database of bibliographic data, used to manage publication schedules, AISs, catalogues, and to send data to BookData. Introduction! Plan G data is accessible using Filemaker, or in plan cover letter a more limited read-only way via the intranet. Some of our major customers also have limited access to Plan G data via our extranet; (US: near equivalent is PIX). Plant Up-front costs of creating a book – editing, typesetting, repro and so on. cf PPB costs. Plate 1) Metal printing plate, usually a thin sheet of aluminium with a special surface coating. Oil-based ink sticks to part of the plate (‘oleophilic’), and easy on summer is repelled from cover other parts (‘oleophobic’), and this forms the patterns of letters or halftone dots on the surface of the plate. The ink is then transferred onto the paper to print the text or image (see offset litho).

In CTP, the oleophilic and model oleophobic patterns are drawn onto plan cover the plate by a laser. Formerly, the edgar paper introduction patterns were formed on the plate photographically by letter exposing the chemical coating on papers the plate to strong light through the film; 2) A halftoned illustration, usually bound into a book in a separate plate section. Plate section Set of pages bound into plan a book containing halftoned illustrations. Usually printed as a separate signature on better quality coated paper; (US: insert). cf Integrated. PLC Printed Laminated Case, a decorative variation of a plain paper over easy boards hardback. The printed design on the cover boards is varnished or laminated. PLCs often don’t have separate jackets. PM Vista Production Manager. Software system used by cover letter Production department to manage physical manufacturing of books and delivery into edgar paper introduction warehouse. Plan! Also provides costings to PL system, and interfaces with Computron to create purchase orders. Not to edgar introduction be confused with Vista’s sales order processing system.

PO Purchase Order. These are created within the Computron system, but POs can also be created within PM. POD Print on cover letter demand. Generally implies very-short-run printing – a print run of fewer than about 200 copies – using xerographic rather than litho printing. Essay Vacations! In the extreme case, can be a print run of one copy to plan cover letter fulfill a single customer order, drop shipped from the printer to the consumer. Point 1) (also Full point) A full stop; (US: period); 2) Traditional typographical unit used to easy on summer vacations measure the size of type, equivalent to about 1 / 72 nd of an inch. Cover! Typical body copy might be 10 or 11 points high, measured from the paying someone papers lowest descenders to the highest ascenders. Porter The friendly face of FTP (file transfer protocol), used to send large files to suppliers over the internet. E-mail attachments can only cope with files up to around 1 or 2MB, whereas Porter can easily do 500MB. Used instead of ISDN. Portrait Page oriented normally, so that it’s taller than it is wide. cf landscape.

POS 1) Point-of-sale – ultimately, the plan letter retailer’s till; (US: POP, point of purchase); 2) Point-of-sale promotional material such as posters, dumpbins, bookmarks. Postscript Computer language used to describe pages containing images and text, or more specifically, the instructions sent to research on drug a laser printer or CTP platemaker, to make it ‘draw’ the images and text on the page. The Postscript instructions are interpreted by plan cover a RIP. Postscript files cannot be edited (easily), so any corrections must be made in the original application files, and then the Postscript recreated. Postscript comes in different ‘flavours’ known as Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3, with 3 being the most sophisticated. Beware – many existing devices (laser printers, RIPs etc ) are limited to Level 2. Postscript is a close relative of PDF. See also EPS. Postscript font One kind of font software. Edgar! Helvetica and Times are two common Postscript fonts – Arial and Times New Roman are the Truetype equivalents.

Postscript fonts come in two parts, a ‘screen font’ and plan a ‘printer font’, and are often of higher quality than their Truetype counterparts. Sometimes called Type 1 fonts. PowerPoint Microsoft PowerPoint is the de facto standard application for creating on-screen presentations. There are versions for both Mac and Windows PCs, though because of differences in fonts, there are significant compatibility problems if a presentation is moved from Mac to Windows, or vice versa . PP 1) 384pp means 384 pages; 2) per pro Signed on behalf of. PPA Periodical Publishers Association, trade body for magazine publishers. PPB Paper, print(ing) and thinking projects bind(ing), used to describe one of the major areas of cost in plan cover letter manufacturing a book. cf plant costs. PPG Product Price Group, or discount category. Different product categories such as trade hardback fiction, paperback fiction, illustrated non-fiction etc attract different discount rates, and of course different retailers may get different discounts on the same product. Each product belongs in one PPG, and a retailer’s standard terms link each PPG to the discount that the retailer receives on projects for students products in that category; (US: equivalent is plan cover TDC, title discount code). Preflighting Checking all details of an essay middle school application file (esp.

Quark or PDF file) to ensure it’s technically complete, correct, and plan cover is ready to go to the printer. An essential quality assurance step before dispatch of application files to repro house or printer. Premium sales Sales of dissertation sur la fable de la fontaine, customised versions of existing products, usually to plan cover customers outside the normal book trade. Unlike normal book trade sales, premium sales are not on a sale or return basis. cf special sales. Prepress Taking application files and making them ‘press-ready’.

This can include pre-flighting and corrections to the application files, creating final Postscript or PDF, imposition and essay vacations making the printing plates. Cover! Most prepress work is carried out at repro houses, but a growing proportion of essay, printers are incorporating prepress departments to support CTP. Preseparated Data file or files (esp. Plan! Postscript or PDF) where the C, M, Y and K data for edgar poe research paper introduction a single page is cover held in separate page images. Critical Projects! cf composite. A preseparated PDF file of say, four pages would contain sixteen images, p1 C, p1 M, p1 Y, p1 K then p2 C, p2 M and so on. This is more common than having the letter CMKK data seperately in four separate files. Presenter Folder or single sheet, usually colour and illustrated with the research cover image, containing information on plan letter a particular book and allan poe research possibly some sample pages, produced for sales purposes. cf blad.

Press marks Trim and registration marks, colour bars used for press calibration, marks used for plan cover letter checking the collation of easy essay, folded signatures before binding, etc . All are printed outside the page bleed area on each signature. Print run The number of copies of a book printed at one go in an impression; that printing considered as a whole. Printer Company that operates a printing press and manufactures books (and generally does binding too). Progressives A set of colour proofs where each of the CMYK process colours is plan printed separately and in combination with the other colours – so you get a C proof, a C+M proof, a C+Y, a C+K, and so on. Paper! With four process colours, there are 15 combinations in a full set of cover, progressives, but you don’t often get all 15 though – just the easy on summer set that mirrors the order inks are applied on the press (often K, then K+C, K+C+M, and a full K+C+M+Y). These proofs are used to determine the density of each colour and each colour’s effect on the other colours. Proof Printed test version of material for plan cover letter checking and paper on drug correction. Proofs are produced for different purposes – Cromalin proofs for checking colour quality, page proofs for checking and correcting typesetting, ozalids for checking impositions. Proof-reading Checking and correcting typeset material such as page proofs or cover/jacket proofs for typographical errors, and marking up to indicate the corrections that need to plan cover be made. cf Copy-editing. PSD Photoshop’s native file format.

It contains layer and transparency information, but isn't as widely compatible as image formats like TIFF. Pub date/Publication date The date, fixed by the publisher, on fable de la which a book can supposedly first be sold to the public. Plan Cover Letter! In reality, most books go on sale in retailers as soon as they arrive, usually only a day or so after they are dispatched from the warehouse, and frequently up to a fortnight before the nominal pub date. Only in the case of a serialization do books first go on paying sale to the public on the actual publication date, simply because there is an embargo on sales prior to plan letter the serialization appearing. cf Release date, Bound stock date. Pubeasy Extranet system allowing customers to check book availability, place and track orders via the dissertation sur la fontaine internet. Plan Cover! Originally set up by Vista and Whitaker, now under the research paper ownership of Bowker. Publisher Person or organization responsible for the production and dissemination of a book.

Pulp 1) To destroy unsold books that are no longer wanted. The final alternative to letter remaindering the copies; 2) The raw material for making paper, made from wood or recycled paper. Purchase ledger Financial record of all money owed by dissertation the company for goods or services we have bought. Plan Cover Letter! Purchase orders generated in middle school Computron create entries in the Purchase Ledger. Quark XPress Dominant computer application for on-screen design and layout. Pronounced to rhyme with ‘dark’, not with ‘quart’ (“…three quarks for Muster Mark.” Finnegan’s Wake by James Joyce). The latest version is cover letter XPress 7. Research Paper! Quark XPress Passport is the multi-language version, and there is also a separate US English edition and plan letter others for Arabic and research paper CJK languages.

There are versions for both Mac and cover Windows, though the Mac version is more widely used in easy vacations professional publishing. Often just called ‘Quark’, although XPress is not the company’s only product. Not to be confused with a German brand of soft cheese. Quire 1) Twentieth of a ream ( ie 25 sheets). Plan Cover! Originally, a quire was 24 sheets; 2) Library quire, semi-bound book block, sold to someone to write specialist library suppliers who add a more durable than normal binding. Quotes Quotation marks, inverted commas. Can be double or single. The preferred choice is one of the common elements of cover letter, a house style. In Europe, the edgar allan introduction usual rule is ‘Double within single’: ‘I heard him shout “Help!” as he fell,’ said Gerald. Plan Cover Letter! Common US typesetting style would be different: “I heard him shout ‘Help!’ as he fell”, said Gerald. Note also the difference in essay middle placement of the plan letter comma.

Rack size US equivalent of A-format, used for mass market paperbacks. Usually 6 3 / 4 ? 4 3 / 16 ths inches. Rag book Short book for paying someone papers infants and plan toddlers, where each page is printed on textile rather than paper. See also board book. Rag paper Expensive paper made from textile fibres (cotton, linen) rather than from weed pulp. Ragged left, ragged right Unjustifed text. Ragged right text is ranged against a straight left margin, and vice versa . cf justified text. RAS Remote Access Server. Computer system through which you can dial a Glasgow phone number with your computer and modem, and connect to de la the HarperCollins network. Generally poor performance because of the plan letter slow speed of modems, and model essay school replaced by letter speedier internet-based NFuse access.

However, unlike NFuse, RAS gives you the option to synchronise files or e-mails – effectively this copies them on to your laptop so you can access them off-line later ( ie without having to dial in). RAS is edgar introduction used less frequently now, having been replaced by BlackBerries, by NFuse and by VPN. Raster Computer image data consisting of plan letter, a regular grid of pixels, generally stored as a TIFF or JPEG file. cf vector. A vector illustration such as a logo, diagram or map can be rasterised to turn it into a grid of pixels. Ream 500 sheets of paper. Originally, a ream was 480 sheets – 20 24-sheet quires. Recommended retail price (RRP) The price put on the cover or jacket of a book by the publishers. These days, not necessarily the price for which it is sold to the customer – though it used to thinking projects be, when the letter NBA was in dissertation fable fontaine force. Royalties are generally based on the RRP rather than the discounted price. Recto A right-hand page.

Always carries odd number. See verso. Reflow Undesirable occurrence in which the line breaks in typeset copy change due to alterations in plan cover letter the layout, the fonts used, or some other factor. Register In four-colour printing, the four CMYK images need to be aligned exactly so that combined multi-coloured images look natural. Registration is the action of easy on summer vacations, ensuring this precise alignment. To print a red circle, for example, you need to print a yellow circle and a magenta circle exactly in the same place – ‘in register’. Any mis-registration would cause a pink fringe to show on plan cover letter one side of the introduction circle where the yellow doesn’t quite overlap with the magenta. Registration marks Target marks (often a cross) printed outside the page area, beyond the bleed area, to aid registration.

The reg marks must appear on all plates, so the individual crosses printed in cover letter each colour can be lined up. Critical! cf trim marks. Reissue As a reprint, but usually with additional AP, renewed efforts to sell the book in, and usually after the book has been unavailable (out of stock, or even OP) for a period. Most reissues are in fact new cover reissues. Relaunch Like a new cover reissue, but the plan letter book is additionally given a new ISBN (contrary to best practice). This is done to model school encourage the belief that it is cover a new product and to stimulate sell-in, when in fact it is edgar allan introduction simply a new cover reissue of an existing or old product. Relaunches cause problems with retailer’s core stock lists, and make longitudinal sales analysis more difficult. Release date The date on which books can be released from the warehouse and sent to customers. Generally around three weeks prior to the nominal publication date. See also bound stock date. Remainder Dispose of unsold books by selling at a low price to specialist bookseller (who cannot return them). Cover! An alternative to pulping.

Reprint Manufacture a new print run, identical to the previous impression, to replenish stock in the warehouse (does not get new ISBN). cf new cover reprint. Repro house Company that turns illustration a/w or trannies into film separations or data, usually a TIFF; (US: engraver). Repro houses scan, do colour proofs, retouching, colour correction, and often are responsible for essay on summer turning illustrated page layouts into plan Postscript or PDF data required for CTP printing. Many repro houses can also do printing, and conversely, many printers also have prepress departments that are repro houses in easy essay on summer vacations all but name. Rerun To typeset a book by taking the electronically-held text of a book that has already been set and reflowing it into a different layout. Plan Letter! So, for on drug example, the text of a hardback book is often rerun for the smaller paperback edition. Reserved stock Stock in plan cover the warehouse set aside for paying to write purposes other than fulfilling dues or new customer orders. It may be reserved for an anticipated large order or special deal, for example. cf free and frozen stock. Resolution Loosely, the quality of the image or printing process, expressed in dots per inch (dpi). A laser printer is generally 300–600 dpi, typeset and plan cover letter litho printed material is thinking for students generally 1200–2540 dpi.

Also used to describe the quality of cover letter, TIFF and JPEG files. cf halftoning and lpi – the for students resolution is not the same as the halftone screen (it must be much higher). For a printing device such as a laser printer, the resolution in dpi should be at several times greater than the plan cover letter lpi so that the halftone can reproduce an adequate range of grey shades – so a 600dpi laser printer can do decent halftones at 106lpi, but cannot reproduce subtle grey shading at 150lpi. Dissertation Sur La! An offset litho press working with plates made at 2540dpi can easily produce good halftones at letter, 150 or 175lpi. For printing an image such as a TIFF or JPEG, you should aim for dissertation sur la fable de la dpi about twice the lpi – 300dpi for cover 150lpi printing. Returns Unsold books returned by retailers to the publisher, resulting in a credit to the retailer. See also Industry Returns Initiative. Reverse out For example, white text on a dark background image or solid colour area. Revert, Reversion A publisher’s rights to publish a work revert back to the author on termination of the allan poe research paper introduction contract.

The contact may terminate at the end of a fixed time, or it can lapse when a book goes out of print. Revises Revised proofs. Page proofs in which the corrections marked on the original page proofs have been made by the typesetter. Plan! Revises (or second proofs) have to be checked against the marked-up page proofs (or first proofs). RFID Radio Frequency Identification. A tiny programmable computer memory chip bound into a book at manufacture, carrying data about the book – its ISBN, price etc . The data on model middle the chip can be read, modified or added to, without physically touching the book, as the chip can communicate by radio. This could simplify many supply chain processes: for example, the chip could be programmed with the sales order number and the actual discounted price as it leaves the warehouse, then the price read and credited to the customer if the book is returned, or the contents of plan cover, a carton could be checked without even opening the box. The technology is not yet in use in the book trade, but has already caused privacy concerns in other industries. RFIDs are in use to track library books in some libraries. RGB Red, Green and essay school Blue. Colours used on computer screen to plan simulate full range of edgar poe research paper, possible colours.

But an on-screen RGB image can never properly match the final printed effect created by plan letter using CMYK inks on paper. Rich black In colour printing, large solid black areas are printed ‘blacker-than-black’: in CMYK, 100K plus between 60–100C, or possibly 100K plus 60–100M for a ‘warmer’ effect. Making a rich black with more than about 250% total ink coverage means the ink will not dry properly, causing offset. Rich text Generic term for research a text file that contains accented chararacters, proper punctuation such as curly quotes, en- or em-dashes and other non-Ascii characters. Cover Letter! The important thing with any rich text file is to understand the character encoding or character set – UTF-8, UTF-16, Latin-1, MacRoman or Windows-1252 are all relatively common, and a rich text file in one character set will not look right if displayed in a system that uses a different character set. Edgar Poe Research! Save an apostrophe ’ on plan letter a Mac, and then display it on a PC: unless you control the character set properly, you would see i instead. Rights Conditions and terms of essay on summer, a licensing agreement (the contract) between a copyright owner (generally the author) and a publisher.

See also volume rights and subrights. Generally, these rights will be limited to cover letter specific territories, eg the Home market, Commonwealth countries, or to de la market sectors like the Educational market. RIP Raster Image Processor. Device that takes Postscript or PDF and creates film or plates. Cover Letter! A laser printer is a kind of small scale RIP too, except it transfers the paying someone image to paper. Royal A standard book format (TPS = 234 ? 153mm), usually hardback, used for most hardback fiction and general non-fiction. Slightly larger than Demy size. See also trade paperback. Royalty The payment specified in plan letter the contract that’s made to an author for essay school every copy sold, usually based on a percentage of RRP but occasionally on a percentage of the publisher’s net receipts. Part of the royalty is plan cover letter usually paid in advance. RTF Rich Text File.

A particular type of rich text file format that contains additional formatting such as font, colour and limited page layout information in addition to the wide character support of other rich text formats ( cf Ascii files). It’s sometimes suited to research converting documents between applications and platforms, but isn’t as useful as it sounds. RUC Reprint Under Consideration. Indicates book is unavailable: orders may still be taken and build up as dues, and may result in a future reprint or reissue. See OP. S/S (Same size) Reproduce at the same size as the original. Sale or return Most books sold by publishers are on sale-or-return terms. Non-returnable books are ‘firm-sale’. Sales CD Monthly on-screen ‘multimedia’ presentation of new products, formerly created around 5 months prior to letter publication and used primarily by Home Sales dept as part of the subscription and sell-in process.

No longer used. See also the monthly brochure. Sales Ledger Financial record of all money owed to the company for edgar allan paper introduction goods we have sold. Invoices generated in Vista create entries in the sales ledger. SAN 1) Standard Address Number, unique seven-digit number used to identify the address of a company in plan cover letter the book distribution trade. HarperCollins’ SAN in Glasgow is 0091073. Someone! The GLN, or Global Location Number is like the SAN but is expressed as a 13-digit EAN, and is a more modern global system rather than being limited to the book trade. UK-based GLNs can be derived from the SAN by adding 503067 to the front and cover letter recalculating the for students final check digit, so HarperCollins’ Glasgow GLN is 5030670091072. The list of plan, all UK-based SANs and GLNs is paying administered by Nielsen BookData; 2) Storage Area Network, a huge central pool of letter, hard disc storage used by for students various servers on the computer network. Scale out Retailer’s head offices allocate order volumes to cover their branches depending on dissertation sur la the branch’s profile – its size, customer base etc . A small branch may be told to order ten copies, and a larger branch 15 copies. Scan 1) Action of plan letter, turning artwork or trannie into a separation or data file; 2) The resulting data file, usually a TIFF or JPEG.

Scatterproof A (colour) proof where images are not ‘in position’ on the page, but arranged together without regard to the (eventual) page layout and without the fable fontaine surrounding text. Screen reader Test-to-speech software that reads text on a computer screen aloud, so the computer can be used by cover blind, visually-impaired or other reading-impaired users. Screening Conventional halftoning where the dots are all the same distance apart in a regular grid, but vary in size to papers simulate dark and light tones. This is called ‘AM screening’. Specified in plan cover letter ‘lines per someone, inch’ (LPI), the number of halftone dots per inch in the grid. cf FM screening (also called ‘stochastic screening’), where the dots are all the cover same small size but are varying distances apart in a random pattern. FM screening is rare in offset litho printing (though you see it in domestic ink jet printers), but can give very good quality results, as it’s completely free of moire and edgar paper can be used with more than the basic four process colours.

Section 1) In binding, see signature; 2) In typography, the correct name of the § symbol. Self cover Bound without a separate cover, so the first page of the book block is the plan cover letter front cover. The cover is of the same material as all the other pages. Sell-in 1) Wholesale sales to bookshops – not real sales, as books are still returnable. In principle, sell-in = sell-out + returns; 2) Frequently used to mean subscription sales to easy essay on summer bookshops, ie sales specifically in plan cover letter the pre-publication period.

Sell-out Retail sales from bookshops to customers – real sales as books cannot then be returned. Also occasionally termed ‘sell-through’. Sell-through 1) Ongoing sales of someone, frontlist titles after the initial sell-in period ( ie during the first few months following publication); 2) See sell-out. Separation (colour separation) 1) Single film or plate element (or the plan letter equivalent data) making up a set of critical projects for students, separations, each containing the part of the image to be printed with one of the process inks. Plan! Four plates are used to print a full-colour CMYK image; 2) The action of creating these separations by someone to write papers scanning. Originally this was a photographic process using coloured filters. Serial publication Regularly published items such as monthly magazines, scientific journals and other periodicals. cf monographs and series.

Serialization Where extracts of a book are licensed to a newspaper or magazine for cover letter publication, usually immediately prior to dissertation fable the publication date. Cover! If a book is serialized, publishers and booksellers must prevent copies going on sale prior to on drug the agreed pub date. Series Group of letter, linked titles sharing a common series title ( eg seven titles in C. S. Lewis’ Chronicles of essay middle school, Narnia ). Plan Cover! Technically a set , not a serial, because there is (or will eventually be) a fixed number in a set whereas serials are ongoing publications. Series style Graphical design or typographic style used throughout a series or set of books. Serif A serif is a small line at the extremities of a main stroke in a type character.

Serifed typefaces include Times, Sabon, Baskerville etc . cf Sans serif. Server A computer offering some centralised service to critical for students other ‘client’ computers on the same network. So a file server stores client’s files, a web server delivers a website, and an e-mail server provides e-mail services. SGML Stanardized General Markup Language. Highly complex technical standard for mark-up. Plan! Effectively the predecessor of XML, but rarely used because of its complexity. Sheet Paper cut into single sheets before printing, and each sheet passed through the press individually. Each sheet is the model essay same size as the printing plate, and is folded and trimmed to create one signature or section of a book. cf web. Sheet-fed press Printing press using cut sheets rather than printing on a continuous web of paper. Short A-format Non-standard book format (TPS = 165 ? 111mm), the plan letter same width as standard A-format, but reduced in height. Does not mean A-format printed short-grain.

Short B-format Non-standard book format (TPS = 185 ? 130mm), the same width as standard B-format, but reduced in height. Short Demy Non-standard book format (TPS = 203 ? 135mm), the same width as standard Demy, but reduced in dissertation fable de la fontaine height. Short grain Paper in which the majority of the plan cover fibres lie parallel to dissertation de la the shortest edge of the sheet, or across the web. cf long grain. Short Royal Non-standard book format (TPS = 221 ? 153mm), the same width as standard Royal, but reduced in height. Shoutline Promotional text added to front cover of a book.

Often a review quote, or ‘By the plan author of…’. Show through Where text or images are visible through a page, because the paper is model school too thin or not sufficiently opaque. Sic In Latin, sicut , ‘Just as is’. Mark inserted in text (often in brackets in quoted text) to show that an apparent error is deliberate. Signature 1) The pattern in which pages are imposed, a characteristic of the press and binding system used; 2) the folded section that you get after the sheet has been printed and folded ( eg a 48-page section of a book). SIT StuffIt file, a type of plan, compressed file.

StuffIt is suitable for compressing both Windows and projects Mac files, and is used by plan cover Porter. SITX files are a special form of SIT file that can only be used by OS X. cf Zip files. SKU Stock Keeping Unit. Unique number associated with a product, used for warehouse and inventory management. Paying Someone Papers! For books, the ISBN or EAN can act as an cover SKU, though finer-grained control may be required ( eg where the same ISBN is used for a new cover reissue, the essay middle school warehouse control system would have to use an extra ‘lot control’ number to identify the plan letter two batches of books). SLA Service level agreement, the agreed quality of service (often quoted in terms of time to react, time to dissertation fontaine complete a job, acceptable technical standards etc ) to be provided by a service department or an external supplier to letter the company. Slanted Faux italic type produced by skewing normal roman type slightly. Slipcase Box to hold book(s), often containing a complete series of books. Slippage 1) An unexpected delay in publishing a title, due to late delivery from the author, for example; 2) the cost of this delay in postponed cashflow rather than any loss of sales. Slush pile Unsolicited typescripts that are received from authors, sometimes more politely called ‘speculative submissions’. Slush pile material almost never gets published. cf work commissioned from an author.

Small caps Capitals the same height as normal lower case letters. Proper small caps are slightly bolder than they would be if they were simply proportionally reduced from upper case characters, but they are often simulated using normal capitals at two-thirds size. Soft proof On-screen display that mimics the appearance of a printed proof. Generally, text and layout issues can be proofed this way, but colour issues cannot, as computer screens are not colour-accurate enough. Solidus Correct name for / sign (especially when used in fractions), more commonly called a slash. cf the character, usually called a backslash. Solus Alone, separate, dedicated, as in critical thinking projects ‘solus advert’ or ‘solus review’ (major review of plan cover letter, a single book, rather than an article containing shorter reviews of several works). Special sales Sales of existing books through non-traditional book outlets. Paying To Write! Unlike normal trade sales, special sales are often not on a sale or return basis. cf Premium sales. Spine brass Metal die or stamp that impresses the foil lettering onto the spine of plan cover, a hardback book, ie onto thinking projects the board itself, not onto the jacket. Spinner A free-standing, usually metal, rotating display stand used to hold books in cover letter retail environment.

Spot colour Premixed ink colour ( ie colour not made up of four-colour halftoning). This is model usually specified as a specific Pantone colour. sRGB ‘Standard RGB’, the colourspace that Windows assumes all RGB images are in. See also Adobe RGB. Stet An instruction that countermands a previously-marked correction, usually indicated by a broken underline. In Latin, ‘Let it stand’. See mark-up.

STM Scientific, Technical, Medical – HarperCollins is not an STM publisher. Stock 1) As-yet-unsold books in warehouse; 2) Paper or board to be printed on. Stocklist List of plan letter, all products in print, used by dissertation sur la fable de la fontaine sales depts to plan cover letter administer and encourage backlist sales. Does include titles that are RUC, but not OP titles. Storage In computer terms, this is generally the amount of space on your hard disc or network for permanent storage of documents and other files. cf memory.

Strip and bind To remove the cover from a bound book and rebind it in a new cover. Strippable In the US, low-value books that can be returned by stripping off the easy essay on summer vacations cover and returning only the cover instead of the whole book, thus saving on shipping. Strippable books carry an letter S in a triangle printed next to the barcode. Stripping Assembling, especially imposing, film ready for platemaking. Structural editing The first stage of editing, paying particular attention to overall style, pacing, plot etc. cf Copy-editing. StuffIt Files can be compressed with Allume StuffIt, a software application to make files smaller (and thus easier to edgar paper introduction e-mail or send via FTP) and to combine multiple files into a single ‘.SIT’ archive file. StuffIt Expander is used to reconstitute the original files. Cover! There are versions of StuffIt for Windows, Mac OS and Linux. Submission A book or project submitted to a publisher, normally by an agent or author, for research paper on drug possible acquisition. Subscription Initial pre-publication sales process.

Orders taken at this stage build up as dues, and are fulfilled upon publication. Occasionally also termed sell-in. Subscription orders taken can be used as guidance for setting the cover initial print run. Subsidiary rights (subrights) Rights set out in the contract allowing the critical for students publisher to exploit the work in ways other than the main book form, eg audiobook, serialization, translation, book clubs. Letter! cf Volume rights. Superior/Inferior In typography and design, the paper correct names for superscript and subscript.

SVG Scalable Vector Graphics. Graphic file format developed for plan the web that uses vector graphics, can be thought of as ‘a simplified version PDF expressed in XML’. Not yet as popular as Flash. Swatch Colour sample, sometimes printed on a small square of card, called a ‘chip’. Pantone colour samples are available in booklets of swatches, and some booklets contain many chips to tear out and attach to layouts. SWOP Specifications for to write Web-Offset Publications. A (generally American) industry standard that provides the specifications for separations, proofing, and printing process colour using web-offset. Plan Letter! cf Euroscale. TeleOrdering System whereby bookshops submit orders to allan publishers electronically (not on internet but via a private computer network). Formerly administered by letter Whitaker but now a part of Nielsen BookNet.

Telescope DAM software from North Plains Systems. Telescope is used by easy essay HarperCollins in both the UK and US. Territory A geographical limitation on plan letter the extent of the rights covered in a publishing contract. Text black Text set in a special spot colour, so that it appears on an extra separation, separate from the essay school normal black used in any illustrations, rules, folios etc . But the plan ‘text black’ is not printed with a spot ink – the fable de la fontaine separation is combined with the ‘graphics black’ in order to plan cover letter make the black plate. A text black or fifth black is generally used in illustrated co-edition books.

The advantage of keeping text separately is that the graphics black film need not be remade (or more specifically in projects a CTP scenario where there is no film, the graphics black does not need to be repeatedly proofed for colour quality) for each translated edition – only the plan letter text black needs to be changed for each different language edition. To Write! And if several co-editions are printed at plan, the same time as the main edition, only the single black plate need be changed for each subsequent language. Thin client PC connected via network to powerful Windows server system, on which you can use all the essay middle school major PC applications. The thin client provides only display and keyboard, while the processing is done on the server. May look old, but can be faster and more reliable than thick clients. Letter! cf Thick client.

Thin client software can also be run on a Mac, so the essay on summer Mac can be used to run PC software. Third party In ‘third party’ business, HarperCollins acts as a distributor for other publishing companies ( eg Simon and Schuster, Letts and several others). Their books are kept in the Glasgow warehouse, and distributed to wholesalers and letter retailers alongside our own titles. Tie-in Special version of a book produced to benefit from promotion of other media products, eg a film tie-in may use an image from the film on the cover. TIFF Tagged Image Format File – a high-quality (‘lossless’) data format for dissertation fontaine scanned images. Plan Letter! Can be mono, greyscale or colour, and can be a very large file. A single A4-size colour TIFF at suitable resolution for printing can be up to 48MB. TIFFs can be uncompressed, or can contain LZW-compressed image data to make the file smaller. Someone! cf JPEG, which creates much smaller files by sacrificing some image quality (‘lossy’). accent, the diacritical mark used in Spanish señor , and also (loosely) of a ‘swung dash’.

Tint Pale version of a colour: grey is a tint of plan letter, black, pink is a tint of red, generally specified by percentage of the on summer vacations base colour and printed with a halftone. You can also have tints of spot colours, eg 50% of plan cover, a teal colour such as Pantone 2476 is a pale minty green, but unless your choice of Pantones is severely limited, it’s better to avoid halftoning by critical using 100% of a similar hued but paler spot colour like PMS 5493. Tip-in Extra leaf glued into a book after it’s bound, often used for separately-printed illustrations or plates, errata sheets, gatefolds and other pages that are not the plan cover letter same size, or sometimes for forms to be removed and returned. Title ISBN Sometimes also called the ‘head ISBN’. Research Paper! ISBN of the primary version of a book, usually the initial hardback. All the different bindings and editions of a particular book – hardback, paperback, audiobook and so on – share the same title ISBN. It is, in effect, an letter identifier for the work, though it’s imperfect because audiobooks and allan special sales often do not share the letter same head ISBN as the essay middle school main trade versions of the work. The ISTC is plan letter a much better work identifier, when it is introduced. Title page Page in the prelims (often the third page and always a recto) on which the essay school author’s name, the title of the letter book, the series title and research paper on drug subtitle (if any) and the imprint logotype all appear. Title verso Page in the prelims backing the plan cover letter title page (often the fourth page) on which the copyright notice, publisher and imprint details, the ISBN and impression number, and other details about the publication of the book appear. Also called the copyright page or imprint page.

Tivoli Software application used to make tape backups of computer data stored on for students our servers and SAN. TPS Trimmed page size (also trim size and trimmed leaf size). Plan Cover! The outer dimensions of a page of a finished book, so for on drug A-format, 178 ? 111mm. Trade paperback (TPB) A large-format paperback, usually Royal or Demy size, with the implication that there is letter (or will be) a separate smaller A- or B-format paperback for the mass market. In fiction publishing, a trade paperback version is often published after the hardback but before the main mass market paperback version.

In Australia, a trade paperback is often published instead of a hardback. Although a paperback, a TPB often earns the author royalties more in line with a hardback; US: trade paperback is often used to easy vacations mean what in the UK would be a B-format paperback, and contrasts with an rack-sized mass-market edition. Trademark The rights to cover letter the use of a specific symbol or words connected to a specific product or service, to differentiate one business, product or service from another. In the UK, trademarks can be registered with The Patent Office, and unlike copyright, trademark rights can be renewed indefinitely. Trademark owners object strongly if their mark is used to fable de la fontaine mean a generic business, product or service ( eg Hoover, Filofax, Coke, Xerox still defend their trademark rights, whereas nylon and escalator have lost their former trademark status). Trademarks can be noted as such with the ™ symbol, and letter registered trademarks with the ® symbol. Trapping Range of methods to prevent obvious printing errors caused by paying someone imperfect registration between the process colours. If you wanted to plan letter print a light blue circle within a pink box, and the cyan circle were exactly the same size as the easy essay knocked out ‘hole’ in the magenta, any mis-registration between cyan and magenta would show as a white line around half the cover letter circle. Since a narrow dark blue halo around the circle where magenta and cyan overlap is less visually intrusive than a white line, the sur la fable de la fontaine circular ‘hole’ in plan the magenta is choked – made slightly smaller, typically reducing it by less than 0.25 point – to create a deliberate overlap (overprint), so that any mis-registration between cyan and yellow does not create a white line. Alternatively, the size of the cyan circle could be spread. Whether to choke or spread depends on the visual strength of the colours – generally the weakest colour is sur la fontaine increased in area.

Transparency (trannie) 1) Photographic slide; 2) Objects in some Postscript, PDF, EPS and application files can be ‘coloured’ as semi-transparent. These can only be printed after flattening. Transparency is cover letter supported from Illustrator version 10, Quark XPress 7, PDF 1.4. Trim marks L-shaped marks printed just outside the page area showing where the page should be cut to paying the correct trim size after printing. Cover! Also called crop marks, and occasionally cut marks and tick marks. Paying Someone To Write Papers! To allow for some tolerance in the trimming, items intended to print right to the edge of the page don’t just stop at the trim marks, but extend out into the bleed area. cf Registration marks. Strictly, trim marks need only be printed in one colour ( ie they only need appear on one plate, usually black) but if they are printed on all plates, the same marks can be used for plan cover letter both trim and registration. Truetype One kind of font software that can be used on both Macs and essay middle PCs.

Arial and letter Times New Roman are common Truetype fonts – Helvetica and Times are the Postscript equivalents. They can provide better cross-platform compatibility than Postscript fonts, but Truetype fonts are often of lower quality. Typeface A set of characters (glyphs) that share a distinctive and consistent design, eg Times Roman, Helvetica Oblique or Stempel Garamond Italic. These days, synonymous with ‘font’, though originally font (or fount) meant the characters were also all the same size ( eg Times Roman 12 point). Typefaces come in families of edgar allan poe research paper introduction, differing weights – Times Roman, Times Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, Condensed, Bold Condensed etc . Typescale Special ruler for measuring type sizes, marked in letter points and ems instead of inches or centimetres. Typescript Unedited text delivered by an author, usually a Word file on disk, but may be typewritten. Abbreviated TS or ts. The term is now used more commonly than Manuscript, though they are synonymous. Typesetter Company or person that typesets text and lays out pages, creates proofs, does revisions etc (US and traditional UK: compositor). UCC 1) Universal Copyright Convention (the ‘Berne Convention’ as agreed in 1886, and revised in Geneva in 1952 and Paris in 1971) gives legal protection to authors or originators of text, photographs or illustrations etc , to prevent reuse without permission or acknowledgment. The publication should carry the copyright mark , the name of the originator and the year of publication, although this isn’t vital as copyright is automatic – it doesn’t have to be ‘applied for’ or registered with any central agency.

For further details, see The Patent Office website; 2) Uniform Code Council, company that administers the UPC barcode system. Paper! See also EAN. UCR/GCR Undercolour removal/grey component replacement. In CMYK printing, removing cyan, magenta and cover letter yellow ink from areas where all three overlap and replacing the dark area with black. This reduces the ink coverage and speeds up drying of the ink. Unders/Overs The amount of printed materials that is under or over easy essay vacations the originally specified print run. Unicode Computer character set. Hugely improved over Ascii and cover Latin-1, because it includes accented characters, fancy punctuation and a wide range of specialised symbols ( eg for maths). In principle – and in contrast to Latin-1 – it also includes all the characters required for all other written languages, including non-European scripts like Arabic, Devanagari or Chinese, and a vast range of mathematical and essay vacations other symbols.

Obviously this is font-dependent too – your data may be in Unicode, but if your font does not contain the right characters, you still can’t see it! Again in principle, a single font file could contain glyphs for plan cover all the Unicode characters, but in practice only a subset are included. OpenType fonts are based around Unicode, and generally contain a much wider selection of glyphs than older Postscript T1 fonts based around the paper on drug Latin-1 or MacRoman character sets. Plan! Unicode is relatively new, so not all software can use it. This web page is composed in Unicode, which allows it to include special characers like v (square root symbol), (Cyrillic letter de), ? (Arabic character sheen) or ? (Chinese word fang) – but you might not see them correctly if your web browser, font and operating system don’t all support Unicode. Each character in Unicode has a 32-bit number (cf Ascii, which allows 8 bits per character), so Unicode files are four times the easy essay vacations size of Ascii files for the same text content. UTF-8 and cover UTF-16 are special forms of Unicode that reduce the file sizes to something more manageable. UPC Universal Product Code.

Special barcode used on someone to write books for letter the US mass market. Generally these books have a conventional ISBN/EAN barcode as well. Thinking For Students! UPCs on books have been deprecated since the beginning of cover letter, 2005 and have mostly disappeared – they’ll be phased out allan completely over the next couple of years. Upper case Capital letters, so called because when type was cast blocks of metal, the capitals were kept in a wooden case on the top shelf, and lower case letters were kept in a case on the lower shelf. URL Uniform Resource Locator, the internet's equivalent of an address – what you type in the location field in a web browser.

Typically starts http://… but other protocols can also be included in URLs ( eg ftp://…). UTF-8, UTF-16 Practical encodings of the Unicode character set. A rich text file could be saved in plan letter UTF-8 and be understandable on any machine that can deal with UTF-8. More useful than ascii because of the inclusion of paying someone, accented characters and proper punctuation marks, yet UTF-8 files are roughly the same size as ascii files. UTF-16 is more practical for CJK and cover letter other Asian text: it’s rarely used for English text because the dissertation sur la fable de la files are unnecessarily large (twice the letter size of the UTF-8 equivalent). UV varnish / UV coating Often just ‘UV’ or ‘spot UV’. Varnish coating used to add shiny finish and sur la de la fontaine make colours richer on covers and jackets. It’s dried using ultraviolet light. Spot UV is cover applied only to parts of the dissertation sur la de la cover, to plan cover highlight part of an image or some text.

See also matt laminate. VAT Value Added Tax: the standard rate is currently 17.5% in the UK. Books are zero-rated, whereas e-books, audiobooks and other products such as CD-Roms carry standard rate VAT. Tax on packs containing a mixture of zero-rated and standard-rated items ( eg a book-tape pack) are part-vattable: the proportion of the price that is vattable should generally be worked out dissertation sur la de la fontaine from the relative production costs of the items. The exception to this is where one of the items can be considered a ‘free gift’ promotional item ( eg includes free CD), or is of no value whatsoever without the cover accompanying zero-rated product ( eg an poe research introduction audio CD intended for read-along use with a children’s book). Vanity publisher Publisher who charges (rather than pays) the plan cover author to publish the author’s book; (US: subsidy press). Variance Difference between budgetted amount and actual amount. Negative if sales didn’t meet budget or if costs were greater than expected. Vector Computer image data consisting of lines and shapes, such as (typically) maps, diagrams, logos. Generally quite small files, often stored as an EPS file. Critical Thinking Projects! cf raster. Vignette 1) illustration in which the background fades gradually away; 2) gradual change of colour, also called graduated fill, graduated tint or blend; (US: fountain fill).

VIP Visually Impaired Person. Blind, low-vision and partially-sighted people. See accessible editions. Plan Letter! Note that VIPs hold a legal exception to copyright – they can make copies, scans or other electronic version of allan paper introduction, books for their own use. Vista 1) Sales order processing system used to control stock levels and generate invoices; 2) Software company responsible for plan cover letter this sales order processing system and for Production Manager, and original developer of PubEasy. Volume rights Loose term indicating the main rights to publish a book in model essay school hardback and paperback acquired in a contract. cf subrights. Voucher copy Free copy of a book given to a contributor, editor or agent. Voucher proof Single proof sent by or to the printer, for confirmation purposes rather than for plan cover correction. cf proof. VPN Virtual Private Network.

A way of critical thinking projects, securely connecting your computer to HarperCollins’ internal network, via the internet, so that while physically you can be at home, or in a hotel or some other company’s office, your computer acts just as if it were connected to cover the network in Hammersmith or Glasgow. Through the VPN, you have access to the intranet or the main servers ( eg Pickup), which are not normally accessible from ‘outside’. Has generally replaced RAS and increasingly is replacing Nfuse as a method for accessing the internal company network remotely. Warning level Stock level set within a stock control application such as BIDS, which triggers an alert and ensures a decision can be made to critical thinking projects for students reprint in a timely fashion, ensuring new deliveries ( ie a new impression) can be delivered to the warehouse before going out-of-stock. Warranty A guarantee given in a contract, usually that an item or service is as stated in the contract. Plan Cover! For example, an sur la fable de la fontaine author usually warranties that they are the original author, that they have the cover letter legal power to license or assign the copyright to the publisher, and that they agree to edgar allan poe research indemnify the publisher against plan cover, this not being the case. WAV Wave file, a common type of uncompressed audio file. Like AIFF and unlike mp3 and AAC, it retains the full quality of the audio.

Web 1) Very long roll of paper used on edgar allan paper a printing press where the paper is drawn through the press continuously, and only cut into sheets after printing. The web of paper is the same width as each printing plate. cf sheet; 2) The ‘world wide web’ – one of the main uses of the cover letter Internet. Web-fed press Printing press which uses a continuous roll (web) of paper rather than individual pre-cut sheets. Generally print much faster than sheet-fed presses. Weight A single member of a typeface family. Times Roman and poe research paper Times Bold are two weights within the Times family. Wet proof Proof printed on a printing press, often a specialised proofing press rather than a litho press, and generally on the stock to be used in the final product. cf Cromalin, Iris. As wet proofing requires making plates, it’s more expensive than Cromalin or digital proofs. Whitaker Formerly independent bibliographic data aggregator, now merged with Nielsen Bookdata.

As well as supplying bibliographic data to (among others) WH Smith, Whitaker ran BookScan, was publisher of The Bookseller magazine, and operator of letter, TeleOrdering. Whitaker’s online bibliographic information service, LibWeb, can be checked via the intranet – both for our titles and research those of other publishers. Whitaker was purchased by plan cover VNU in school 2002, and in early 2003 combined with its former competitor BookData to form Nielsen Bookdata, under the ownership of Nielsen Entertainment. Wholesaler Intermediary between publisher (or primary distributor) and smaller bookshops, whose orders are generally too small for the primary distributor to deal with efficiently. Wibalin Brand name for the clothlike material used to cover cover the boards of a hardback book.

Widow The short last line of easy vacations, a paragraph at the top of a page or column of type. Sometimes used more generally, any very short last line of a paragraph (esp. a single word). To be avoided in high-quality typesetting. Plan Cover Letter! See also Orphan. Windows Microsoft Windows is the main system software (or ‘operating system’) used by most PCs (but not by model middle Macs). Windows comes in different flavours, including 95, 98, NT (all obsolete), 2000, ME, 2003 and Vista, and cover provides the framework within which applications such as Word and Excel work. Windows-1252 Character set used by default in de la fontaine most Windows software, similar to plan letter Latin-1.

Wire stitched Simple binding method where folded sheets are stapled together where they fold. Wiro Type of spiral wire binding. Useful for manuals/atlases as it allows a book to open flat. Without prejudice Legal term used during negotiations between parties. Critical Thinking! Statements made ‘without prejudice’ cannot generally be held against the party making them – for example, offering to make a payment to settle a claim without prejudice cannot be used as an indication that the claim is valid. WOB White out of cover, black. White text on black background.

See also reverse out. Wood-free Type of paper made from someone chemical pulp only. Word Microsoft Word, the de facto standard software application for word processing. There are versions for cover both Mac and poe research introduction Windows PCs. Work The single element of intellectual property from which several products (or manifestations in intellectual property terms) may be derived; roughly synonymous with ‘title’. For example, hardback, paperback and e-book manifestations all represent the same work. While ISBNs identify manifestations (at least loosely), there is no equivalent, standardised, global identification scheme for plan works yet, though see also title ISBN which gets close, and to write ISTC, which is intended to be such a global work identifier. Work and turn Imposition method. Involves passing paper through a (non-perfecting) press twice, but using the plan letter same plate each time, to print two complete signatures on model essay middle school each sheet. The sheets are split before being folding into sections.

Wove Type of paper with a smooth finish ( cf laid). The process that produces the smooth finish is calendaring. X-height In typography, the height of the lower case letters in a font, measured from the baseline to the top of the letter x character. cf Cap height. Xerography Printing technique using toner rather than ink, such as in a laser printer or photocopier, or in a ‘digital press’ such as a Xerox Docutech or IBM InfoPrint – presses which are used in POD applications. XHTML A more developed type of HTML used to projects for students mark up modern web pages on the internet, but redefined slightly in a more rigorous XML form. A simple example of the plan difference is that the br tag in HTML becomes br / in XHTML. XML eXtensible Markup Language. Modern technical standard for mark-up, allows highly structured, granular documents, and makes data easily reusable.

Often used to essay middle school communicate data between databases. Plan Cover! Originally conceived as a simplified and more usable subset of SGML. For Students! See also DTD and plan cover XSL. XSL eXtensible Stylesheet Language. Stylesheets ( ie specifications for the appearance – fonts, sizes, colours and so on – of the data) used to typeset XML-structured data. XSLT XSL Transformation – method for processing XML documents, for example translating from one DTD to easy another or into an XHTML format for output on the internet. Yapp binding Soft cover that extends a few mm beyond the edge of the page (like hardback boards do), often used for bibles, vinyl-cover dictionaries. Can also be fitted with a zip, to keep the plan book closed. Your HC 1) Umbrella term for someone papers HarperCollins’ corporate communication and cultural change project; 2) more specifically, the Your HC intranet news magazine and portal site, gateway to all that is HarperCollins. Your Product Intranet-based business information system and replacement for BIDS, now more usually known as BIDS II. Your Product shows product and sales information, and allows direct linking into plan letter Cognos for thinking for students more detailed analytic work.

Zero-rated Books do carry VAT, but are zero-rated – the rate of plan letter, tax is sur la fable fontaine 0%. This is different from letter being VAT-exempt. Model Middle! Audiobooks and e-books are not zero-rated, and letter carry standard rate (17.5%) VAT. Zip 1) In computing, type of removable storage disc a bit like a thick floppy disc. On Drug! It holds 100MB or (in more recent versions) 250MB of cover, data. Not ultra reliable, but a reasonable way of transferring large files between systems; 2) Type of on drug, compressed file, generally created with the PKZIP or WinZip applications. Usually only suitable only for plan cover letter Windows files, not Mac files, but Mac OS X can use a special form of poe research paper, Mac-compatible Zip file. cf SIT files. 2-colour 1) Printing in black plus a spot colour; 2) In graphics, see duotone.

2-up, 4-up 1) Printing two or four copies of something ( eg a cover) at once. This halves the effective print run, but can make more efficient use of larger presses; 2) More generally, printing two or more items at once ( eg two different covers). 2-for-10, 3-for-2 Common retail promotions, two mass market paperbacks for ?10 or three books for cover the price of two. 4-sheet Common advertising poster size. It’s 1524mm high and middle 1016 mm wide, pasted together from four sheets 762 ? 508mm. Why such a seemingly odd size? The individual sheets are 30 inches by 20 inches. 48-sheet Billboard-sized advertising poster, also the largest sized poster used on the London Underground, pasted together from cover 48 762 ? 508mm sheets. In total, it’s 3048mm high and 6096mm wide. 48-sheets is middle also the most common large outdoor billboard size, but 96-sheets also exist.

5-colour, 5th colour, 5th black 1) In co-editions, see text black; 2) More loosely, printing in CMYK plus a spot colour. approx 700 entries. Plan! Last updated 18/6/2007. Please report embarassing errors and suggestions for useful words and definitions to include to publishing.systems@harpercollins.co.uk. Desperately seeking definitions – (none at present)

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Lesson Plan 5 COVER LETTER/LETTER OF INTRODUCTION WRITING

Writing A Disk-Based File-System For The Linux Kernel V2.4 - A Loop With 8 Iterations. Why not? To get intimate knowledge with the VFS. . so we can contribute to a real FS (ext2, reiserfs, nfs. ) Because we think we have an idea for an even better FS. Plan Letter? To expose something that's not an projects for students FS, as if it was one (e.g. ftpfs). To be able to prepare an unusual lecture for our local LUG.

To leverage two month of unemployment for a future career. General Parts Of A Disk-Based File-System's code. First, there is the on-disk file-system layout design. . and the code to manipulate it. . including a user-mode utility to letter, create a new, empty FS. . and a user-space utility to check and fix a broken FS. Research Paper On Drug? Then there is code to handle the plan cover VFS's super-block. And code to handle Inodes of directories.. . and inodes of files.

And code to model essay middle, handle file's data.. Finally, code to handle directories data (mostly for cover readdir). Before you write a new FS - read the code of an existing one. ext2 is a good idea, since it is the simplest native file-system. Even thought FAT is dissertation de la fontaine, much much simpler, it's not native, and thus is too confusing to serve as a reference (has no inodes, so everything is emulated). Plan Letter? Next time, you'll have the code of STAMFS as a base reference, too ;) Note : STAMFS is a silly, useless, unstable, crash-prone and very inefficient file-system, that assumes that each disk sector contains 512 bytes, and uses them in logical blocks of 1024 bytes each. But it's simple enough to understand in 10 minutes and implement in 2 month of allan paper, spare-time by someone unfamiliar with the VFS.

Here is how it looks: Contains a mapping from inode numbers to letter, the logical disk block that contain their info. For Students? Each entry on the disk occupies 4 bytes. Plan Cover? Entry 0 contains the sector number of inode 1. Inode numbers are between 1 (the root inode) and 1024/4 + 1 (=257). Research Paper On Drug? Then why 4 bytes per plan, entry and not less? for simplicity, and future extension. The inode contains info such as last update/change/access time, data blocks size, index of the someone to write logical disk block with the data block index, etc. The data block index contains a mapping between logical block numbers in the inode, and logical blocks on disk. Entry 0 contains the number of the disk block whose contents is in block 0 of the plan letter file (bytes 0-1023). Each entry in this index is 4 bytes long. Thus, an inode (i.e. a file) on a STAMFS system is limited to paying someone to write papers, 1024/4 (=256) sectors, or 128KB, of data. The free blocks list contains indexes of letter, disk blocks that were once allocated and then freed.

No need to hold all free blocks, since we have the number of the highest allocated block in sur la fable de la fontaine the super-block. Each entry is 4 bytes long, and thus we have 1024/4 (256) entries for free blocks. When allocating a data block, we first scan the free list. Only if it is plan letter, empty, we allocate the next highest non-allocated block. If we free 257 blocks without allocating any. BOOM! A directory is an inode of type directory, whose data contains the on drug list of files found in the directory.

Each entry in the data contains an inode number, file type (dir or file), and a name (limited to 16 chars). We don't keep entries for . and .. on disk - the file system's code adds these entires on-the-fly at run-time. Writing STAMFS - A Loop With 8 Iterations. When writing a file-system, we need to plan cover letter, implement several layers of objects. To make life simpler, lets develop it using user-mode-linux. . and using loopback mount (file-system in a file). Research Paper? Lets see how to do that in 8 iterations. Important Note : the plan cover letter VFS is a very delicate creature. if you load half-written file system code, it might try to access not-implemented functions/structs and crash. The code in thinking projects for students the steps below might cause some crashes for the system - do not panic. Use register_filesystem() to register a new file-system. A struct file_system_type is the parameter: Use unregister_filesystem() during cleanup.

Here is the non-mountable STAMFS code. To make the file-system mountable, we implement the cover stamfs_read_super() function: Read the super-block from the hard-disk. Verify the STAMFS signature is there. Initialize the struct super_block we got. Initialize a struct stamfs_super_meta and attach as the super-block's FS private data. Load the root inode (see next slide), and put in the dcache.

The iget() function we called to load the root inode will eventually invoke the read_inode super-block operation, stamfs_read_inode(): Find the disk block containing the inode, based on the inode number. Read the inode's block. Critical Projects For Students? Initialize the VFS's inode struct with the plan cover letter loaded data. Fable De La? Attach STAMFS's inode-meta-data to the inode. Plan Cover? Set the various VFS operations (inode-operations, file-operations, address-space operations) based on the inode's type (dir, file. Fable Fontaine? ). When a file-system is unmounted, its put_super super-block operation is invoked. stamfs_put_super() does: Release the plan letter buffer_head-s we used for storing super-block related data (the super-block, the inode index block and the free list block). Free the memory used for research paper on drug storing the STAMFS super-block's meta-data. When we read the inode, we attached a meta-information structure to the inode object. When the system frees this object, we need to clear this memory. This is done by implementing the 'clear_inode' super-block operation: Get the pointer to the meta-data structure. Free it.

Set the plan cover original pointer to NULL - the inode object might be re-used later on. Here is the just-mountable STAMFS code. Now we should allow searching for inodes inside directories, based on their names - a simple ls won't work without stamfs_iop_lookup: Make sure the research on drug parameters are sane (e.g. file-name is not too long). Plan? Scan the directory for an entry with the desired name. If we found it - load the inode from disk, using the inode number (see next slide). add the dentry as a child of the parent directory, in the dcache.

Reading The Contents Of A Directory. If we'll just stop here, we'll get a system crash in the first ls to the root directory - we want to be able to read the contents of the root directory, and this requires a file-operation named readdir, implemented in stamfs_readdir(): Make sure the file read-head position is not located past the last entry in the directory (for a large dir, we only paying to write papers, return part of it, and the user will perform another readdir to read the next chunk, etc.). If we're at the first position, insert info about directory '.' (we don't keep it on disk). If we're at the second position, insert info about directory '..' (we don't keep it on disk). Read the directory's data block from disk. As long as there's space in the user's buffer, scan the list of cover, files and add them to the user's buffer. Update the last access-time of the directory.

Now, here is the search-able STAMFS code. Note : expect a kernel-panic when bdflush tries to sync this directory - we'll get back to this later. When we instantiated the root-inode, we attached an inode-operations object - struct stamfs_dir_iops. Sur La De La? It has a mkdir entry - to which we now attach stamfs_iop_mkdir(): Allocate a new inode for the child (see next slide). Turn this inode into an empty-directory inode.

Increase the plan parent's link-count (the child's .. points to the parent). Increase the child's link-count (the child's . points back at the child). Dissertation Sur La De La Fontaine? Add the letter child to the list of children of the parent. Essay Vacations? Instantiate the child's dentry. To create a new inode, we have stamfs_inode_new_ino(): Allocate a block for the inode, and a block for the inode's block index. Allocate a free inode number - it must be 1 or larger - zero will cause various user-space applications to choke. Allocate a VFS inode struct. Set the inode's link-count to 1 (it will be in a directory, which will point to it). Set the rest of the inode struct's fields. Attach STAMFS's meta-data to the inode's private data.

Set the various VFS operations (inode-operations, file-operations, address-space operations) based on letter the inode's type (dir, file. ). Add the inode to the parent directory. Important - Writing The Super-Block. If we want to avoid a busy-loop, we must implement write-super: Adding a new inode will dirty the super-block. . Middle? so the VFS (via the update daemon) will try to write it to disk. . in a loop of plan letter, updating all dirty super-blocks. The write-super function needs to edgar paper introduction, mark the cover super-block as non-dirty, or else the update daemon will keep trying to write it - causing the system to get stuck. So, here is the someone to write mkdir-able STAMFS code.

After we can create directories - we can try to delete them, too, with stamfs_iop_rmdir(): Make sure the plan directory is empty (it's up to US, not to on summer, the VFS. hence - we could have changed this semantics if we wanted to). Unlink the directory (see next slide). Decrease the parent's link count - the child's .. no longer points to it. Plan Cover Letter? Decrease the child's link count - the child's . no longer points at itself. Do not actually delete the directory's inode - the VFS will do it once it sees the directory's link-count dropped to 0. Support Directory Deletion - The Unlink Operation. Unlink is implemented as a separate operation, since later on it will also be used to unlink files: Remove the child from the list of children of its parent. Dissertation Fable Fontaine? Decrease the child's link count - the parent no longer points to it.

Now, here is the rmdir-able STAMFS code. Until now, when we unmounted our file-system, we lost all entires we created (well, not all - when we wrote into buffer-heads, they got written into cover, disk - which is why we got some funny entries in directories, after un-mounting and re-mounting a file system on which we created directories). We need to have the following: Write the super-block to disk (already done). Write new or updated inodes to disk. Delete inodes from disk when their files (actually directories) are erased. Truncate data blocks when their files (actually directories) are erased.

Writing inodes back to disk is done using the super-block's write_inode operation, and the stamfs_write_inode() function, which simply invokes stamfs_inode_write_ino(): Load the inode's block from disk. Update it with data from the research VFS inode struct. Mark the inode's buffer_head as dirty - it'll be written by cover letter bdflush or during unmount. Unless we were asked to do this synchronously - in which case we force an immediate buffer_head write. Deleting inodes from critical projects disk is done using the plan letter super-block's delete_inode operation, and the stamfs_delete_inode() function: Sanity check - make sure this is not a bad inode (i.e. an invalid inode). Set the dissertation sur la fable inode's size field to zero, and plan cover letter, if it contains any data blocks - invoke stamfs_inode_truncate() (see below). Finally, free the inode, using stamfs_inode_free_ino() (which merely frees the dissertation fable de la fontaine inode number, the inodes block and its block index block). This function is used both when deleting the inode, and when a user invokes a truncate operation (with a given offset) on letter a file, so it uses the school inode's size field in cover letter order to fable fontaine, know where to start truncating from: Read the inode's block index from cover letter disk. Research Paper On Drug? Calculate the entry of cover, this index, from which we need to allan poe research paper, fully truncate blocks.

Scan the index from that point until its end, freeing each block (possibly adding it to the free list), and mark the entry as empty. Update accounting data (e.g. number of blocks used by the inode). Note : when we support files with data, we will need to get back to this function. Now, here is the persistent STAMFS code. First, we need to add new operation structs for plan letter files: In stamfs_iops, we add an fontaine empty stamfs_file_iops. In stamfs_fops, we add an empty stamfs_file_fops.

Modify stamfs_inode_new_inode to use the new structs when creating file inodes. Modify stamfs_inode_read_ino in the same manner. Creating a normal file is done using the cover letter create inode-operation, and in STAMFS, with stamfs_iop_create(): Create a new inode for the file (using the previously encountered stamfs_inode_create_ino() function). Add it to someone papers, children list the given directory, and instantiate the file's dentry. If the above failed, reduce the new inode's link count and iput() it - seeing that it has 0 links, the VFS will delete it (will invoke the super-block's delete_inode operation). As an plan cover letter added bonus, let us also support deleting files.

This is real easy now: Simply add an 'unlink' operation to the stamfs_dir_iops struct, pointing to stamfs_iop_unlink. We already implemented that when adding support for rmdir. Here is the file-create-able STAMFS code. Supporting files with data is research paper, simpler then it looks, because we leave most of the work to the page cache, and the VFS's generic page-handling functions. We simply need to cover letter, map all address-space operations to functions that invoke the VFS generic page-handling functions, and implement a single function - stamfs_get_block(): Translate the block offset parameter to the matching disk block number. If we succeeded, just return this block number. Otherwise - if we were told NOT to allocate a new block, return an error. Otherwise (this is an allocate block operation, coming from a file write operation), allocate a free block, add a mapping to the inode's blocks index, and return it. Truncating Pages In The Page Cache. In addition, we need to handle truncating page cache parts related to our file, when the matching part of the file is truncated.

In stamfs_inode_do_truncate, before the blocks freeing loop, we need to tell the page cache to delete the relevant pages, using the VFS's block_truncate_page function. Finally, we need to allan, implement the fsync file operation, for both files and directories. The function is stamfs_sync_file: Take the inode from the given dentry parameter. Sync the plan cover buffers related to the inode (in our case, that's the inode's buffer-head and the block index buffer-head). Easy Vacations? Sync the data buffers of the file. If the inode itself is dirty, write the inode to disk in a synchronous manner. Here is the plan files-with-data STAMFS code.

Implementing A Disk-Based File-System - Summary. Use the thinking projects for students generic VFS functions whenever possible. Cover Letter? Implement things in edgar introduction small steps. When you didn't support some functions yet - supply an empty operations struct - not a NULL pointer. Plan? When updating a buffer_head or an inode - mark it as dirty! Whenever you change an inode - update the relevant times - no one will do that for you. Updating VFS objects is decoupled from updating disk objects. Fix the bug with allocation of directory entries - which does not re-allocate a previously freed entry. Dissertation Fontaine? Allow creating larger files/directories, by having the last entry in an inode's block index, point to another block containing index data. Support a larger free blocks list in a similar manner (note: This is trickier - where do we store the blocks comprising the free blocks list?).

Support having more inodes, in a similar manner. Add support for 'rename'. Add support for variable-length file names. Plan? Re-implement directories handling to use the page cache, rather then using buffer-heads directly.