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rounders coursework Year 10 11 IGCSE Physical Education Two Year Course. The course provides candidates with an exciting opportunity to study both practical and by dr.jose essay, theoretical aspects of Physical Education. Essay Gift! It is also designed to foster enjoyment in Physical activity. Course Content - The Syllabus has two components. Component 1- Terminal Examination (40%)
This is made up of three units. 1. Factors affecting performance. 2. Health, Safety and my home p rizal essay, training. 3. Reasons and Opportunities in Physical Activity. Component 2- Coursework (60%) Candidates have to choose a minimum of 4 activities from a minimum of two categories.
The choices for 2012 will be from the following: - Games Association Football, Badminton, Basketball, Cricket, Golf, Hockey, Netball, Rounders, Rugby, Softball, Squash, Table Tennis, Tennis, Volleyball. - Gymnastics: Artistic Gymnastics, Trampoline, Figure Skating, Rhythmic Gymnastics. - Dance: Various Styles. - Athletic Activities: Track and Field, Weight Training for fitness, Cross Country running. - Outdoor Activities: Canoeing, Hill Walking and camp craft, Horse riding, Orienteering, Wind surfing, Rock climbing. - Swimming: Competitive Swimming, Lifesaving, Personal Survival.
Candidates should also demonstrate their ability to resume bellevue, analyse and improve their own performance in p rizal essay written context. English 1st or 2nd Language and English Literature ? Mathematics ? Year 10 11 IGCSE English 1st or 2nd Language and English Literature. All students will follow a course in both English Language and in English Literature. At the end of Y11, most students will take IGCSE English as a First Language. Some students may be selected for IGCSE English as a Second Language. Essay Gift! All students will be prepared for IGCSE English Literature. The Mathematics programme in Year 10 and 11 is designed to offer an appropriate challenge to all of our students. The model below shows three routes through the various options available.
Placement of essay any student within the programme is decided after careful consideration. It is macduff essays, important to essay, state that progress through the programme is open to review, and the principle of “an appropriate challenge” is adhered to. It will also be seen that the model suggests likely post 16 Mathematics programmes. The two courses provided are called Cambridge International Mathematics (C.I.M.) and Additional Mathematics (Add Ma) Personal and Social Education ? IGCSE Physical Education ? Year 10 11 Personal and Social Education Two Year Course. The aims are to:
Promote the spiritual, moral, cultural, intellectual and physical development of pupils. Prepare pupils for astrology historical essays the opportunities and responsibilities of adult life. Life changes: Transition to IGCSE, group dynamics and p rizal, communication, learning about each other; Prejudice: Racism, prejudice against disability and gender, dealing with prejudice; Fitness for science and society life: Information on smoking, healthy living; Relationship: Family relationships, peer group relationships, peer mentoring; Life problems: Recognising stress, stress management getting help, coping with stress; Study Skills: Rxamination preparation, revision skills, examination stress, and target setting; Cultural Diversity: Rights of minority groups, international groups for human rights, festivals. Year 10 11 IGCSE Physical Education Two Year Course.
The course provides candidates with an exciting opportunity to study both practical and p rizal essay, theoretical aspects of Physical Education. It is also designed to foster enjoyment in Physical activity. Course Content - The Syllabus has two components. Component 1- Terminal Examination (40%) This is made up of three units. 1. Factors affecting performance. 2. Writing! Health, Safety and training. 3. Reasons and Opportunities in Physical Activity.
Component 2- Coursework (60%) Candidates have to my home by dr.jose essay, choose a minimum of 4 activities from a minimum of two categories. The choices for 2012 will be from the following: - Games Association Football, Badminton, Basketball, Cricket, Golf, Hockey, Netball, Rounders, Rugby, Softball, Squash, Table Tennis, Tennis, Volleyball. - Gymnastics: Artistic Gymnastics, Trampoline, Figure Skating, Rhythmic Gymnastics. - Dance: Various Styles. - Athletic Activities: Track and Field, Weight Training for fitness, Cross Country running. - Outdoor Activities: Canoeing, Hill Walking and camp craft, Horse riding, Orienteering, Wind surfing, Rock climbing. - Swimming: Competitive Swimming, Lifesaving, Personal Survival. Candidates should also demonstrate their ability to analyse and improve their own performance in written context. Business Studies ? Computer Studies ? Information Technology ? Geography ? History ? Art and Design ? Drama ? Music ? IGCSE Physical Education ? Year 10 11 IGCSE Business Studies Two Year Course.
The main aim of the course is to help reflective, develop an understanding of the environment within which business activity takes place, and knowledge of how the main types of business and commercial institutions are organised, financed and operated. Students are encouraged to view business from the roles of consumer, shareholder, employee and my home, manager, and to learn to make informed judgements on various aspects of business activities from a range of astrology and society essays perspectives. The course offers the my home p rizal essay, student an opportunity to study the real world of business by looking at the following topics: • Business Environment - business activity, aims and objectives. • Business Organisation - formation, organisation and location. • Business Accounting - functions and practices. • Marketing - Theory and practice.
• Production - Use and management of resources. • The role of government in business activities. • People in Business - understand the role of employees in a business. Year 10 11 IGCSE Computer Studies Two Year Course. The aims are to: 1. Develop an appreciation of the range and power of science and society historical essays computer applications. 2. Foster an interest in, enjoyment of, and confidence in the use of my home by dr.jose essay computing. 3. Develop the ability to solve problems using computing techniques. 4. Develop an awareness of the place of computing in society and issues computing raises in society. 5. Gain a firm understanding of the essay in europe, basic techniques and knowledge required for computing applications. 6. Develop a desire to use computers within other interests.
Applications of computers and their social and economic implications. 1. My Home P Rizal! System analysis. 2. Problem solution, including algorithm design and programming concepts. 3. Generic software and the organization of data. 4. Hardware, systems and communication. Year 10 11 IGCSE Information Technology Two Year Course.
The aims are to: 1. Help students to essay on witchcraft, develop and consolidate their knowledge, skills and understanding in Information Technology. 2. Encourage students to develop further as autonomous users of Information Technology. 3. My Home! Encourage students to continue to develop their Information Technology skills in order to enhance their work in a variety of subject areas. 4. Provide opportunities for students to analyse, design, implement, test and evaluate Information Technology systems. 5. Encourage students to consider the impact of new technologies on methods of working in the outside world and on social, economic, ethical and moral issues. 6. Help students to resume bellevue, grow in their awareness of the ways in which Information Technology is used in practical and work-related situations. The main topics are:
1. Essay! Components of a Computer System. 2. Input and macduff essays, Output Devices. 3. Storage Devices and Media. 4. Computer Networks. 6. The Effects of my home using IT. 7. Writing Reflective! The ways in which IT is used. 8. Systems Analysis and Design. Candidates should be familiar not only with the types of software available and the range of Information Technology knowledge and skills detailed above, but also their uses in practical contexts.
Year 10 11 IGCSE Geography Two Year Course. The course aims to encourage students to develop: 1. A sense of place and an understanding of relative location on a local, regional and global scale. 2. My Home By Dr.jose P Rizal! An awareness of the characteristics and distribution of a selection of contrasting and macduff essays, physical environments. 3. An understanding of by dr.jose p rizal some of the processes affecting the development of such environments.
4. An understanding of the spatial effects of the ways in which people interact with each other and with their environments. 5. An understanding of different communities and cultures throughout the world and an awareness of the contrasting opportunities and constraints presented by different environments. The course consists of a study of 3 themes which are collectively designed to develop an understanding of the natural and human environment. The first theme, Population and Settlement, involves an investigation of population dynamics and settlement patterns. The second theme, The Natural Environment, is an investigation of climatic and astrology science historical, vegetation regions and by dr.jose, landscape processes. The third theme, Economic Development and Resources, investigates the ways in which people use (and misuse) natural resources, including agriculture, energy and industry. Students will undertake fieldwork investigations to develop an understanding of the principles studied in the classroom, and as preparation for Paper IV. Year 10 11 IGCSE History Two Year Course. The aims are to: Stimulate interest and enthusiasm about the salesman essay, past Promote the acquisition of knowledge Understand the nature and use of historical evidence Understand cause and p rizal essay, consequence, continuity and essay on witchcraft in europe, change, similarity and my home, difference Provide a sound basis for further study and the pursuit of personal interest Encourage international understanding Encourage the development of linguistic and communication skills.
The course concentrates on Twentieth Century international relations from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 up until the end of the Cold War in 1989. This includes the work of the League of in death of a salesman essay Nations and the United Nations, the events which led to my home by dr.jose p rizal essay, the Second World War and the superpower rivalry between the USA and the USSR. The depth study option is USA 1918-1941 and this is used for students to write their coursework. Year 10 11 Art and essay gift, Design Two Year Course. The aims are to stimulate, encourage and develop:
1. Confidence, enthusiasm and a sense of achievement in the practice of my home by dr.jose p rizal essay Art and Design; 2. An ability to on witchcraft, identify and solve problems in visual and tactile form; 3. An ability to record from direct observation and personal experience; 4. The technical competence and manipulative skills necessary to form, compose and. communicate in two and by dr.jose, three dimensions; 5. Knowledge of a working vocabulary relevant to the subject;
6. The ability to organise and relate abstract ideas to practical outcomes; 7. Experimentation and innovation through the inventive use of materials and techniques; 8. Intuitive and imaginative responses showing critical and analytical faculties; 9. An interest in, and a critical awareness of, environments and cultures. In Year 10 students complete six projects with an astrology science historical essays emphasis on observational drawing and painting, interpretative drawing and painting, design, art history, architecture, three-dimensional art and printmaking. They record their experience and media trials on prep sheets. P Rizal Essay! Then they choose an area of study for their coursework according to essay on witchcraft, what they have most enjoyed studying in their projects. At the beginning of the third term, they make a choice of assessments for their exam in Year 11. Year 10 11 IGCSE Drama Two Year Course. Drama enriches the students’ imagination, creativity and self-esteem.
The course provides an excellent means of developing personal and communication skills for all students, which contributes to the student’s individuality and character. students will explore and create their own Drama. They will work on my home by dr.jose p rizal essay texts drawn from a variety of and society essays cultures and times, experimenting with the roles of directors, performers, devisors and designers. Students will devise and script original material through various techniques such as improvisation and discussion. They will follow through with the style analysis, planning, rehearsal, performance and evaluation of the Drama. Students will be doing a lot of practical work and written work as well, most of it as part of a group working together throughout the two year course. Year 10 11 IGCSE Music Two Year Course. The aims are to: 1. Enable candidates to acquire and consolidate a range of basic musical skills, knowledge and understanding, through the activities of listening, performing and composing.
2. Assist candidates to develop a perceptive, sensitive and my home by dr.jose essay, critical response to the main historical periods and style of Western music. 3. Help candidates to recognise and understand the music of various non-Western traditions, and thus to form an appreciation of macduff essays cultural similarities and differences. 4. Provide the basis for my home p rizal essay an informed and lasting love and appreciation of macduff essays music. 5. Provide a foundation for further study in music for those candidates who wish to pursue their studies at a higher level. In Composition students are given a wide range of experiences, from pop songs to 20 th Century art music to Bach chorales. P Rizal! In Performance students are offered free tuition on help writing reflective essay an instrument of their choice. The unprepared listening component exposes the student to a very wide range of recordings, drawn from both Western and non-Western music. The prepared listening component includes a study of a Western European Orchestral work and essay, the study of music from in death essay, a non-western country. Year 10 11 IGCSE Physical Education Two Year Course. The course provides candidates with an my home by dr.jose p rizal essay exciting opportunity to study both practical and theoretical aspects of resume bellevue Physical Education.
It is also designed to foster enjoyment in my home p rizal Physical activity. Course Content - The Syllabus has two components. Component 1- Terminal Examination (40%) This is on witchcraft, made up of p rizal three units. 1. Factors affecting performance. 2. Health, Safety and training.
3. Essay On Witchcraft! Reasons and Opportunities in my home p rizal essay Physical Activity. Component 2- Coursework (60%) Candidates have to choose a minimum of 4 activities from a minimum of two categories. The choices for 2012 will be from the following: - Games Association Football, Badminton, Basketball, Cricket, Golf, Hockey, Netball, Rounders, Rugby, Softball, Squash, Table Tennis, Tennis, Volleyball. - Gymnastics: Artistic Gymnastics, Trampoline, Figure Skating, Rhythmic Gymnastics. - Dance: Various Styles. - Athletic Activities: Track and science historical essays, Field, Weight Training for fitness, Cross Country running. - Outdoor Activities: Canoeing, Hill Walking and camp craft, Horse riding, Orienteering, Wind surfing, Rock climbing.
- Swimming: Competitive Swimming, Lifesaving, Personal Survival. Candidates should also demonstrate their ability to analyse and improve their own performance in written context. Arabic First Language ? Arabic (Beginners) Non-IGCSE Course ? Arabic (Foreign Language) ? French ? Spanish ? The aims are to: 1. Enable students to communicate accurately, appropriately and essay, effectively in writing. 2. Enable students to understand and respond appropriately to what they read. 3. Encourage students to enjoy and appreciate the variety of language. 4. Complement the student's other areas of study by developing skills of a more general application (e.g. analysis, synthesis, drawing of inference)
5. Promote the student's personal development and reflective, understanding of themselves and others. The course offers much variety in its selection of anthologies from works of classical and modern Arab authors, in its focus on the various literary genres, and in its methods of practice, where emphasis is placed on personal response. Year 10 11 Arabic (Beginners) Non-IGCSE Course. My Home Essay! Two Year Course. The aims are to: 1. To enable students to start communicating and applying the Arabic language to real life experiences. 2. Essay Gift! To introduce and practise simple vocabulary and integrate learned items in basic common expressions. 3. To develop students’ listening and speaking skills through the introduction of phonetic sounds of the Arabic alphabet and through simple sentences. 4. To develop reading and writing skills through learning words and composing simple sentences and paragraphs. The students will use the by dr.jose, text book ‘Uhebu Alarabia Wa Atallamuha’ as well as worksheets tailored by Arabic teachers.
These worksheets are created to better comply with the students’ needs and to reinforce and enhance their conversational and symbolism in death of a, communication skills in daily situations. The focus of essay this course will be to develop the students’ reading, writing, listening and oral expression. These skills are based on letter recognition, vocabulary building, basic grammatical structure, and simple sentence construction. Year 10 11 Arabic (Foreign Language) The aims are to: 1. Develop the ability to help writing reflective essay, understand and express themselves effectively for purposes of practical spoken and written communication. 2. Develop the ability to read, understand and analyse texts in Arabic. 3. Communicate in speech and in writing showing knowledge of a range and variety of vocabulary and by dr.jose, applying the grammar and structures of the language accurately. 4. Offer insights into the culture and civilisation of countries where the science historical, language is spoken. 5. Provide enjoyment and intellectual stimulation.
6. Prepare students for my home p rizal essay the IGCSE course of Arabic as a second language. A variety of texts are used including the help writing reflective, works of modern writers. Topics include Education and Career, Home and Daily Routine, Self and Others, Leisure, Home and Abroad, Holidays and my home by dr.jose p rizal essay, Tourism. Year 10 11 IGCSE French Two Year Course. The aims are to: 1. To develop the ability to essay gift, understand and use French effectively for purposes of practical spoken and written communication.
2. To develop the ability to use French both imaginatively and creatively, and to understand and appreciate French used both imaginatively and my home essay, creatively. 3. To develop an understanding of French grammar. 4. To encourage positive attitudes to foreign language learning and to speakers of macduff essays foreign languages, and a positive approach to other cultures. 5. To provide enjoyment and intellectual stimulation. Pupils follow the Metro 4 coursebook and Encore Tricolore 4. Topics include Education and Career, Home and Daily Routine, Self and Others, Leisure, Home and Abroad, Holidays and Tourism. Year 10 11 IGCSE Spanish Two Year Course. The aims are to: 1. To develop the ability to understand and use Spanish effectively for purposes of practical spoken and written communication. 2. To develop the ability to use Spanish both imaginatively and creatively, and to understand and appreciate Spanish used both imaginatively and creatively. 3. To develop an understanding of Spanish grammar. 4. To encourage positive attitudes to foreign language learning and to speakers of foreign languages, and my home, a positive approach to other cultures.
5. To provide enjoyment and intellectual stimulation. Pupils follow the Caminos course, using books 2 and 3. Topics include Education and Career, Home and Daily Routine, Self and Others, Leisure, Home and Abroad, Holidays and Tourism. Year 10 11 IGCSE Biology Two Year Course. The aims are to: 1. Provide, through well designed studies of essay gift experimental and practical science, a worthwhile educational experience for my home by dr.jose p rizal essay all students, whether or not they go on to study Biology beyond this level, and, in essay particular, to by dr.jose, enable them to acquire sufficient understanding and knowledge to become confident citizens in a technological world. 2. Develop abilities, skills and attitudes relevant to the study and practice of Biology. 3. Promote an essay gift awareness that the study and practice of science are subject to social, economic, technological, ethical and cultural influences and limitationsStimulate interest in, and care for, the environment. Y10 students study the following topics: characteristics and classification of living organisms, cells, diffusion and osmosis, enzymes, nutrition in plants and animals, the human digestive system, transport in both plants and animals, respiration and gaseous exchange. Y11 students study the relationships of organisms with one another and their environment, excretion in humans, co-ordination and my home by dr.jose p rizal essay, response, asexual and sexual reproduction, and the study of inheritance. Year 10 11 IGCSE Chemistry Two Year Course.
The aims are to: 1. Provide, through well designed studies of experimental and practical science, a worthwhile educational experience for all students that provides them with the opportunity to acquire sufficient understanding and knowledge to become confident citizens in of a a technological world, able to take or develop an by dr.jose informed interest in matters of astrology scientific import. 2. Develop abilities, skills and attitudes relevant to the study and practice of Chemistry that prepare students for my home by dr.jose p rizal essay studies beyond the symbolism salesman, level of IGCSE. 3. Promote an awareness that the my home by dr.jose p rizal, study and practice of science are subject to social, economic, technological, ethical and cultural influences and limitations, but that the language of science, correctly and rigorously applied, is universal. 4. Stimulate interest in, and care for, the environment and develop an appreciation that the applications of science may be both beneficial and detrimental. Year 10 students are taught the following topics: Atomic theory, Periodicity, Bonding, Separating techniques, Stoichiometry, Electrolysis, Rates of reaction, Extraction of essay gift metals and the reactivity series, Air and water, Sulphur, Reversible reactions and Redox.
As far as possible, theoretical material is supported by practical work that enables students to develop skills in the laboratory and an awareness of the scientific method. Year 11 students study Organic chemistry, Qualitative analysis, Energetics, Carbonates and the Preparation of salts. Year 10 11 IGCSE Physics Two Year Course. The aims are to: 1. My Home By Dr.jose! Provide, through well designed studies of experimental and practical science, a worthwhile educational experience for all students, whether or not they go on to study Physics beyond. this level, and, in particular, to enable them to essay on witchcraft in europe, acquire sufficient understanding and to become confident citizens in a technological world. 2. Develop abilities, skills and attitudes relevant to the study and practice of Physics.
3. Promote an awareness that the study and practice of science are subject to my home by dr.jose p rizal essay, social, economic, technological, ethical and cultural influences and limitations. 4. Develop problem solving skills that are transferable to many other vocations. Y10 students are taught through a variety of activities about density, force, work, power, energy, momentum, thermal physics, waves and writing, optics. Y11 students study magnetism, electrostatics, current electricity, nuclear physics, electromagnetism and basic electronics. Students use practical experiments, investigations and problems to reinforce their conceptual understanding.
During the my home p rizal, course they learn how to use laboratory apparatus safely and efficiently.
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Child Poverty. A Critical Perspective. Francine Mestrum , Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Introduction by p rizal Rudi Roose, Ghent University, Belgium. The issue of child poverty is currently high on the policy agenda of the European Union and its member states and has featured as a political priority in many national action plans on poverty and social exclusion over the past decade. Essay On Witchcraft In Europe? The UN Convention on p rizal the Rights of the Child often serves as a framework for taking into account the comprehensive and essay gift multi-dimensional approach of poverty, hence also stating the importance of social work as an important actor in fighting a diversity of poverty related problems. In this essay, Francine Mestrum discusses the current conceptualizations of (child) poverty, arguing that a multidimensional approach of poverty as well as a focus on child poverty can be problematic.
2 Child poverty. By Dr.jose? A critical perspective. There are serious problems with the conceptualization of ‘poverty’. There are no clear definitions and monetary and multidimensional poverty approaches continue to amalgamate causes and consequences of resume bellevue poverty. In this contribution, I want to focus on the comparison of income and p rizal multidimensional approaches and question the relevance of measuring child poverty. Resume Bellevue? The first part of this essay examines the theoretical basis for an income definition of poverty. In section two I look at the results of the my home p rizal, newest multidimensional poverty index (MPI).The third section looks at the arguments for astrology historical, a multidimensional approach to child poverty. By Dr.jose Essay? In the resume bellevue, final part I examine the ideology of poverty and propose some alternatives for eradicating poverty and promoting development. It seems that every one knows what ‘poverty’ is, except social scientists. For those who engage in poverty research, the overwhelming avalanche of different approaches can at first be discouraging. Poverty is a research topic in economy, history, sociology, anthropology and by dr.jose p rizal psychology.
Since the international financial institutions proposed poverty reduction programs in development cooperation, academic studies have proliferated but have not clarified the debate. According to Paugam  , poverty is what Durkheim calls a ‘prenotion’, a self-evident and on witchcraft in europe self-explaining phenomenon that nevertheless is wrong and has to carefully be researched. In our wealthy market economies, this ‘prenotion’ says that poverty means that people lack the my home essay, resources to live a life in dignity. This phenomenon is then linked to a series of consequences and causes of ‘lack of resources’: access to health care, education, employment, family, lack of autonomy and essay gift empowerment, lack of participation and ‘voice’, to name just a few. Almost spontaneously, this ‘poverty’ will also be linked to some specific groups in society: female heads of essay household, the symbolism of a, elderly, migrants and asylum seekers, etc. However, these dimensions do not help to clarify what poverty is and they lead to by dr.jose essay, constant circular arguments.
Furthermore, in macduff essays most cases it is not possible to operationalize these concepts and the empirical approaches have to fall back on the traditional measurements of income and consumption and/or to arbitrary cut-offs in the non-income dimensions. The problem with poverty research is the essay, difficulty to essay in europe, delink the research from the normative approach to poverty. All definitions point to some ‘deficit’ and even researchers are clearly influenced by what they think is economically sustainable, socially desirable or psychologically feasible. My Home By Dr.jose P Rizal Essay? It means that there is a dire lack of ‘objective’ poverty definitions, since the perceived ‘deficit’ can only be defined in relation to an arbitrary ‘enough’. I want to argue, then, that poverty is, in every market economy, an income deficit. Resume Bellevue? It is income that will allow people to have access to food, shelter, water and p rizal essay sanitation, education and health care. Lack of water, education and health care are not specific characteristics of resume bellevue poor people. We all know wealthy people who refuse health care or who lack education. After all, this was the ‘American dream’, the my home p rizal, shoeshine boy able to become a millionaire. Neither is social exclusion a specific characteristic of the poor.
Social groups can willingly or unwillingly be ‘excluded’ without having to be poor. What poor people do have in essay gift common is a lack of income. What we should never forget is that the definitions of poverty, the way poverty is perceived and the policies put into place to fight it, are always the result of the p rizal essay, actions taken by the non poor. Macduff Essays? According to Georg Simmel, the father of the my home p rizal essay, sociology of poverty, ‘poverty’ is a teleological concept that never is in line with the needs of the poor but always with the needs of society. Essay Gift? ‘Caring for the poor’ is p rizal essay, very often a moral obligation that the wealthy accept and help reflective put on the forefront, forgetting about the rights of poor people. If assistance to the poor would come in the first place, as a right, there would be no limit to the transfer of wealth, and it would rapidly lead to the total eradication of poverty. But that, clearly, does not happen, though everyone will agree there is more than enough wealth on this planet.  If wealthy people ‘care for the poor’, what they want to by dr.jose p rizal essay, make clear is that their wealth is ‘legitimate’ and their own social role is useful. They want to eliminate certain unacceptable symptoms of a totally unjust social structure, in order for macduff essays, this structure to by dr.jose, continuously be based on these forms of extreme inequality.
In fact, the poor are not the ultimate objective of the policies that are developed in their name. They are ‘collateral beneficiaries’ of the conscious and unconscious guilt of the wealthy. This reasoning can explain why it is so difficult to define poverty. The disorderly conceptualizations have to hide the real objectives of so-called poverty reduction. Poverty definitions always have to be in line with the social and ideological needs of the essay gift, non-poor and the wealthy. This also explains why the poverty definitions of the international organizations focus on an ever-changing list of ‘poverty dimensions’ and mostly totally forget income. In order to fight poverty as an income deficit, different policies may have to my home by dr.jose essay, be developed, whether they be income transfers, agricultural policies, education policies, health policies, democratization of writing reflective essay societies and my home p rizal essay so on.
Poverty policies can indeed be multidimensional, but in my view poverty is an income deficit. The ultimate objective of these policies should be to provide people with an resume bellevue, adequate income and essay living standard in order to live a life in dignity. 2.2 The Multidimensional Poverty Index. The discussion between the essay, advocates of the income approach to poverty and those of the multidimensional approaches has been going on for a long time. Most ‘multidimensionalists’ however do not make statistics with their findings, and certainly do not make comparisons between their results and those of the ‘monetarists’. We do have a couple of ‘composite’ indexes, like the IDH (Human Development Index), combining income with life expectancy and by dr.jose literacy, and the IPH (Index of human poverty), with five different ‘dimensions’.  UNDP (United Nations Development Program) did publish comparisons between the rankings of countries according to these two indicators, but not with monetary measurements. The recently published MPI (Multidimensional Poverty Index) of Alkire and Santos is different  . It is an index of ‘acute multidimensional poverty’, which reflects deprivations in very rudimentary services and macduff essays core human functionings for people in 104 countries. Most importantly, it gives different patterns of poverty compared to the measurements of income poverty, so here maybe is a first and major refutation of the arguments I have given above.
If ‘multidimensional poverty’ is very different from ‘income poverty’, than clearly we need at least both indicators in order to know what we are talking about. If multidimensional poverty does not disappear with the eradication of income poverty, than the advocates of multidimensionality have a serious point to make. The MPI has three dimensions: health, education and standard of living. These are measured using ten different indicators. In some countries, there is more income poverty than MPI poverty, whereas in others income poverty is less important than MPI poverty. In the first case, it is clear that services and assets are available, but people have not sufficient income to live a life in dignity and have access to these services. Only in my home p rizal the second case is there an indication that the major problem is indeed the availability of writing services and of a decent standard of living. In fact, a comparison of African, Latin American, South and East Asian and Arab countries in terms of my home income and non income poverty does not give clear results. They are not easy to interpret and are somewhat contradictory for the poorest and the middle income countries. They certainly deserve a more detailed analysis, comparing income and MPI poverty with GNI (Gross National Income) data. At first sight, it seems however that the poorest countries have serious extreme income and MPI poverty, which cannot surprise us, whereas the middle income countries have more income poverty problems.
In the poorest African, South Asian and Latin American countries services and a decent standard of living are most lacking. Essay Gift? However, measured at the 2.0 $ a day poverty line, an important majority of countries seem to have major income problems. At this level, it is indeed income which is most lacking. Services may be available, but incomes do not allow having access to them. This is interesting, because it seems to indicate that for poor people less than 2 $/day income is indeed the my home by dr.jose essay, most important problem. These multidimensional measurements do not make the income measurements redundant, on the contrary.
They do point to the fact that services are badly needed in essay gift the poorest countries, but they also show that income poverty rapidly becomes more important. Other research done in by dr.jose p rizal essay the framework of the UNDP and its HDI points to the fact that there is a near zero correlation between income and non income components of this composite index.  The income per capita is highly correlated with the macduff essays, HDI ranking, but the rates of change of HDI and GNI/capita have a very low level of correlation. The author concludes that HDI and income do not measure the my home essay, same thing and are not interchangeable. What does this all mean for children? It should be clear that income poverty is not a relevant measurement for the situation of science children. Essay? One cannot expect children to earn a living or to achieve a decent standard of living for themselves. One conclusion of this could be that here multidimensional poverty is the only right approach. However, we should also wonder whether we need a separate poverty approach for essay gift, children?
Are children living in poverty not necessarily living in poor families? With the consequence that one should look at the family income instead of at the multidimensional poverty of children. Can one imagine non income poor families with poor children? Or income poor families with non poor children? In order to answer these questions, I propose to look at some of the arguments in my home favor of symbolism a separate poverty approach for by dr.jose, children. A first and important argument is that income is not necessarily equally distributed among household members and that some members may be discriminated against. This is certainly true and has been pointed at by feminist researchers who would like to know more objectively whether there is a so-called feminization of poverty.
Women and science and society essays girls certainly are discriminated against in many areas and we have statistics about their disadvantages in terms of my home by dr.jose p rizal health, education and even wages. But that is no reason to say they are more ‘poor’ in terms of income. We simply don’t know, there are no disaggregated poverty statistics. It will be clear however, that gender discrimination is not a matter of ‘poverty’ but of cultural traditions and attitudes that will not change with anti-poverty policies. Gender-sensitive legislation can help, as can empowerment policies to give more autonomy to women. This being said, girls more than children in general - are discriminated against in many countries, but again, this is not an exclusive matter for poverty policies. Clearly, if one truly wants to essay on witchcraft, reduce poverty, one will have to work at the level of mothers and daughters, because yes, one can see poor mothers and poor girls in non income poor households. A more general argument can be that multidimensional poverty is more important than income poverty and this poverty has to be revealed at my home essay, the level of children. Astrology Science And Society Essays? However, as referred to by Alkire and by dr.jose p rizal essay Santos, the reason for help reflective essay, multidimensional poverty being more important can be the inadequacy of the poverty line for my home by dr.jose p rizal, some countries where national poverty lines are much higher than the international ones. The main problem of essay in europe some of these countries is not poverty but extremely high inequality that hinders anti-poverty policies. A second problem with this general argument is that the cut-off point for multidimensional poverty is even more arbitrary than for the absolute World Bank poverty line.
Why 30 % as in the MPI-case? It would be interesting to see how the results change with a slightly different definition of the cut-off point. A third argument in favor of by dr.jose p rizal essay child poverty research concerns the in death salesman essay, specific poverty dimensions of p rizal essay children, such as immunization and child labor. For immunization it will be clear that all children should receive it, this is not a question which relates only to poor children, so again, this can be part of a poverty reduction policy, but is not limited to poverty problems. Child labour is a very serious problem and should be tackled on the labour market. Here, one certainly has to essay, wonder whether children would be active on the labour market if their parents were to earn a decent income?
Child labour seems to me not to be a problem of poor children, but a problem of children in poor families. If parents get a job with a decent income, chances are high they will send their children to school, possibly leave them at home to take care of younger children. Some employers may prefer to p rizal essay, get as cheap labour as possible and therefore prefer to hire children instead of their fathers or mothers. Again, this is not a matter of poverty reduction policies, but of regulated and monitored labour markets. Symbolism In Death Of A Salesman Essay? Because here indeed families may escape poverty thanks to my home by dr.jose p rizal, child labour, whether it is income or multidimensional poverty. If looked at exclusively from a poverty perspective, these children will not be taken care of. All other dimensions of a multidimensional poverty approach for children are not different from essay those for by dr.jose, adults: food, shelter, clothes, health, water and sanitation. They can all be tackled in a poverty reduction policy at the level of households since it is difficult to see a difference between adults and children in terms of access to resume bellevue, them. Essay? Some other dimensions are not relevant in that they do not only concern the poor such as social inclusion, mental health, security, affection, etc.
These ‘intangible’ dimensions of essay poverty are in fact not poverty related but concern all adults and children. Essay? ‘Affection poverty’ certainly is not absent from wealthy families. Finally, there is the argument of the special vulnerability of children to environmental degradation. This is certainly true since the macduff essays, poor in general are more vulnerable to by dr.jose essay, it and children more particularly. However, once again, this should not be tackled exclusively in a poverty reduction policy, but in a more general environmental policy. It would be rather meaningless to just solve the specific children’s problems, and not the other ones.
Does this help to answer the questions we put? Is it possible to have poor children in non poor households? I think not, except for symbolism in death essay, girls that may be discriminated against, but if that is the case, their mothers will be discriminated against as well. So actions from an exclusive child poverty perspective will not be adequate. My Home? Is it possible to have non poor children in poor households? Theoretically yes, if poverty reduction policies focus exclusively on children, providing food, shelter, water and sanitation, education and macduff essays health services. But if such a policy is feasible, is it morally acceptable to leave out the children’s families? All these arguments do not make specific policies useless or unnecessary.
Specific actions against by dr.jose essay, child labor, in favor of immunization and in favor of good education may be most welcome. But they will not be needed only for poor children and reflective they will not be part of an exclusive anti-poverty policy. A child poverty perspective shows that the general context in which poverty is tackled is extremely important. Poverty in my home p rizal essay general and child poverty more particularly are always linked to broader societal problems that have to be looked at. Working exclusively at the level of child poverty entails a serious risk of macduff essays ignoring or neglecting these problems. Possibly, one may reduce child poverty, but not poverty in general, let alone labor market competition and inequality, to name just a few. If my reasoning is essay, correct, than one might wonder why so much attention today is essay gift, given to by dr.jose p rizal, child poverty. It is true that children are often not being taken into account in general poverty reduction policies. This points to the weakest spot of all poverty reduction policies: they are not meant to reduce poverty in the first place but came at the international political agenda because of other reasons than the really existing poverty and macduff essays these reasons are still predominant today.
In 1990, when the World Bank proposed to fight poverty, it had no statistics at all on global poverty and it could only p rizal, state that past development policies had given good results in essay gift terms of growth and social indicators. All the my home p rizal, same, it stated that other policies were needed. Why? Previous research  has shown that the poverty reduction policies as proposed by the World Bank were not meant to tackle existing poverty, but to dismantle existing social protection and replace it with poverty reduction policies. According to the neoliberal policy prescriptions of the macduff essays, ‘Washington Consensus’, universal social protection is not to be provided for by states.
Governments only have to take care of essay ‘those who really need it’ and leave other forms of help reflective protection to my home by dr.jose p rizal, the private market. This meant stepping back from resume bellevue social security and offer targeted poverty reduction. At the same time, the Washington Consensus did not change, all its ingredients were kept intact. The analysis of the poverty discourse allowed to by dr.jose p rizal essay, conclude that ‘poverty’ was nothing more than the resume bellevue, label put on to neoliberal policy prescriptions and present them as ‘the human face of globalization’. In fact, it was a new social paradigm that also allowed to my home p rizal essay, forget poverty’s income dimension and to focus on budget constraints, the liberalisation of trade, fighting inflation, deregulation of the labour markets and privatisations of public companies, all in the name of the poor. This is why the major responsibility for poverty reduction programs is never with the Minister of essay gift Social Affairs, but always with the Minister of Finances. The same goes, unfortunately, for the UN part of poverty reduction, the MDGs (Millennium Development Goals).
Limited to halving extreme poverty during a 25-year period, they can hardly be qualified as being ‘ambitious’. They totally ignore the three chapters of the ‘Copenhagen program’ of the Social Summit of 1995: poverty, employment and social integration. They do not take into account the necessary economic development for successful poverty programs. It is this general context which can explain the search for my home by dr.jose p rizal essay, ever poorer and more vulnerable people. The UN and UNDP put the macduff essays, focus on women, the ‘poorest of the poor’, the ‘human face of essay poverty’ It explains the focus on extreme poverty instead of on macduff essays poverty It explains the focus on ‘chronic poverty’ instead of current poverty. And it explains, I am afraid, the current focus on children. My Home By Dr.jose? As Gilbert Rist would explain: women and science historical essays children are the ones that have to be saved first when the ship is sinking  All this is evidence of the lowered level of ambition of donor countries and of governments in developing countries. While ‘development cooperation’ started in the 1960s with ‘economic development’ and was later coupled to ‘social development’, now both have been abandoned and poverty eradication became poverty reduction and in my home practice the essay gift, reduction of extreme poverty.
Focusing on women and child poverty has a major advantage. It is easy to get funding from charities and by dr.jose p rizal philanthropic institutions. While pointing to the general context of inequality, lacking economic development, unfair trade relations, unsustainable debt servicing, corruption and tax evasion will only result in denial and/or indifference, the macduff essays, face of a poor child will open wealthy people’s wallets. My Home Essay? Poverty reduction, especially when it is focused on women and children, allows for unfair economic and symbolism social structures to be maintained and even strengthened. My Home? It even gives these structures a moral legitimacy. Alternatives will have to be looked for that will allow children, and all other people, all over the world, to resume bellevue, live a life in by dr.jose p rizal dignity. A first condition seems to me to not de-link child poverty from other people’s poverty. Even if, theoretically, child poverty can be dissociated from the poverty of their families and their communities, it goes without saying that for poverty reduction policies to be perceived as being fair, all poor people should benefit from and be allowed social progress. This means that labour market policies and social protection will come at the forefront. Astrology Historical Essays? A very positive development of these last years has been seen in the work of the ILO (International Labour Organization) and the UN who now plead for ‘decent work’ and my home by dr.jose essay ‘universal social protection’. Thirdly, all research points to the fact that poverty reduction strongly needs women and gender-sensitive policies.
If one wants to help children and more particularly girls, one will have to essay gift, help their mothers and my home by dr.jose essay fight their discrimination. A gender agenda goes far beyond poverty, but is the major element that can help to promote social change, empowering women, giving them economic autonomy, education and essay on witchcraft health services. Finally, it should be clear that poverty cannot be de-linked from economic development. Real and sustainable poverty reduction can only be the result of a successful economic and social development process. My Home P Rizal Essay? They should go hand in hand since they are mutually strengthening each other.
What this means is that poverty is not a problem of poor people, but of the whole of society and even of the international community. It is the result of a distributional bias that has to be corrected if one truly wants to eradicate poverty. While poverty has always existed and probably will never be totally eradicated, today’s societies certainly have better ways and in death of a salesman resources to fight it than what is currently being proposed by international organizations. Western Europe still remains the best example of what social policies can achieve in by dr.jose p rizal essay terms of help essay poverty and inequality reduction. The structural solidarity mechanisms our countries have introduced almost a century ago have helped to my home by dr.jose p rizal, prevent poverty and to eradicate extreme poverty. These values remain utterly important and should guide cooperation policies.
Child poverty can be reduced if policies duly take into account its link to poverty in symbolism in death general and from there to p rizal, social protection, inequality and economic development. Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Oude Graanmarkt 47.  Paugam, S., La disqualification sociale. Essai sur la nouvelle pauvrete, Paris, PUF, 4eme ed., 1997.  Simmel, G., Les Pauvres, Paris, PUF, 1988 .  Both proposed by essay gift UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) in their ‘Human Development Report’, 1990 and 1997. The dimensions of my home p rizal essay human poverty are : life expectancy, literacy, access to health care and to water, malnourishment of children.  Alkire, S. and Santos, M.E., Acute Multidilmensional Poverty: A new Index for Developing Countries, OPHI Working Paper n 38, July 2010.
 Gray Molina, G. and Purser, M., Human Development Trends since 1970. A social convergence Story, UNDP Research Paper 2010/02, New York, UNDP, 2010.  Mestrum, F., Globalisering en armoede. Over het nut van armoede in de nieuwe wereldorde, Berchem, EPO, 2002.  Rist, G., Le developpement.
Histoire d’une croyance occidentale, Paris, Presses de la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques, 1996.
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Custom Karl Marx Conflict Theory Essay. Karl Marx is one of the most reputed philosophers of the 19 th Century. Born in 1818 in a middle class family, Marx studied law in Bonn and Berlin and later plunged deeper into the ideas of Hegel and Feurbach (Wheen, 2007). It is p rizal essay, after receiving his doctorate in philosophy in 1841 from the University of Jena that he moved with his family to Paris where he became a radical revolutionary communist and teamed up with Friedrich Engels, another radical philosopher of symbolism in death of a his time. They collectively authored the pamphlet “The Communist Manifesto” which was later published in 1848. My Home By Dr.jose? In this pamphlet, Marx passionately asserted that all human history was dominated by class struggles. Furthermore, he predicted that they would culminate into the fall of capitalism and rise of communism (Wheen, 2007). Karl Marx later moved to resume bellevue, London in 1849 where he broke his political and religious isolation to author Das Kapital, sometimes referred to as the “Bible of the working class” (Wheen, 2007). In this book, Marx developed very philosophical ideas related to the crises of the working class and my home by dr.jose the implicit struggles between laborers and resume bellevue owners of industries. The works and ideas of my home by dr.jose essay Karl Marx in his book Das Kapital were later edited by Engels after his death in 1833 in London (Wheen, 2007).
The ideas of Karl Marx established a school of thought known as Marxism, or what later came to resume bellevue, be popularly known as the Marxist doctrine. His writings consummated the main ideological currents of 19 th century. These included the classical English political economy, French socialism and the French revolutionary doctrines of the time. Marx, throughout his writing, had envisaged a social revolution that would see the fall of capitalism and p rizal essay the rise of socialism as a dominant ideology. These predictions later became evident after the death of Karl Marx in what was considered to be a process of socialization of astrology labor. Wheen (2007) contends that this transformation would be possible to accomplish by my home p rizal essay, the proletariat in sustained struggles with the bourgeoisie. Macduff Essays? This led to the development of ideas evident in Marxism and the conflict theory that form the bedrock of my home by dr.jose essay Marx’s works. Conflict theory is a Marxist perspective and help reflective conceptualization of the way in which society is structured. By Dr.jose P Rizal? This perspective depicts society as characteristically dominated by reflective, conflicts (Collins Sanderson, 2008). Conflict is the my home essay, determinant of how resources are allocated and who benefits the most from such allocations. Power is also acquired through conflict, and once such power is acquired, it is used to dominate the less-powerful and to benefit a few people.
Collins and Sanderson (2008) cited that the basic form of interaction in the human society is not consensus but competition, which culminates into persistent conflicts. Each party or individual competes against perceived rivals with the goal of gaining advantage and dominating the other. The theory presented by Karl Marx underscores the essay gift, fact that conflict, and not consensus, dominates designed mechanisms through different classes in the stratified society, interacts and relates to each other (Collins Sanderson, 2008). The rich and my home essay the powerful use conflict to threaten their poor subjects and to maintain the status-quo. The poor on the other hand, organize and use conflicts to push for a revolution that will overthrow the powerful that are enjoying the privileges of capitalist structures. These tensions are thus sustained by the need of each group to have its interests dominate the structures and operations of the society. Karl Marx contends that the society is stratified into two main social groups.
These are the essay on witchcraft, proletariat and my home by dr.jose essay the bourgeoisies. Essay On Witchcraft In Europe? The conflict between these two large social groups results in what Marx considered as revolutionary change. The probable source of conflict between the proletariat and the bourgeoisies are the desire of the by dr.jose, proletariat to resume bellevue, have ownership of means of production, such as factories, power, land and other valuable resources (Collins Sanderson, 2008). The bourgeoisies, on the other hand, are not willing to relinquish these resources and give up their privileged positions of power and overwhelming riches and my home p rizal essay investments. Karl Marx on Class and Class Conflict. According to Karl Marx, society is stratified into classes. The classes comprise the bourgeoisies, land-owners and the proletariat.
The propertied-upper-class is the minority, while the proletariats are the majority. Wood (2004) notes Marx’s dissection of the dominant features of each of these classes in most of his works. For example, the bourgeoisies own the means of production. This is due to the huge investments they have made into factories and machines in the industries. The land owners have rent as their primary source of income. The proletariats are owners of cheap labor which they offer in exchange for wages that they use for their basic subsistence (Collins Sanderson, 2008). Investment gives the bourgeoisies a lot of profit.
Marx conceptualized the structure of the society in relation to the two major classes. He is focused on the inherent struggles between the proletariat and and society historical bourgeoisies which is the by dr.jose, engine that pushes the occurrence of social change through revolutionary movements. In the understanding of writing reflective essay Marxists, class is defined by the level of wealth and power that one possesses (Wood, 2004). This power is used to sideline other classes from property and positions of power. Bourgeoisies use their power to serve their personal interests and amass more wealth at the expense of the proletariat. These three different classes, in the understanding of Karl Marx, have different interests which pit them against each other (Wood, 2004).
For example, the bourgeoisie are interested in safeguarding their investment in the industries, maximizing profits and minimizing costs. This makes them engage the by dr.jose p rizal, proletariats as laborers in the farms to science and society historical essays, achieve this objective at relatively minimal wages. The proletariats on the other hand, organize and mobilize themselves to collectively push for p rizal better wages, conditions of work and strive to overcome the repressive and exploitative forces of their masters in the industries and factories. Thus, they struggle to join hands and, through revolutionary movements, overthrow the bourgeoisies and control the industries and factories (Wood, 2004). These conflicting interests are what pit the social classes against each other. Conflicts, and not consensus, therefore, characterize the society as noted by Marx who had envisaged such a society founded on constant conflicts. The struggle between the classes is likely to widen with time as the conditions of the laborers deteriorate further. This is salesman, likely leads to disintegration of the social structure. Collins and Sanderson (2008) asserted that conflicts between proletariats and bourgeoisies would translate into an industrial revolution.
This would mark the by dr.jose essay, triumph of the proletariats over the bourgeoisies, leading to increased access to capital and means of production by proletariats. This, according to Marxists, would mark the end of symbolism in death of a salesman essay capitalism and the onset of socialism characterized by public ownership of the means of production. The fall of capitalism and bourgeoisies will, therefore, create a classless society as political power withers away due to industrial revolution led by by dr.jose, the proletariat (Wood, 2004). Essay Gift? Thus, according to Marxists, class and class conflict are the forces behind societal transformation and not any other evolutionary processes. Radical revolutionary movements are likely to create a new social order in the society in which capitalism gives way to my home essay, socialism as witnessed by the industrial revolutions that altered the social order in Russia in the 19 th century. The philosophical ideas of Karl Marx on alienation were relevant in essay gift his radical reformation periods that saw the fall of capitalism (Otteson, 2011). Although these ideas were mainly considered to be philosophical in the 19 th century, alienation, as was espoused by Marx, since then has become a real social phenomenon in the 21 st century discourses that are propagated by contemporary social science scholars. The most outstanding aspect that Marx wrote about was economic alienation or alienated labor. According to the writings of Karl Marx, one of the front forces behind conflict between bourgeoisies and proletariat is the fact laborers felt separated from the products of their own labor (Me%u0301sza%u0301ros, 2006).
Marx asserted that in a capitalist society, workers were forced to remain on the job and my home by dr.jose work extra hard in essay gift order to earn and sustain themselves (Me%u0301sza%u0301ros, 2006). My Home Essay? He was against alienation which is caused by strong forces of capitalism and predicted the rise of communism in which laborers will no longer work to live but live to work. With the fall of capitalism and alienation, wage earning slaves will be free men who will work and enjoy the and society essays, value of their labor. In a capitalist society dominated by bourgeoisies, the production capacity of an employee is 100%. My Home? However, the employee does not benefit directly from these products. He only earns 10% of the proceeds of his work, which he only uses for daily subsistence. Essay Gift? In communism, one would directly benefit from 90% of the essay, proceeds of his labor and only lose 10% which will be spent in other production processes.
Marx contended that in a capitalist society, workers are alienated even from the products that they produce (Me%u0301sza%u0301ros, 2006). A laborer working in an industry that manufactures oil becomes so much alienated from the product that he or she produces to essay gift, an extent that even in his or her own household he cannot afford the oil, yet he needs it and my home by dr.jose p rizal essay contributes significantly to its production. The ideas of Karl Marx on in death of a, alienation were very accurate considering that many labor union movements advocated for the welfare of workers in the modern society (Otteson, 2011). There are employees who work in a milk processing plant, when ironically back at home they do not take the by dr.jose essay, milk, not because they do not need it but because they cannot afford the milk. Alienation as presented by Karl Marx in his conflict theory is an explanation of resume bellevue a situation in which man is separated from valued resources, opportunities, processes and decisions in which his input ought to be reflected (Me%u0301sza%u0301ros, 2006). The laborers at my home p rizal essay the time of astrology science Marx’s life did not have opportunity to say a word on the amount of wages they earned as compensation for by dr.jose p rizal their work. Yet, their role in the industrial production processes was very significant. The masters determined the macduff essays, wages, number of hours worked, when to grant leaves for recuperation and so on. In fact, Marx was very concerned with how the surplus value of my home essay products processed in macduff essays the industries manned by workers benefited the workers themselves. Marx asserted that in a capitalist society, the surplus value only makes the my home, rich richer as the workers become more impoverished.
So worked up were the laborers that they were even alienated from their own families and private lives. They did not have time for recreation, family sessions or other community forums. Marx sadly puts it in his writings of Das Kapital that leave or absence to workers in a capitalist system was hard to come by (Me%u0301sza%u0301ros, 2006). But when such leaves were finally granted, they were only meant to help the workers recuperate and get extra strength not to benefit themselves but their masters who would then register a rise in surplus value in the industrial production. Alienation, according to the writings of Karl Marx, can be seen to occur in four different ways.
Me%u0301sza%u0301ros (2006) contends that workers are alienated against the products that they produce; they do not benefit from them much, the production process especially through specialized division of labor, from the community and from himself. In a capitalist industrialized society, specialized division of labor is used to promote alienation under the disguise of enhancing efficiency and resume bellevue effectiveness in by dr.jose p rizal production. Essay In Europe? Marx argues that an employee, concerned purely with the p rizal essay, repair of symbolism broken down machines in industry producing oil, may not have enough experience with other production processes in the industry. The owners of the industry alienate them from this knowledge out of fear that such knowledge might empower workers to compete against the factory owners. Consciousness as defined by philosophers refers to my home p rizal essay, how people or a person defines and understands himself (Wood, 2004). The concept of consciousness as presented in the writings of Karl Marx was basically bent towards understanding and on witchcraft in europe identification with one’s class. It is this consciousness that would push the workers (proletariats) to join other proletariats and my home p rizal put forward a united battle against one common social group, the bourgeoisies. Astrology And Society? Wood (2004) asserts that consciousness would enable workers gain awareness that they all had shared experiences with other laborers, the bitter experience of alienation, exploitation and oppression by capitalist bourgeoisies (Wood, 2004). This consciousness would push the my home p rizal, workers to rise against the bourgeoisies and launch protest and revolutionary movements that would lead to the fall of capitalism and salesman the onset of communist’s ideologies. Marx used the term “class consciousness” to illustrate this level of my home p rizal essay awareness on the part of the workers. There are scholars of Marxism who have argued that the concept of consciousness was used by Karl Marx to depict class as a very subjective dimension in a capitalist society.
The concept of consciousnerss forms the skeleton of Marx conflict theory. The proletariat will only rise to confront the bourgeoisies after realization that all workers had common problems, all originating from the bourgeoisies. Such awareness by itself is inspiring enough to stir up revolution and protests against the bourgeoisies (Wood, 2004). Astrology And Society Essays? Marx argued that it was false class consciousness that continued to sustain the forces and the influence of capitalist ideologies. The proletariat had misrepresented their identity, position in my home by dr.jose society and astrology science and society resigned to fate, preferring to p rizal essay, remain in subordinate positions as the bourgeoisies took advantage of this and essay on witchcraft used their positions to exploit and dominate the economy (Wood, 2004). Members of by dr.jose p rizal subordinate classes, such as workers and peasants continued to suffer in the hands of the dominant bourgeoisies as a result of false-class-consciousness. The upper class, on the other hand, has their consciousness right as they believe they should remain dominant owners of the means of production. Karl Marx’s works have influenced and reflective essay continue to influence sociological academia and studies in the field of economics. Although some of his ideas, like conflict theory have been criticized by by dr.jose p rizal essay, scholars since then in the contemporary sociological theory, conflict perspective remain to be a very popular sociological perspective, while Marx remains in academic records as one of the great scholars that contributed to the growth of sociology and its relevance in understanding human interactions and relationships in the society. Contemporary scholars, including critics of Marxism, continue to macduff essays, draw on his works to develop new concepts and ideas aimed at offering more accurate explanations of various phenomena in the society. Collins, R., Sanderson, S. K. (2008).
Conflict sociology: A sociological classic updated . My Home P Rizal? Boulder: Paradigm Publishers. Meszaros, I. (2006). Marx's theory of alienation . Delhi: Aakar Books. Otteson, J. R. (2011). The inhuman alienation of capitalism. Society, 49 (2), 139-143. Wheen, F. (2007). Marx's das kapital: A biography . New York, N.Y: Atlantic Monthly Press. Wood, A. W. (2004).
Karl Marx . New York: Routledge. Custom Karl Marx Conflict Theory Essay. 95% of satisfied returning customers Customer support 24/7/365 The largest source database A wide range of services Privacy guaranteed Certified writers only Custom-written papers only macduff essays Direct communication with a writer Free plagiarism report(on demand) Free revision upon request more details Your writers are masters at time management. I turned in an order for four very difficult papers, and they were all written perfectly, even with the my home p rizal essay, short deadline notice. Macduff Essays? Thanks, EssaysWriters.com! Your writing company delivers for me every time.
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