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Princess Diana’s death in pictures: How the night of the car crash unfolded in Paris. Princess Diana's death: 20 years later here is a look at the tragic crash that claimed her life. Diana, Princess of Wales, suffered fatal injuries in essay, a car crash at around 12.22am on Sunday August 31 1997 in the Alma underpass near the Seine river. Stellar. Princess Diana was in the car with her partner Dodi Fayed, the puritans son of Egyptian millionaire Mohamed Al-Fayed. He and the driver Henri Paul also died in the crash. The only person to stellar and helium survive the terrible crash was her bodyguard Trevor Rees-Jones, who had a traumatic head injury and puritans, was left scarred for biology, life. After Diana was pulled from the wreckage, she went into cardiac arrest at 2.10am.
Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital staff pronounced her death at 4am. Here is a timeline of how the fatal car crash unfolded. Princess Diana and Mr Fayed arrived in Paris on Saturday August 30, after flying in on private jet from a brief holiday in the French and Italian Riviera. The couple planned to stay the night before travelling to London the following day. They were staying at the five star Hôtel Ritz Paris, which was owned by Mohamed Al-Fayed. 4.35pm: Time-stamped CCTV footage caught the essay Princess and essay on causes of civil, her partner walking through the hotel’s lobby toward the lifts. Security cameras in the lift also captured the couple as the made their way Room 102 of the Imperial Suite. 6.54pm: After spending some time in the hotel, the couple decided to visit Mr Fayed’s private apartment near the Arc de Triomphe. Princess Diana and Dodi Al Fayed were spending the night of August 31 in puritans, Paris. 6.59pm: CCTV footage caught the couple leaving the hotel through a back exit in a bid to avoid paparazzi cameras.
By this time, their arrival in Paris caught the attention of the press and their moves were being followed by photographers. Minutes later, Mr Paul left for v for critical, the day but asked to be informed if the couple returned to the hotel later in the evening. 9.51pm: Princess Diana and Mr Fayed returned to the hotel for puritans essay, a romantic dinner, but their evening was ruined by the presence of paparazzi. Just 10 minutes into their meal, a Princess Diana and Mr Fayed left the restaurant to finish their dinner in their suite. CCTV footage in of civil war, the Ritz Hotel in Paris captured Diana's final hours. Puritans Essay Thesis. Diana, Princess of Wales in pictures 1961-1997. Diana, Princess of Wales 1961-1997. A life in ambition, pictures.
Princess Diana sitting on the steps of her home at Highgrove [GETTY] 10.01pm: Mr Paul returned to the hotel and spent time in the bar with Mr Rees-Jones and puritans essay, bodyguard Kez Wingfield. 11pm: While waiting for ambition in life essay, the couple, Mr Paul was spotted outside the hotel addressing the gathered paparazzi. 11.37pm: Both Princess Diana and her boyfriend agreed to return to his apartment for the night. The couple had travelled in a Range Rover and Mercedes during the day. Essay Thesis. But they but decided to leave the hotel in an unmarked vehicle to escape the photographers camped outside. Stellar Nucleosynthesis. Princess Diana and Mr Fayed left the hotel through the puritans essay back door to avoid paparazzi. 00.10pm: Princess Diana and extended essay biology, her entourage were caught on CCTV footage in one of the lifts as they made their way to the back of the essay hotel. Extended Essay Questions. Mr Fayed embraced the Princess around the waist as they stood in the lobby and prepared to make a dash for the black Mercedes.
00.20pm: Princess Diana sat on the right-rear passenger seat with Mr Fayed next to her. Thesis. The vehicle left the hotel and headed towards Place de la Concorde opposite the Louvre museum. London Essay. 00.25pm: The Mercedes crashed into the 13th pillar of the Alma tunnel and crumpled during the catastrophic collision. The first photographer to arrive on the scene was Romuald Rat. Frédéric Mailliez was the first doctor to give Diana first aid and called the emergency services. Puritans. 00.28am: Two police officers arrived at the scene and began cordoning it off from the gathering group of paparazzi. Biology Questions. Eight of puritans essay them were arrested and essay on causes war, taken for essay thesis, questioning.
Princess Diana tried to get away in ambition essay, an unmarked Mercedes. 00.32am: Emergency crews and an ambulance arrived but it took nearly an hour for Princess Diana to be taken to hospital. 1.30am: Mr Fayed is pronounced dead. 1.55am: Princess Diana’s ambulance made a stop to puritans administer a shot of adrenaline. 2.06am: The ambulance arrives at Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital where Princess Diana underwent a two-hour long open heart surgery. Princess Diana was pronounced dead at 4am after suffering a cardiac arrest. 4am: Princess Diana is stellar, pronounced dead. An autopsy on thesis, Mr Paul’s body was carried out later in the day. Tests revealed that the driver had been three-times over the French legal drinking limit. A 2008 inquest at the the Royal Courts of Justice ruled that both Princess Diana and Mr Fayed were unlawfully killed. Essay Research. The death was blamed on the “gross negligence” of the puritans driver and the paparazzi who hounded their car through the streets of Paris.
The inquest also found that the couple would have stood a chance of surviving if they had worn their seatbelt. REVEALED: Why Prince Harry and Meghan Markle are as good as engaged. Queen will NEVER abdicate! Royal expert says monarch will NOT step aside for Charles. Prince Harry meets Meghan Markle’s mum in biggest sign of case royal engagement yet. 'It is important' Candid Duchess of Cambridge in first appearance since Royal Baby reveal. Prince George’s fourth birthday: His first four years in adorable pictures. REVEALED: Why Prince Harry and Meghan Markle are as good as engaged. Archbishop of Canterbury ‘hopes he does not have to conduct the puritans essay thesis Queen’s funeral service’ Prince Harry meets Meghan Markle’s mum in biggest sign of royal engagement yet. Queen REJECTS Star Wars request to film scenes on royal land as fans anticipate new film. Meghan Markle and extended research, smitten Prince Harry kiss and cuddle at puritans essay thesis, Invictus Games closing ceremony. Royal wedding: Bookies slash odds on Prince Harry and Meghan tying knot next year.
Prince Harry ready for Invictus Games closing ceremony - but will Meghan Markle be there? Prince Harry spotted with Barack Obama at Invictus Games - but where's Meghan? Queen will NEVER abdicate! Royal expert says monarch will NOT step aside for Charles. Queen opens Chelsea Flower Show garden at Aberdeen Royal Infirmary. Meghan Markle ‘round-the-clock protection amid security fears' paid for by Suits bosses. REVEALED: Horror moment homeless killer hid in family garden before murdering mum and son. Priti Patel unveils reforms to stop 'fat cat' middlemen profiteering from overseas aid. Business. Catalonia Independence: Brexiteer Peter Bone lashes EU's silence on brutal crackdown. Liar actor Ioan Gruffudd TROLLED by own wife after THAT bombshell: ‘The creepy smile…’ Bali volcano update: Watch Mount Agung’s seismic activity LIVE - Latest graph.
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HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Essay. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) causes AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) that disables the immune system. It was discovered in 1983 .HIV enters the body through the bloodstream and essay thesis, duplicates itself rapidly. The victim is susceptible to infectious diseases that eventually are fatal (1). Statistically, HIV/AIDS is the number one killer of African-American women ages 25 to 34, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Between 2000 and 2003, they were nineteen times more likely than White females and essay biology research questions, five times more likely than Hispanic females to essay thesis, contract the business leadership essay, disease. African-American men were seven times more likely than White men and three times the rate of Hispanic men to contract HIV/AIDS (2). In 2008, there is puritans essay thesis still not a cure for AIDS. Essay? Instead, scientists have discovered drugs that can slow down the progression of the thesis, disease.
Protease inhibitors (PIs) are antiviral drugs that slow down the spread of HIV (1). The virus produces a protein called protease so that it can replicate itself. Essay? “Protease cuts long chains of proteins and enzymes into shorter chains, the puritans essay, first step in the process by which HIV infects a cell” (1). If this doesn’t happen, replication does not continue. In 1987, AZT was the extended essay research questions, first anti-HIV medication that was created. It showed hope and kept people healthier longer. Thesis? However, the side effects were very high for men. Essay? Since that time, more HIV medications have evolved.
Antiretroviral therapy usually consists of combinations of nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, or fusion inhibitors, which are prescribed in puritans essay thesis the later stages of HIV (19). V For Critical Essay? Dual protease inhibitor therapy is also being used clinically (3). They are also associated with improving morbidity and mortality of HIV-positive persons (5). Although these drugs are expensive, they have proven to be the essay, most successful therapy in essay of civil managing HIV. However, some patients don’t comply 100% with their treatments. This is largely due to the side effects. Sometimes they make a patient feel worse than the actual disease. The most commonly reported ones are abdominal pain, abnormal bowel movements, diarrhea, fatigue, headache, and nausea. Children usually develop a skin rash.
The more serious side effects are liver problems and pancreatitis. Some patients have also seen large increase in essay thesis triglyceride ad cholesterol levels. Diabetics saw an increase in their blood sugar levels. Other patients developed diabetes while taking protease inhibitors (16). Stellar And Helium? Presently, nine PIs have been approved for use in the United States and essay thesis, Europe: amprenavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, lopinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, tipranavir, and nelfinavir. Three non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are used for treatment of managing workplace conflict case studies, HIV: nevirapine, delavirdine, and efavirenz (7).
Drug treatment selection depends on factors such as drug resistance, tolerability, drug interactions, and essay, effectiveness. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) “has been proposed so that practitioners may better maintain appropriate plasma concentrations of drugs in their patients by identifying interactions with other medications and extended essay research questions, assessing medication adherence (7). Figure 1 shows the essay thesis, structures of these compounds. Fig. 1. Chemical structures of protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. About 50% of “treatment-naive patients” don’t have continued antiviral response after one year of therapy (18).
In some cases, there is a development of drug resistance and metabolic complications. Also, “there is increasing evidence that virological treatment failure is correlated with variations in the pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs (20). This can be due to drug interactions, low bioavailability, and variations in ambition in life metabolic enzyme activity. Atazanavir (ATV) has good oral bioavailability and puritans essay, a favorable pharmacokinetics profile (18). With this in mind, patients can mostly take a once-daily dose. A separate analytical method has been recently published for quantifying ATV in human plasma using solid phase extraction and HPLC with PDA (photodiode array) detection at ambition in life essay, 201 nm (18). Puritans? This method provides excellent separation of in life essay, ATV from its internal standard, clozapine (CLZ) and the other PIs, thus, obtaining an accurate measurement of the drug (see figure 2). CLZ elutes at 8.9 minutes, and ATV elutes a 24.4 minutes.
A 40-ml injection resulted in a recovery yield of 100%. Fig. Essay? 2. Chromatogram of ATV with PIs/NNRTIs (8000 ng/ml) spiked with CLZ. Nelfinavir mesylate has been shown in phase III controlled clinical trials to significantly reduce viral load and increase CD4 + cell counts when used with reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Nucleosynthesis And Helium? It’s prescribed as part of triple drug combination therapy (9). CD4 + are helper T cells. They are important for immune reconstitution in puritans thesis patients that are receiving antiretroviral therapy (10). After a large number of these cells are destroyed, AIDS develops (7). Six clinical trials was conducted in the past ten years using 2, 148 HIV-infected children enrolled in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group treatment trials (10).
Patient ages varied from workplace conflict case studies 2 to 7 years of age. The focus was to puritans essay thesis, observe short-term variability of CD4 percentages. The study found that 49% of patients had CD4 percentages above 25%. 32% of stellar and helium, patients had CD4 counts between 15% and 24%; 19% were less than 15%. Essay? Finally, 5.4% had a CD4% of less than 5% (10). In June 2006, Darunavir (DRV) was licensed in managing workplace case studies the United States. Essay? It is case a promising PI that is active against HIV strains that are resistant to the other PIs that currently on the market (17). It is prescribed in 600-mg doses that are taken twice daily with 100 mg of puritans thesis, ritonavir that acts as a booster. Protease inhibitors are associated with unfavorable pharmacokinetics and managing case, many side effects such as gastrointestinal disturbances and puritans essay thesis, lipid abnormalities (5).
Four of the most common PIs used are indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and nelfinavir (3 ). “Monitoring blood concentration of PIs, which can indicate both therapeutic and toxic levels of the drugs as well as patient noncompliance with the essay on causes of civil war, medication, may improve the care of both HIV-infected adults and children” (3). When ritonavir was first introduced, it was given in doses of puritans essay thesis, 600 mg every 12 hours. Nucleosynthesis? “However, patient intolerance of essay, full doses led to its primary use as a pharmacologic enhancer to biology research, increase the concentrations in plasma of a second protease inhibitor to puritans thesis, improve the convenience of ambition essay, antiretroviral regimens by extending the dosing interval, reducing pill burden, and /or eliminating food-induced reductions in pharmacokinetic exposure” (8). Researchers used High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to determine concentrations of PIs in blood. Various methods have been used to thesis, study the pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. V For Vendetta Critical Essay? Interpreting plasma levels can be used to “individualize drug dosage of antiretrovirals (4). Quality control (QC) procedures must be done to ensure that these methods are accurate and precise. “Such procedures usually include intralaboratory (internal) method validation, intralaboratory QC procedures, and participation in an interlaboratory QC program for antiretroviral drugs” (4).
Since the latter hadn’t been done before, it was established so that laboratories can obtain better measurement results of antiretroviral drugs. Nine laboratories participated in the first part of the program. The first part of the experiment involved the measurement of the protease inhibitors: indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir. All had a specified purity of puritans essay, 99% or higher. QC samples were prepared by spiking blank plasma from HIV-negative volunteers with PI standard. The low concentrated standards ranged from leadership 0.087 to 0.15 mg/L while the intermediate concentrated standards contained ranged from 2 to 3 mg/L of all four PIs. Puritans Essay Thesis? Finally, the high-concentrated standards contained approximately 5 to 11 mg/L of drug. All drugs were dissolved in methanol following accurate weighings and diluted with blank plasma (4).
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze twelve samples. All laboratories measuring more than one protease inhibitor used as assay for “simultaneous determination” (4). Six laboratories used HPLC/UV and three labs used HPLC-MS/MS. Mass spectrometry detection is often recommended for measurement of low concentration levels. Also, this type of analysis is usually faster and “does not require complete resolution of drugs for detection and quantification” (5).
Only five laboratories were able to measure all four PIs. Three laboratories were not able to determine nelfinavir. One laboratory only measured indinavir (4). Acceptable accuracy results are between 80% and 120%. Only indinavir resulted in an acceptable accuracy of 80%. Nucleosynthesis And Helium? The remaining PIs had between 36% and 74% accuracy. These results should encourage laboratories to puritans essay thesis, improve their analytical methods and QC procedures. Other PIs, such as amprenavir and lopinavir, can be analyzed as well (4). HIV-positive plasma samples are heat inactivated before analysis, approximately 58°C for 40 minutes, to decrease the ambition, risk of infection to the operator.
They may also go through a freeze/thaw cycle. As with the QC study, blank plasma was spiked with seven PIs (indinavir, amprenavir, atazanavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, lopinavir, and nelfnavir) at low, intermediate, and puritans essay thesis, high concentrations measured in ng/ml. Certain assays only require 100 µl of plasma for analysis. “This is advantageous when measuring PI concentrations as part of essay, clinical studies as they often necessitate hourly sampling to generate complete PK profiles; therefore less blood can be drawn from the patient” (5). In addition, seven PIs can be quantified in one assay, but impossible to assay all seven in puritans essay thesis a single preparation. “The use of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) has emerged as the managing workplace case studies, developmental method of choice supporting clinical and pre-clinical pharmacokinetic studies” (13). Recovery for the HPLC-MS/MS methods was above 87% for puritans thesis all seven drugs at all three concentration levels (5). It was successful in quantifying seven PI concentrations in plasma of HIV positive persons that participated in extended a run time of nine minutes. Therefore, the assay may be used for determining PI concentrations in semen, lymphocytes, and cerebrospinal fluid (5). A fast and highly-sensitive LC-MS-MS method was developed that could analyze five protease inhibitors (amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir) in one run using an internal standard. Sample sizes were small (ng/ml) and thesis, run times were approximately 5 minutes.
Recoveries for extended all five PIs were between 87% and 92%(11). Tipranavir is part of a class of non-peptidic PIs that works against puritans essay both “wild-type virus and variants resistant to managing workplace studies, current PIs”(6). It also has a high genetic barrier. Tipranavir is thesis prescribed in a 500-mg dose taken in combination with 200 mg of ritonavir twice daily as part of antiretroviral therapy for patients with HIV-1 strains that are resistant to multiple PIs (6). Fig.
3. Managing Conflict Studies? Tipranavir chemical structure. An HPLC-UV method has been validated and is currently applied when monitoring tipranavir (TPV) plasma levels in HIV patients. Samples were prepared for solid phase extraction (SPE) by conditioning the cartridges with 0.1% phosphoric acid, pH 7. TPV stock solutions with a concentration of 5 mg/ml were diluted from with 50% methanol. Samples were spiked with TPV at 1.875, 7.5, 18.75, 37.5, 60, and 75 µg/ml in triplicate. QC samples were diluted with blank plasma and phosphate buffer to 5.625, 22.5, and 67.5 µg/ml. Puritans Thesis? Clozapine was used as the internal standard (6).
5-ml aliquots of blood samples were obtained from stellar HIV infected patients. The plasma obtained from thesis centrifugation was heated at 60° C for one hour in a water bath. TPV in plasma was measured at and helium, a UV absorbance of 201 nm with a retention time of thesis, 32.2 minutes. Its internal standard, clozapine (CLZ) has a retention time of 8.3 minutes (6). Figure 4 below shows the chromatogram of TPV, its internal standard, and all other PIs and NNRTIs present. Business School Essay? Figure 5 shows TPV and its internal standard CLZ only. Fig. 4. Puritans? Chromatogram of plasma control sample of TVP (22.5 mg/ml) spiked with internal standard and all PIs and NNRTIs. Fig. 5. Chromatogram of calibration sample of TVP (37.5 mg/ml) spiked with internal standard CLZ. Isocratic HPLC methods combined with the use of UV and fluorescence detection produces more sensitivity.
Amprenavir is a fluorescent compound. Its internal standard PR25 can also be seen under fluorescence (see figure 6). Fig. 6. Blank plasma with 100 ng/ml amprenavir and 1000 ng/ml of PR25 seen under fluorescence. In conclusion, much progress has been made in the development of protease inhibitors and other antiretroviral therapy. HPLC with UV detection has been the most commonly used method of analysis.
It is rapid, simple, and highly sensitive. LC-MS-MS has been noted at the developmental method of choice for clinical and pre-clinical pharmacokinetic studies (13). More compounds can be analyzed in less time. Also, they can be used for conflict case studies methods using other human biological matrices. For the puritans essay, majority of protease inhibitors, all side effects are not known. Managing Conflict Studies? In 2007, darunavir was the puritans essay, new HIV protease inhibitor with eleven other antiretroviral agents on essay biology research questions the market. They can affect patients that have diabetes, liver problems, and hemophilia; their conditions can worsen as a result of taking PIs.
Only a patient’s health care provider can determine the best treatment option. Nagel, Rob. 2007. Essay Thesis? Protease Inhibitors. UXL Encyclopedia of london, Science; [cited 2008 May 8], Available from http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SciRC?ste=1docnum=cv2644301082.
Health Hotline: HIV and Genital Herpes [cited 2008 May8]; Available from puritans essay http://www.ebony.com. “HPLC Assay for Common Protease Inhibitors Developed.”Antiviral Weekly; [cited 2008 May 07; Available from http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SciRC?ste=1docNum=A60069570. Aarnoutse, Rob E., Verweij-van Wissen, Corrien P.W.G.M., van Ewijk-Beneken Kolmer, Eleonora, W.J., Wuis, Eveline, W., Koopmans, Peter P., Hekster, Yechiel A., and Burger, David, M. 2001. International Interlaboratory Quality Control Program for Measurement of Antiretroviral Drugs in Plasma; Antimicrobial Agents and on causes of civil, Chemo 46(3): 884-886. Dickinson, Laura, Robinson, Lesley, Tjia, John, Khoo, and Saye, Back, David. Essay? 2005. Simultaneous determination of HIV protease inhibitors amprenavir, atazanavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; J of business school, Chrom. B 829:82-90. Colombo, S., Beguin, A., Marzolini, C., Telenti, A., Biollaz, J., and Decosterd, L.A.
2006. Determination of the novel non-peptidic HIV-protease inhibitor tipranavir by HPLC-UV after solid-phase extraction; J of Chrom. B 832:138-143. Rezk, Naser L., Tidwell, Richard R., and Kashuba, Angela D.M. 2004. High-performance liquid chromatography assay for the quantification of HIV protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in human plasma; J of puritans essay, Chrom. B 805:241-247.
Shelton, Mark J.,Hewitt, Ross G., Adams, John, Dela-Coletta, Andrew, Cox, Steven, and Morse, Gene D. 2003. Pharmacokinetics of Ritonavir and Delavirdine in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients; Antimicrobial Agents and Chemo 47(5): 1694-1699. Zhang, Kanyin E., Wu, Ellen, Patick, Amy K., Kerr, Bradley, Zorbas, Mark, Lankford, Angela, Kobayashi, Takuo, Maeda, Yuki, Shetty, Bhasker, and Webber, Stephanie. 2001.Circulating Metabolites of the business school leadership, Human Immunodeficiency Virus protease Inhibitor Nelfinavir in Humans: Structural Identification, Levels in Plasma, and Antiviral Activities; Antimicrobial Agents and Chemo 45(4): 1086-1093. Carey, Vincent J., Pahwa, Savita, and Weinberg, Adriana. 2005. Puritans Thesis? Reliability of CD4 Quantitation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Children: Implications for Definition of Immunologic Response to vendetta critical, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy; Clinical and Diagnostic Lab Immunology 12(5): 640-643. Chi, Jingduan, Jayewardene, Anura L., Stone, Judith A., Motoya, Toshiro, and Aweeka, Francesca.
2002. Puritans Essay Thesis? Simultaneous determination of five HIV protease inhibitors nelfinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir and amprenavir in human plasma by LC/MS/MS; J of Pharm and Biomedical Analysis 30:675-684. Verbesselt, R., Van Wijngaerden, E., and de Hoon, J. 2007. Simultaneous determination of 8 HIV protease inhibitors in human plasma by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography with combined use of UV and biology questions, fluorescence detection: Amprenavir, indinavir, atazanavir, ritonavir, lopinavir, saquinavir, nelfinavir and essay, M8-nelfinavir metabolite; J of Chrom. B 845:51-60. Frerichs, Valerie A., DiFrancesco, Robin, and extended biology research, Morse, Gene D. 2003. Determination of protease inhibitors using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; J of Chrom, B 787:393-403. Gangl, Eric, Utkin, Ilya, Gerber, Nicholas, and essay, Vouros, Paul. 2002. Structural elucidation of metabolites of ritonavir and indinavir by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; J. of london business school, Chrom. A 974:91-101.
Turner, Michele L., Reed-Walker, Kedria, King, Jennifer R., and Acosta, Edward P. 2003. Simultaneous determination of nine antiretroviral compounds in human plasma using liquid chromatography; J. of Chrom. Essay? B 784:331-341. D’Avolio, Antonio, Siccardi, Marco, Sciandra, Mauro, Lorena, Baietto, Bonora, Stefano, Trentini, Laura, and Di Perri, Giovanni.2007. HPLC-MS method for the simultaneous quantification of the new HIV protease inhibitor darunavir, and 11 other antiretroviral agents in plasma of HIV-infected patients; J. of Chrom. B 859:234-240. Colombo, S., Guignard, N., Marzolini, C., Telenti, A., Biollaz, J., and managing workplace, Decosterd, L.A. 2004. Determination of the new HIV-protease inhibitor atazanavir by essay liquid chromatography after solid-phase extraction; J. of essay biology, Chrom.
B 810:25-34. Weller, Dennis R., Brundage, Richard C., Balfour, Jr., Henry H., and Vezina, Heather E. An isocratic liquid chromatography method for determining HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor concentrations in human plasma; J. of Chrom. B 848:369-373. Sarasa-Nacenta, Maria, Lopez-Pua, Yolanda, Mallolas, Josep, Blanco, Jose’ Luis, Gatell, Jose’ M., and Carne’, Xavier. Essay? Simultaneous determination of the HIV-protease inhibitors indinavir, amprenavir, ritonavir, saquinavir and nelfinavir in human plasma by in life reversed-phase high- performance liquid chromatography; J, of Chrom. B 757:325-332. University/College: University of thesis, California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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Should euthanasia (assisted suicide) be legal?Assisted suicide, or euthanasia, is only legal in essay thesis, two countries in the world: Belgium and the Netherlands. Assisted suicide means that someone else is. Assisted suicide, or euthanasia, is stellar, only legal in two countries in the world: Belgium and the Netherlands. Assisted suicide means that someone else is essay thesis, allowed to help a person end their life when they have expressed the desire to research questions, die. In other countries, passive suicide is thesis, allowed, wherein the dying person refuses sustenance or breathing apparatuses. This is often a longer, slower, and more painful death than allowing a second party to administer life-ending measures. Should a person be allowed to designate someone to assist them die when all hope is vendetta, lost for a meaningful life? How should “meaningful” be defined and who gets to define it?
As a Christian, I believe that God is the puritans, giver and taker of life. There are over 60 scriptures in essay biology research questions, the Bible that refer to puritans essay, the sanctity of life. In Life? Most memorable of these is thou shalt not kill. Euthanasia has many ethical questions that must be answered before mercy killing is legalized. First, does a person have the right to do with his body as he sees fit? In some respects, yes. If he is. As a Christian, I believe that God is the giver and taker of life. There are over 60 scriptures in the Bible that refer to the sanctity of life. Most memorable of puritans thesis, these is thou shalt not kill. Euthanasia has many ethical questions that must be answered before mercy killing is london leadership, legalized.
First, does a person have the right to do with his body as he sees fit? In some respects, yes. If he is legally of thesis, age, he can drink, smoke, tattoo his body, and so on. London Business? On the other hand, prostitution is illegal in all states but Nevada (sin city) because it does not happen in a vacuum. There are societal spillovers.
In the essay, same vein, assisted suicide is london business school leadership, not just a person making a decision to puritans, end his life; it is giving the right to end someone's life to a doctor, a relative, or guardian. This opens the door for abuse. As in all societal questions, no one can promise that every time the rules will be followed. Secondly, if a person is terminally ill, who should decide when it is time to die? Is it the person himself, the doctor(s), or the family?
Each of these has its own set of ambition in life essay, problems? For example, the family will be stressed and filled with anxiety. Should they make that kind of decision? Who will make that decision? Today, modern medicines and pain killers are certainly effective. Most dying people can be relieved of their pain. There are hospices that practice pain and symptom control so that a terminally ill person can die with dignity. Quality of life does not mean that there will be no suffering or pain and that the person must be healthy, whole and happy all of the time. In reality, no one has the answers to these questions. That is one of the primary reasons that assisted suicide should not be legalized. Could euthanasia translate to premature suicide?
Sometimes doctors get the diagnosis wrong. What if the person is mentally ill or depressed? Should that person have the right to die when he chooses? Studies have shown that euthanasia will apply more to women and minorities. Puritans Essay? In Dr. Vendetta Critical? Kervorkian assisted suicides, 72% were women; of those women, 75% were not expected to die within six months and essay were still able to function within their homes. Vendetta Essay? Financial burdens will also play a part in the decision of whether or not to essay thesis, die. Rather than place a burden on school leadership, the family, some would chose to die first. Natural death does not require that extraordinary means are used when a person's vital processes have ceased to puritans essay thesis, function.
When there is no hope, life support machines do not have to business school, be used. The goal should be to help the dying person to be as comfortable as possible until the natural death occurs. Legalizing euthanasia is a slippery slope. It is like opening up a can of worms. What will the ramifications be? What are the unintended consequences? Until all these questions have been answered, let us leave the time of thesis, death to God's will. One of the many very difficult things about euthanasia (or assisted suicide) is the question of stellar nucleosynthesis and helium, when one human being has the right to essay, take another person's life, even if it is requested by that person. While I believe it may be comfortable for some of v for essay, us to adopt an attitude where this topic is concerned that killing is wrong (and I can see how this would be counter to many religions), I also believe that to watch someone (especially a loved one) die a lingering and thesis painful death, and beg for release would make this a very different matter.
It is hard to imagine this kind of suffering for me: I have been blessed. However, to be so ill that one is never out of pain—never—I cannot imagine forbidding that right to an individual. We have enforced mandatory enlistment into the armed services (during the Vietnam War, for biology instance) where young men did not want to die, but were selected and sent. Many never came home. We protect a person's right to bear arms—and these people have the power to take lives. People drink and drive and kill innocent people driving or walking, and I don't believe they are sent to jail for puritans essay thesis life, and they are certainly not executed. Case Studies? In the process of protecting the rights of so many, limiting the rights of others during wartime, and watching people rob others of their lives on a daily basis, how is it that a person does not have the right to end their own lives.
If someone is completely paralyzed, he or she will need assistance to do this. I would hate to puritans essay thesis, have to face this situation in any way, but I do believe that someone of on causes of civil, sound mind should be able to choose to die. The religious aspect is between that person and his or her God, if that person has a faith. Puritans Essay Thesis? Certainly restrictions should apply where perhaps a panel of people in the health care field oversee this kind of in life essay, procedure to make sure a person really wants to puritans essay thesis, make this decision. Someone who is not of sound mind should not make this choice.
It is leadership, a hard question to answer, but I believe those who have been exposed to these kinds of difficulties would be the puritans thesis, people to answer the question of the validity of ambition in life, such a practice. If we could ever allow partial-birth abortions, failing to take into account the rights of thesis, a child that might well be able to exist outside its mother's body (also called viable), how can we sit back and judge an adult who chooses not to hurt others, but put him or herself out of abject misery? It all depends on which side of the proposition one is sitting, as with most controversial situations. This is a difficult topic, and one on which I have a difficult time choosing a side. On one hand, I believe killing anyone is managing conflict case, wrong. Puritans Thesis? However, I also feel it is wrong to watch someone suffer. Managing Workplace Studies? We put our pets out of their misery when they are suffering because it is the humane thing to do. Should humans be given the same respect? There are many variables to consider when a person who is suffering chooses to have his/her life ended. Thesis? Is that person of a sound mind?
Is there truly no hope that the person's health can improve? This is where things get a bit complicated. I used to be completely against euthanasia. In my mind, it was okay to take away life support- or something that was unnaturally prolonging someone's life. But to essay on causes of civil war, administer some kind of procedure that would effectively kill someone when they otherwise could survive without any kind of aritifial life support, to me, was wrong. Then, I saw the film You Don't Know Jack.
It is about the death doctor Jack Kevorkian. Originally, I saw this man as a bad person who was killing people, but after seeing the film, my perspective changed. Of course, the film probably presents a biased view of thesis, assisted suicide, but it is interesting to watch if you are trying to make an argument on either side. Personally, I have made it clear that if my life must be sustained through artificial means, those artificial means are not to be employed for longer than 7 days (if money is available to pay for even that period of nucleosynthesis, time). Puritans Thesis? I have never thought of this as euthanasia or any sort of suicide. Workplace Case Studies? I have thought of it as the natural course of things unhampered by puritans humanistic ideals that value corporeal life over stellar nucleosynthesis and above all things. Again personally, I have often thought that as long as life naturally continues, there is the presence of essay thesis, relationship and where there is london school leadership essay, relationship, there is thesis, communication of love. I have consequentially thought that, when life continues naturally, suffering may well be sacrificed for war relationship and the communication of love. This is a tenuous position, I know, riddled with many, But what if . Essay? conditions. Nonetheless, because of these thoughts, I've turned away from the idea that it is acceptable to end life by artificial, assisted means.
Personally, so far, ending life artificially is ambition essay, as unacceptable as prolonging life artificially. Personally, I currently reject the appropriateness of both extremes. While not something that I prefer to puritans, dwell on, I do have a strong stance on euthanasia. Thomas Jefferson wrote in stellar nucleosynthesis, the Declaration of Independence that we are endowed by puritans essay thesis [our] Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. Jefferson certainly doesn't mention the right to die, but I would contend that when faced with a long, torturous death a person could defend euthanasia within the realm of pursuit of happiness. I believe that meaningful should be defined by ambition in life the person in question. I don't think I would ever elect to be a part of an assisted suicide, but I can understand why some people would see it as a logical choice. When faced with exorbitant medical bills and puritans thesis unimaginable pain and suffering I believe a person should have the right to choose to pursue happiness by workplace case eliminating a miserable end to an otherwise wonderful life. This opens up such a big can of worms.
In theory, you would think that people should have the basic human/natural right of defining whether their life continues to be worth living. From that point of puritans thesis, view, people should be allowed to define for themselves when their life is meaningful and vendetta critical should be allowed to end life when it stops being meaningful. However, we then get into a situation where we are giving legal and, implicitly, moral sanction to people to end their lives on their own whims. If we let people decide for puritans essay themselves when life has ceased to be meaningful, we run the risk of sending the message that human life is very cheap and that we accept the idea that people should end it whenever they feel like doing so. The moral, ethical, and practical dilemmas alluded to in post #5 are, indeed, the school, crux of this question. For instance, Who will make such decisions? What criteria can be established for these decisions? Rather than addressing this directly, perhaps consideration should be given to the forced keeping alive through medication such as exists in many nursing homes; that is, until the thesis, patient's money runs out. Somehow, it seems that when people were allowed to die naturally, there were fewer situations which presented the question of assisted suicide.
Of course, medication to ease pain is necessary, but other measures could be discontinued. Again, people are faced by the quandaries created by modern science. I am also torn by this topic. I have a hard time with the idea of committing suicide (under any circumstances). That said, I can understand the strong feelings associated with terminal illness and the pain associated with it. Under these circumstances, I would not harbor the same feelings against a person with a terminal illness as I would another person going through a depression (not to belittle clinical depression at stellar nucleosynthesis and helium, all). I do feel that, sometimes, too many of our rights have been censored by the government. If a person is essay, terminally ill, I believe that it should be up to them in regards to ending their life. (As a side note, I highly appreciate pohnpei's point of view regarding the cost of human life.)
I would advocate legalized euthanasia with proper written authorization from v for essay both the patient and puritans essay thesis physicians. I believe euthanasia should only be implemented in the case of ambition essay, terminal diseases or when a person is beset with constant and puritans essay unalleviated pain, and the person or doctor who assists in the euthanized death should have the proper paperwork documented by stellar the patient who desires to puritans thesis, end his/her life. In the case of a painful, terminal disease, I'd find it difficult to on causes war, deny someone the puritans, right to end their suffering. Nevertheless, I think I find it equally difficult to sanction the willful ending of one's life. London Essay? I think I'd probably stick with the passive approach, but hopefully with enough painkiller to make the patient reasonably comfortable.
I look at the whole situation slightly differently. One has to see whether it is willful termination of life i.e. assisted suicide or unnaturally prolonging the life of a terminally sick person through artificial breathing etc. There is puritans, a difference in the two situations. I have seen doctors putting terminally ill patients on breathing apparatus for nucleosynthesis and helium indefinite duration to add to their bills. In such a case, I consider it to be an puritans thesis unethical practice and this must be stopped to let the ambition in life essay, person die naturally.
Otherwise, I consider assisted suicide like entering the domain of God and puritans essay thesis would reject euthanasia. Let that person be helped with painkillers etc to make the remaining life as comfortable as possible. I feel it should be legal, but only essay, under strict conditions. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this answer and thousands more.
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andy warhol essay Pop-Art , Teil II, Andy Warhol. Essay! Auszge aus dem Arbeitstext zur Radiosendung #8220; Die Kunststunde #8220; am 25.09.2014. And Helium! (Hinweis: die Zitate und Quellen sind nicht gekennzeichnet !) Hrfassung ohne Werbung, ca. Essay! 50 min. Vendetta! Audiodatei speichern mit Rechtsklick auf den Player. Essay Thesis! Hallo liebe Kunstfreunde, in essay biology research, unserer ersten Sendung nach der Sommerpause mchte ich Ihnen wie versprochen den Knstler Andy Warhol vorstellen. Als wir unsere erste Sendung ber die Popart ausstrahlten, hatten wir uns darauf verstndigt, Andy Warhol eine eigene Sendung zu widmen. Puritans! Daraus wurde dann nichts, weil wir ein wichtiges Interview mit einer neuen Galeristin vorziehen mussten. On Causes Of Civil War! Anschlieend gab es die Sommerpause, und deshalb liegt zwischen unseren beiden Sendungen zur Pop-Art doch ein relativ langer Zeitraum.
Ich denke aber, das macht nichts. Erinnern wir uns nur kurz daran, was die Pop-Art eigentlich war und wie sie sich von den anderen Kunstrichtungen nach 1945 unterschied. Puritans Essay Thesis! Die Pop-Art eine Abkrzung des englischen Begriffes Popular Art, was soviel wie volkstmliche Art oder Kunst bedeutet - wollte sich vom Elitren der Kunst absetzen. Nucleosynthesis! Die Werke der abstrakten Expressionisten, zum Beispiel die Tropfbilder von Jackson Pollock, oder auch die Werke der Konstruktivisten mit ihrem grafisch mathematischen Ansatz oder die Bilder des Informell (Rauschenberg, Motherwell, Twombly) waren nicht jedermanns Sache. Kunst hatte doch auch immer bestehende Verhltnisse kritisiert. Sie war oft aufklrerisch und nicht elitr. Oft genug in thesis, der Kunstgeschichte hat die Kunst provoziert; sie war eine Sache der Revolution und diente der Kritik bestehender Verhltnisse.
Insofern musste die neue Kunst auch irgendwann die neuen Verhltnisse der schnen Konsum- und Warenwelt kritisieren; den Kapitalismus angreifen - auch indem sie sich seiner plakativen Mittel bedient. Essay On Causes Of Civil War! Am plakativsten zeigt sich die Konsumwelt in puritans thesis, der Werbung; die Werbung sticht ins Auge und reit unsere Aufmerksamkeit an of civil sich. Thesis! Und genau so sollte die neue Kunst sein: verstndlich, einfach, plakativ, bertrieben; kurz gesagt: massentauglich. Stellar Nucleosynthesis And Helium! Die Bildmotive sind trivial; die Bilder erinnern an Werbetafel und zeigen Konsumgter und Filmstars; die Welt des Supermarktes und der Massenproduktion als Lebenselixier, die Welt der Comics und der Filmstars mit dem Image der ewigen Jugend als Kultur darber gestlpt. Thesis! Etwas Einmaliges wird hundertfach wiederholt, also zu einer Serie oder Reihung addiert, wie es die kapitalistische Massenproduktion eben macht, und damit wird das Einmalige zur beliebigen Ware. Essay On Causes Of Civil! Der einmalige Mensch wird zur Ware. Ein schnes Beispiel fr diesen Prozess ist die Darstellung der Schauspielerin Marilyn Monroe, die Andy Warhol als Siebdruck in vielen Farben in puritans thesis, eine Reihe bringt und so zu einem Massenprodukt fertigt. Aus der Ikone wird ein Produkt. Man kann auch sagen: durch die systemimmanente Art, wie die Popart ihre Themen findet und sich selbst darstellt, ist sie zugleich die Kritik an research diesem System - wenn man wohlwollend ist. Puritans Thesis! Man kann natrlich auch sagen, dass die Popart sich einfach der neuen Mglichkeiten bediente, kapitalismusgetreue Kunst zu erzeugen und clever zu vermarkten. V For Critical Essay! Insofern war es auch zwangslufig, dass die Popart zunehmend andere Bildtrger nutzte - also nicht mehr die Leinwand, die jedes Bild etwas Einmaliges, etwas Originales sein lsst - sondern alle Mglichkeiten der Vervielfltigung benutzte, zum Beispiel den Siebdruck.
Massenproduktion eben. Essay Thesis! Es gab auch bei der Popart immer beides, den kommerziellen Hintergrund und den kritisch politischen. Letzterer ist auch auf den Vietnamkrieg, die Ermordung John F. Leadership! Kennedys, die Rassenunruhen und den steigenden Drogenkonsum in puritans, den USA in london school, den 60er Jahren zurckzufhren. Thesis! Die Knstler mussten darauf reagieren. Essay Of Civil! Es gab nicht nur die perfekte schne Wohlstandsgesellschaft. Essay Thesis! Es gab die Ghettoisierung der Stdte. Critical! Und aus den Ghettos kamen neue Knstler, z. Puritans! B. Stellar Nucleosynthesis And Helium! Jean-Michel Basquiat, dessen naive Radikalitt ehrlicher war als der Hiphop heutiger Gangster-Rapper. Puritans! Basquiat wurde brigens von Andy Warhol sehr gefrdert, aber davon ein andermal mehr. Kommen wir zu Andy Warhol, der kommerziellen Ikone der Popart . Managing Workplace! Andy Warhol hie mit richtigem Namen eigentlich Andrew Warhola.
Er wurde 1928 in essay, Pittsburgh als jngster Sohn einer armen Migrantenfamilie aus der Slowakei geboren. Er wchst in v for essay, armen Verhltnissen auf. Puritans Essay Thesis! Die Eltern sind streng glubig und arbeiten beide, um die Familie durchzubringen. Managing Case Studies! Andy hat noch zwei ltere Brder. Essay Thesis! Aber nicht nur deshalb war er das Nesthkchen, sondern er war auch sehr krnklich und litt unter diversen Krankheiten, unter anderem einer Pigmentstrung, die ihn wie einen Albino erscheinen lie. In Life! All dies verhinderte, dass er Freunde unter seinen Altersgenossen fand. Whrend der langen Zeiten, die er immer wieder im Bett verbringen musste, entwickelte er Interesse an allen mglichen Knsten. Puritans Essay! Wer viel allein ist und sich mit sich selbst beschftigen muss, bildet Interessen und Fhigkeiten aus, die andere Kinder nicht haben. And Helium! Sein knstlerisches Talent wurde von den Eltern aber frh erkannt und gefrdert. Essay! Als Andy 14 ist, stirbt sein Vater, viel zu frh.
Nach seinem Wunsch untersttzt die Familie aber Andrews Studium am Department of london business leadership Painting Design des Carnegie Institute of thesis Technology. 1949 zieht er nach New York. Critical! Seine Mutter Julia folgt ihm ein Jahr spter. Puritans Essay Thesis! Die beiden leben dort gemeinsam bis kurz vor ihrem Tod im Jahr 1972. Bereits whrend des Studiums nimmt Warhol Kontakte zu New Yorker Redaktionen auf, um seine Talente als Gebrauchsgrafiker anzupreisen. Leadership! Er erhlt auch sofort nach seinem Umzug nach New York erste Auftrge.
Schnell arbeitet er sich zu einem der anerkanntesten und bestbezahlten Werbegrafiker hoch. Essay Thesis! Sein Ziel ist jedoch die knstlerische Anerkennung. 1952 hat er seine erste Einzelausstellung ( Fifteen Drawings Based on the Writings of managing conflict case studies Truman Capote) und 1956 schon eine groe Ausstellung im Museum of puritans thesis Modern Art in managing workplace conflict case, New York, jedoch als Grafiker. Puritans! Nach den ersten Ausstellungserfolgen gibt er die Auftragsarbeit in workplace conflict case studies, der Werbung auf. Die Techniken des kommerziellen Druckes, ganz besonders der Siebdruck, bleiben fr das knstlerische Werk Warhols jedoch entscheidend. Thesis! Seit Ende der 50er Jahre setzt sich die sogenannte Pop Art durch. School Leadership! Einige der Knstler stammen wie Warhol aus dem Bereich der Gebrauchsgrafik. Puritans! Aber nur er ist es, der typische Motive des American Way of stellar nucleosynthesis and helium Life als Thema fr die Bilder nutzt: Dollar-Scheine z.B. und Coca-Cola-Flaschen. Damit trifft er den Nerv der Zeit. Puritans! 1962 entsteht die Serie aus 32 Acrylbildern von Campbells Suppendosen; 32 Bilder, weil es 32 verschiedene Geschmacksrichtungen gab. Managing Conflict Case! Auf identischen Leinwnden werden die Dosen aller mglichen Sorten grafisch genau und ohne Verfremdung abgebildet.
Damit wirken sie um so symbolhafter. Puritans! Zitat: „I love to nucleosynthesis, do the essay thesis same thing over business school leadership essay and over puritans thesis again#8220; „Ich liebe es, das Gleiche immer und immer wieder zu tun#8220;). Ein typischer Werktitel jener Zeit lautet „30 are better than one#8220;. Man begegnete diesen Bildern zunchst mit totalem Unverstndnis, nur fnf Kufer erkannten die revolutionre Neuerung von Warhols Sichtweise; einer von ihnen war der Schauspieler Dennis Hopper, der andere Donald Factor, ein spterer Teilerbe des Max-Factor-Konzerns. Ambition In Life Essay! Keiner der Kufer erhielt sein Bild, fr das jeder 100 Dollar bezahlt hatte, weil ein Teilhaber der Galerie unter dem Vorwand, das Ensemble zusammen zu lassen, nach der Ausstellung die Bilder fr sich behielt. Puritans! - Warhol erhielt 1.000 Dollar fr die 32 Bilder. 1996 wurden sie fr 15 Millionen Dollar an das Museum of Modern Art in biology, New York City veruert.
Mit der Serie jedenfalls beginnen die knstlerisch erfolgreichsten Jahre fr Andy Warhol. Puritans Essay Thesis! Der Tod Marilyn Monroes am 5. Nucleosynthesis! August 1962 inspiriert ihn zu seiner berhmten Marilyn-Portrtserie. Thesis! ber greller flchenhafter Untermalung mit Acrylfarbe wird per research questions, Siebdruck ein Standfoto von Marilyn Monroe aus dem Film Niagara gedruckt. Essay Thesis! Seitdem bleiben die Serien colorierter Siebdruck-Portrts sein Markenzeichen. Biology! Elvis Presley wird gedruckt. Puritans Essay Thesis! Mick Jagger von den Rolling Stones. Vendetta! James Dean, Liz Taylor. Puritans! Eine weitere Serie zeigt Mao Tse Tung, den chinesischen Revolutionsfhrer. Business Leadership Essay! Vermutlich htte er diese Serie auch gemacht, wenn die Verbrechen Maos bekannt gewesen wren#8230; 1962 entstehen auch die ersten Bilder der Death- and- Desaster Serie: Warhol greift Bilder aus den Massenmedien von Unfllen, Katastrophen und Hinrichtungen auf. Auch hier wird das gleiche Motiv vervielfltigt und aneinandergereiht oder farblich verndert. Er schreckte auch vor Geschmacklosigkeiten nicht zurck und nutzte das ffentliche Interesse an puritans Personen wie der trauernden Jackie Kennedy nach der Ermordung ihres Mannes John F. Workplace Case! Kennedy 1963 schamlos fr seine auf Effekt bedachten Bilder aus.
Warhol benutzt dazu Fotos von ihr vor dem Attentat und whrend der Beerdigung ihres Mannes. Die Kunstkritik erkannte dennoch, dass diese Bilder einen sthetischen Reiz hatten: Durch das Serienformat lenkten sie die Aufmerksamkeit weg vom Motiv hin zur Machart der Vorlagen und lieen dadurch den manipulativen Charakter der Populrkultur unserer Zeit erkennbar werden wir alle sind durch die Massenmedien in unserer Wahrnehmung gelenkt. Essay! In Amerika stie Warhol mit diesen Bildern auf Ablehnung, die Ausstellung in vendetta essay, Paris wurde dagegen zum groen Erfolg. Sein Beitrag zur New Yorker Weltausstellung 1964 gert allerdings zum Skandal. Puritans Essay Thesis! Warhol fertigt dafr ein berdimensionales Bild fr die Auenwand des New Yorker Pavillons an. London Business School Leadership Essay! Abgebildet sind steckbrieflich gesuchte Mnner ( „ The 13 Most Wanted Men#8220; ). Essay! Protest regt sich vor allem, weil die abgebildeten Mnner alle italienischer Abstammung sind. Warhol bermalt schlielich das Bild: Den Pavillon ziert fr den Rest der Ausstellung eine monochrom silberne Tafel. On Causes War! Warhol kehrt schlielich zu weniger provokanten Themen zurck, nicht zuletzt um wieder Verkaufserfolge zu erzielen. Puritans Essay! 1964 entsteht die Serie „Flowers#8220;.
Diese Bilder, endlich wieder bunt und massentauglich, verkaufen sich bestens. Seine Elvisportrts entstehen ebenfalls 1964 nach einem Filmstandbild. 1966 stellt Andy Warhol seine Tapete mit Kuhkpfen aus. Mitte der 60er Jahre war Andy Warhol der Star in New York. Dazu beigetragen hatte auch die Grndung seiner Factory , einer zum Atelier umgebauten Fabriketage 1963.
Hier entstehen die ersten Filme Andy Warhols. V For Vendetta Essay! Sie sind bewusst unprofessionell und ohne technische Raffinessen. Puritans Thesis! Die meisten seiner Aufnahmen zeigen Freunde oder zufllige Besucher der Factory. Auerdem entstanden Filme, bei der Warhol ber einen sehr langen Zeitraum nur ein Objekt aufnahm. Essay! Zum Beispiel filmte er Menschen beim Schlaf oder auch ein Gebude, in thesis, dem er 8 Stunden lang das Empire State Building filmte, ohne den Film auch nur einmal zu schneiden. Conflict Case! Andere Filme beleuchten auch die sexuelle Seite Warhols, wie z.B. Puritans! im Film „Couch#8220;, in essay on causes of civil, dem sich vor allem junge Mnner unterschiedlichsten sexuellen Handlungen hingeben. Puritans Thesis! Er lsst Leute vor die Kamera treten und etwas spielen, ohne eine Anweisung zu geben. Essay! Die factory ist aber nicht nur Atelier und Studio, sie entwickelt sich vor allem zum Szene- und Partytreff von Musikern, Knstlern und Avantgardisten. Stars wie Bob Dylan, Mick Jagger oder Jim Morrison finden sich hier ein und Knstlerkollegen wie Salvador Dal#65517; oder Marcel Duchamp.
Stars wie Baby Jane Holzer und „Viva!#8220; gehen ein und aus. Thesis! Warhol frdert die Gruppe „The Velvet Underground#8220;, indem er sie in war, der Factory proben lsst (aus all den frheren bungsrumen, Lokalen und Wohnungen waren Lou Reed und Kumpane geflogen, weil sie brutal laut waren), und er finanziert als „Produzent#8220; ihre erste Schallplatte. Die Live-Auftritte der Band sind legendr, Warhol als Mastermind verwendet fr die Lightshow erstmals viele neuartige Mittel, die heute alltglich sind: Stroboskop und Spiegelkugel, Dia- und Filmprojektionen, Farbfilter und berlagerungen. Puritans Essay Thesis! Die Band trat grundstzlich nur in schwarzer Kleidung und mit Sonnenbrillen auf. Biology Research! 1967 entwirft er das Cover fr das erste Album.
Zudem arbeitet er als Fotograf ; es liegen noch tausende Fotos in puritans essay thesis, den Archiven, die meisten davon unverffentlicht wegen der schieren Menge. Das Leben Andy Warholserfhrt einen tiefen Einschnitt, nachdem er im Jahr 1968 nur knapp ein Attentat der radikalen Feministin Valeria Solanas berlebt. Mehrere Pistolenkugeln hatten ihn getroffen. Business School Essay! Warhol berlebt, behlt aber physische und psychische Schden zurck. Puritans! Die Zeit der Factory als Szenetreff mit ausschweifenden Partys ist vorbei.
Nach dem Attentat ist Warhol ein anderer Mensch: Er neigt seitdem zu einer zwanghaften Kauf- und Sammelwut, die sich sowohl in seiner Arbeit wie in studies, seinem Privatleben widerspiegelt. Thesis! Obwohl der Knstler lebenslang unter der Angst litt, wieder zu verarmen, gibt es kaum einen Flohmarkt in extended biology research, New York, der von ihm verschont wird und auf dem er nicht wenigstens einen Gegenstand kaufen „muss#8220;, wie er es einmal in seinen Aufzeichnungen schilderte. Thesis! Kleiner Nachschlag: Narzisstisch wie Warhol war, lie er seine Schussverletzungen von dem amerikanischen Starfotografen Richard Avedon ablichten #8230; Zweiter Nachschlag: Die Geschichte um das Attentat von Solanas wurde 1996 unter dem Titel I Shot Andy Warhol verfilmt. London School Leadership Essay! - Vielleicht wird der Mrder von John Lennon ja auch noch mit einem Film geehrt, dann wird´s noch mehr pathologische Nachahmer amerikanischer Attentatsunkultur geben#8230; Schon vor dem Attentat hatte Warhol seinen Abschied von der Malerei verkndet. Puritans Thesis! Er grndet eine Zeitschrift namens „Interview#8220; - hier portrtiert er die New Yorker Partyszene, die er gut kennt. V For Vendetta Essay! Nachdem sein eigenes „Partyrefugium#8220; durch das Attentat zerstrt worden war, strzte sich Warhol in puritans, die kommerzielle Party-Szene und zhlte zu den Stammgsten des Studio 54, einer der damals meist frequentierten Diskotheken in workplace conflict case studies, New York. Dort traf sich die High Society im Kellerraum und schnupfte Kokain, das damals noch extrem teuer war. Er widmet sich weiter der Produktion von Filmen, und es entsteht ein Bhnenstck ( Pork), das 1971 in puritans essay thesis, New York aufgefhrt wird.
Mit diesem Stck wollte sich offenbar an einigen „Superstars#8220; rchen, die ihn „verlassen#8220; hatten. Extended Essay Biology! Die Handlungen der meist nackten Darsteller waren obszn. Aus rein wirtschaftlichen Grnden nimmt er schlielich wieder die Produktion von Bildern auf. Puritans Essay! Es entstehen Auftrags-Serien fr Konzerne und er portrtiert wie am Flieband jeden, der ihm das entsprechende Honorar zahlt. Essay War! Dies bringt ihm nicht nur gute Kritiken ein. Puritans! Er bemalt Fahrzeuge von Autofirmen wie BMW oder Mercedes Benz und ist stets gern gesehener Gast in business school, Video- und Fernsehproduktionen.1986 wird die Show „Andy Warhol#39;s 15 Minutes#8220; auf MTV ausgestrahlt, nach seinem berhmten Ausspruch, dass in Zukunft jeder fr 15 Minuten berhmt sein knne. Essay Thesis! Die Chinareise von Prsident Nixon inspiriert ihn 1972 schlielich zur Mao-Serie und er findet zur Malerei zurck. School Leadership Essay! Als Vorlage benutzt er das offizielle Foto Maos aus dem Roten Buch. Puritans Thesis! Gleichzeitig nimmt er einen Auftrag fr Wahlkampfplakate des demokratischen Prsidentschaftskandidaten George McGovern an. Ende der 70er Jahre entsteht eine Serie zu Hammer und Sichel, dem Symbol der kommunistischen Partei. On Causes! Eine politische Motivation streitet Warhol aber in thesis, jedem Fall ab.
Weitere Portrts entstehen unter Verwendung neuer Techniken. Stellar And Helium! In der Serie zu Mick Jagger verwendet Warhol zum ersten Mal Papiercollage. Puritans Essay! Die Acryluntermalungen werden gestischer und freier, die Farbwahl ist gedeckter als in seinen Bildern der 60er Jahre. Warhol portrtiert auch Kollegen wie David Hockney und Roy Liechtenstein. Stellar Nucleosynthesis And Helium! 1975 entsteht ebenfalls eine Bilderserie von New Yorker Transvestiten und Homosexuellen („Ladies und Gentlemen#8220;), die zwar gelobt aber in puritans essay, den USA nicht gezeigt wird. Stellar Nucleosynthesis! Warhol perfektioniert die Fertigung von Auftragsportrts: jeder der zahlt, wird bedient. Er selbst macht nur noch die Vorlagen, die eigentliche Ausfhrung der Siebdrucke bernehmen Assistenten. Puritans Essay Thesis! Warhol hat nicht nur gegenstndlich gearbeitet.
Die abstrakten Bilder seines Sptwerkes sind aber bis heute weniger bekannt. Von 1983 stammen die Garnbilder: Ein Gewirr aus Wollfden dient als Vorlage. Die entstandenen Muster erinnern an die abstrakten „Drippings#8220; von Jackson Pollock. Managing Workplace! Ab 1978 widmet sich Warhol den sogenannten Piss-Paintings: Leinwnde werden mit Metallstaub prpariert und mit Urin besprenkelt. Thesis! Dadurch bilden sich abstrakte Oxidationsmuster.
Und bei mir wchst der Widerwille, mich weiter mit solcher Kunst zu befassen. Die letzte groe Bildserie von Andy Warhol befasst sich mit der berhmten Darstellung des Abendmahls von Leonardo da Vinci. Essay Research Questions! Dieser Zyklus umfasst ber 100 Bilder in essay, verschiedenen Techniken mit Gren bis zu 4 auf 10 m. Essay! Es gibt sowohl die typischen Siebdrucke aber auch traditionell mit dem Pinsel gemalte Varianten. Als Vorlage soll nicht das Original gedient haben, sondern Fotos einer billigen Replik. Puritans! 1987 stirbt Andy Warhol nach einer Gallenoperation. Er wurde nur 55 Jahre alt. V For! Warhols gerumiges Privathaus war eine einzige Ansammlung von historischen Kunstwerken und Arbeiten zeitgenssischer Knstlerkollegen wie Lichtenstein, Rauschenberg und Twombly, sowie wertvoller Mbeln, Unmengen an puritans essay Kitschobjekten (z. Managing Case! B. Mickey Mouse-Figuren), edlem und billigstem Porzellan, Fundsachen, Kaugummiautomaten und vielem anderen mehr.
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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of essay, things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. War. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the essay thesis giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and this is ambition essay, also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references.
Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and puritans the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the nucleosynthesis Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. Puritans Essay Thesis. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system.
The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and extended biology research questions the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of puritans, a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the workplace conflict case studies text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for thesis example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work.
Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the essay on causes of civil effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of puritans essay thesis, implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the managing workplace studies two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and essay thesis , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to business school essay, select the most relevant ones.
What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. Puritans. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to essay of civil war, give the number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant?
The technically correct trick is to add cited in puritans thesis after the biology research reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of thesis, publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the v for essay year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date.
Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the puritans thesis work you consulted. Ambition In Life. Sometimes slashes are used between the puritans essay thesis dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and london business you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Thesis. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the in life references are correct.
At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is puritans essay, cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of managing workplace conflict, references is not technically the thesis same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Essay On Causes. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and thesis their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and essay on causes of civil war finally the name of the essay thesis publisher.
If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. And Helium. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on essay citing all authors. Vendetta. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and puritans thesis this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and in life Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Essay. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand.
Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Biology. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks (‘ and essay thesis ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and essay war year of the editor(s). Puritans. If you cite only one chapter, you can give the essay whole reference at puritans thesis the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and critical year of the editor. Essay Thesis. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of stellar, references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley.
An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. Puritans. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book.
The main difference really is extended biology research, that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. Essay. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the vendetta essay article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. Essay. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the nucleosynthesis colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of essay, Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3).
Valente, T. School Essay. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of puritans, information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in critical mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the thesis publisher, the nucleosynthesis and helium words available from puritans : followed by london business school, the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Puritans Essay Thesis. Chan, T. Managing Workplace. Goldthorpe, J. Essay. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited.
The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the business school essay year of essay thesis, publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the ambition name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to thesis, use the london school leadership essay abbreviation p. Puritans. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is managing workplace conflict studies, common. Puritans Essay Thesis. For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by managing conflict case, new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the essay thesis lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts.
The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and essay research questions initial of the lecturer, the year in thesis bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the critical words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the puritans lecture. For example: Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and school leadership essay administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. Puritans Essay Thesis. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is essay of civil war, not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the essay name of the essay research person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the puritans author and the date of the conversation.
For example: Smith, E. Essay. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Thesis. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the extended essay sender in puritans essay brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the vendetta essay author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. Essay. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of workplace, art, check with your institution how this should be done.
If everything else fails, remember the puritans thesis function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the stellar nucleosynthesis and helium organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006].
UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. Puritans Essay. This is easily done by including the word unpublished in managing workplace case brackets at the end of the thesis reference.
With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to stellar and helium, cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the essay name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to managing case, guess the name of the puritans publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the on causes of civil course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example:
Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized. In the puritans case of a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of managing workplace case, journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the puritans essay journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in stellar capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the essay thesis first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in v for fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters.
Different publishers have different house styles, and thesis you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the stellar nucleosynthesis original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to puritans, change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Workplace Conflict Studies. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions.
Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. Puritans Essay. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and workplace conflict somebody abducting slaves.
The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is essay, deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the ambition essay deliberate case. Careless work is essay thesis, often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could.
Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in essay mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. Thesis. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in workplace studies front of puritans essay, you.
By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to biology research, put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor. Puritans Thesis. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of business school, writing without interrupting my thoughts. Thesis. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the extended essay research proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is puritans essay, hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away.
Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the vendetta critical deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is puritans essay, just as much work as writing the ambition essay essay yourself. Just to give you an puritans essay thesis idea, the markers of on causes war, your essay will not only puritans, have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember.
If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the in life essay core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of puritans essay, papers on the Belgian perspective of conflict case studies, whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the puritans same paragraph twice in the same essay, for essay biology questions example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in essay thesis fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of conflict studies, specialist terms.
Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in essay between lines, and research things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is essay thesis, often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the stellar nucleosynthesis and helium text, but few at essay the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. London Business School. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from thesis electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay of civil war essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to essay thesis, the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is.
It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about london business school essay ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of puritans thesis, someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the biology research exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number.
This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at puritans essay the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and of civil enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by essay thesis, indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to managing conflict, 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in thesis any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Stellar And Helium. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to puritans, make it fit your essay.
If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and vendetta critical essay cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in puritans essay thesis square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. Essay On Causes Of Civil. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in essay more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much.
Your own writing is much more important, and biology research often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. Essay. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from.
I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Vendetta. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of essay, writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in in life essay your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process.
They manage citations, and puritans usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. Leadership Essay. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the thesis references to a separate file. The next time you cite the v for vendetta critical same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference.
Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.
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latex sample thesis September 12, 2017. This document describes how to use the puthesis (Purdue University thesis) LaTeX typesetting system documentclass to format Purdue University master's bypass reports, master's theses, PhD dissertations, and PhD preliminary reports. All the needed software is free. New puthesis.cls file released today (February 22, 2017) A new puthesis.cls file was released today that makes the puritans essay, leader dots in essay the table of contents and essay, other places extend farther to essay on causes, the right. I'm working on puritans essay thesis a new version of puthesis for the new specifications. V For Vendetta? The Graduate School will accept old or new specifications theses until I get puthesis updated for the new specifications. Change Requests Should come Faculty or Staff (February 24, 2017) I used to make changes to essay thesis, puthesis based on what a graduate student wrote about what their school or department's Graduate Office told them.
The process is extended now more formala faculty or staff member from puritans, that school or department's Graduate Office or the Purdue Graduate School needs to stellar, contact me directly to request changes that will affect more than one person. Special Note: Use Overleaf (May 4, 2016updated October 28, 2016) The Graduate School and I recommend you use Overleaf. I answer puthesis questions about essay, LaTeX and how to use the stellar nucleosynthesis, Overleaf interface to LaTeX. I don't answer puthesis questions about these interfaces to LaTeX: AmigaTeX, emTeX, fpTeX, gwTeX, Jupyter worksheets, MacTeX, Mathematica notebooks, MiKTeX, OzTeX, PasTeX, PCTeX, proTeXt, Scientific Workplace, teTeX, TeX Live, etc. Special Note: Collaborating With Your Major Professor(s) using Overleaf (May 4, 2016) See Can I add inline or margin comments to puritans essay, the pdf? for how to use LaTeX commands to make inline or marginal notes to communicate with your major professor(s). See Rich commenting is here! . for how to use tho Overleaf editor to add pop-up comments to communicate with your major professor(s). Special Note: Not at West Lafayette Campus. If you are not at Purdue's West Lafayette campus check with your school/department/program to get help locallythey'll be more familiar with any special rules. Special Note: Purdue Polytechnic Institute.
I support puthesis for all schools/departments/programs at Purdue University's West Lafayette Campus except for the Purdue Polytechnic Institutethey use their own version of puthesis. If you are a Purdue Polytechnic student see the Purdue Polytechnic Thesis and Dissertation Formatting web page. There is no combination of nucleosynthesis options that will automatically give proper headings, tables, and figures according to Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , sixth edition, fifth printing, January 2011. (Informally this is essay thesis known as the APA formatI call it APA6.) APA6 specifications are geared toward short papers and journal articles. Essay On Causes Of Civil? It does not specify the format for the table of contents, list of tables, list of figures, etc. Puritans Thesis? It does not specify the numbering that should be used for chapters, sections, subsections, subsubsections, equations, etc. From page 5 of the manual (thanks to John S. Hansen, Reference Librarian, University if Wisconsin-Stout for providing the citation): The Publication Manual presents explicit style requirements but acknowledges that alternatives are sometimes necessary; authors should balance the rules of the Publication Manual with good judgement.
Because the written language of v for vendetta essay psychology changes more slowly than psychology itself, the Publication Manual does not offer solutions for all stylistic problems. Essay Thesis? In that sense, it is ambition in life a transitional document: Its style requirements are based on the existing scientific literature rather than imposed on puritans essay the literature. (American Psychologgical Association, 1994, p. xxiii) I am lobbying that schools and departments that prescribe APA format to allow the use of the (in my opinion, and I have almost thirty years of typesetting experience) better default puthesis behaviour for essay, headings, tables, figures, etc. Based on puritans thesis the questions I'm getting, I think some schools and departments have switched to london business essay, using the puthesis defaults or people have figured out puritans essay how to v for vendetta critical, get what their schools and departments want without my help. APA6 style text citations and bibliographies can continue to be used, contact me if you have any problems. The puthesis template is the graduate schools' official template, so all formatting (unless there is essay thesis some sort of on causes error) should be correct. Ashlee Messersmith, Thesis/Dissertation Assistant, Thesis and Dissertation Office, West Lafayette campus, Purdue University. Puthesis stands for “ P urdue U niversity thesis ” (pronounced “pew thesis”). It is a LaTeX typesetting system documentclass used to format Purdue master's bypass reports, master's theses, PhD dissertations, and PhD preliminary reports. The software is free and is available for Apple Macintosh, Microsoft Windows, Linux, Unix, and the web ((Free Overleaf accounts).
The Graduate School announced it is sponsoring free Overleaf Pro accounts in January, 2016. Please inform me if you notice any differences between the essay, Graduate School's or your school or department's specifications and what puthesis does. Thousands of people have graduated using it. You won't need to “reinvent the wheel.” All formatting details are done automatically, you can concentrate on the content of your thesis instead of worrying about conflict, margins, typefaces, etc. It is especially convenient for typesetting mathematics. Many people think it produces more attractive output than other systems. All the software needed is free and is available for a wide variety of essay operating systems. Purdue has an (Overleaf) license so you can use LaTeX on essay the web.
Some (especially engineering, mathematics, and science) journals use LaTeX. Essay Thesis? You may be able to cut large chunks out of essay on causes war your thesis, change a few lines at the top of the resulting file, and essay thesis, send that to v for vendetta critical essay, a journal. Using LaTeX and BibTeX is very common in the scientific community. Sooner or later you may need to learn it anyway. Many candidates have made favorable comments about puthesis when depositing their theses. We strongly recommend candidates consider learning puthesis prior to the writing process.
Using puthesis cuts formatting discrepancies to almost zero, drastically reduces the essay thesis, possibility of revision requests, and helps ensure stress-free deposits! —Mark D. Jaeger, Manager, Thesis/Dissertation Office. The puthesis class file for ambition essay, LaTeX has helped hundreds of ECE graduate students meet the requirements for essay thesis, format approval. Using it allows them to focus on the content of their thesis without concern for the myriad of formatting details that it automatically handles. Vendetta? The Graduate School's Thesis/Dissertation Office also recommends the use of puthesis and LaTeX. —Andy Hughes, ECE Thesis Format Advisor. Sign up for the puthesis mailing list if you use puthesis so you get a few important messages a year. These LaTeX packages are incompatible with puthesis.
Using “thesis” for “thesis” and puritans essay, “dissertation” The document necessary to get a Purdue PhD is a “dissertation”. Of Civil War? For historical reasons, to use the same nomenclature as other Purdue departments, and be able to puritans essay thesis, lump instructions describing master's bypass reports, master's theses, PhD dissertations, and PhD preliminary reports together the word “thesis” will be used to refer to any of these. “Dissertation” will be used to refer to things that are dissertation-specific only. Puthesis requires LaTeX and BibTeX. See LaTeX for more information. Puthesis is stellar and helium designed to run on, and I only answer LaTeX questions when you are using the current version of Overleaf on the web the current version of essay thesis MacTeX on v for vendetta essay Macs the current version of TeX Live on puritans Linux, Unix and vendetta essay, Windows I only answer questions about the puritans thesis, user interface for the current version of Overleaf TeX Live 2014 on Linux and Windows I've been asked about these LaTeX-related things in the past but don't support them LyX Scientific Workplace.
I recommend saving any old puthesis files in your thesis directory with other names and then get any newer puthesis files below. The template files below are meant for you to save and modify as necessary for managing workplace conflict case studies, your thesis. In each file search for “CHANGE” and change things as necessary. I recommend putting “%%” before any existing lines that need to essay thesis, be changed and in life essay, adding any new line(s) immediately below the existing lines. If you are on a Linux or Unix computer you may be able to use the puritans thesis, following procedure to simplify getting the essay on causes of civil, files: This procedure will create a “ template ” subdirectory if one doesn't already exist.
The all.bib through vita.tex files listed below will get overwritten in the template directory. Be careful! tar xf template.tar to puritans essay, save the leadership essay, trouble of getting each file individually. If that doesn't work, get each file separately. If you are using Windows computer you may be able to puritans, use the following procedure to simplify getting the files: This procedure will create a “ template ” subdirectory if one doesn't already exist.
The all.bib through vita.tex files listed below will get overwritten in london business school the template directory. Be careful! unzip template.zip to save the trouble of getting each file individually. If that doesn't work, get each file separately. If you weren't able to get all the puritans essay, template files using the instructions above you can get them one at a time here: Depending on your installation of extended research LaTeX you may need to put copies of the puthesis.cls and pulongtable.sty files in the template directory to be able to do a latex thesis command there. If LaTeX complains about missing files. If LaTeX complains about missing files when you do your thesis, then, and only then, get the appropriate files below. Puritans Thesis? Email latex @ecn.purdue.edu to essay on causes of civil, get any files not listed. If you need the files below (especially report.cls) your LaTeX may not be set up right.
All theses must follow the Purdue University Graduate School's A Manual for the Preparation of Graduate Theses . Individual departments and schools may have additional rules and regulationsthey're listed immediately after the essay thesis, school or department in the table below. The general form of the documentclass command is. documentclass[ options ] Separate multiple options with commas. The “use ece now, option when available” messages below mean you can at leadership least use the ece option to check that your LaTeX input is recognized by LaTeX. Puritans? If you're lucky, using ece for your document or ece with some of the ambition in life, other options beginning with the essay, endnote option below will do the formatting correctly for your thesis. I don't know which combination of options is best for your school or department. Cathy Ralston (2011-06-30) Melissa Geiger (2011-06-30)
Environmental and Hydraulics: Judy Haan (2011-06-30) Geomatics and Transportation: Dorothy Miller (2011-06-30) Molly Stetler (2011-06-30) Weird commands defined by puthesis. In addition to the commands shown in the template files, puthesis also defines the following commands. As far as puthesis is concerned, these commands can be used anywhere. Double check comments in the template files to make sure it is essay on causes of civil ok to use then them there. Puritans? For example, no subscripts or superscripts are allowed in case the thesis title. Right now the num command just prints the essay, number in school leadership math mode so any minus signs come out puritans essay thesis as minus signs and not hyphens.
Later it will do what is described in the next paragraph. The num command, separates numbers of more than four digits into groups of three on either side of the stellar and helium, decimal point, separated by a space. If the magnitude of a number is less than one, the decimal point should be preceded by a zero. Units and abbreviations (ECE-specific) Use the International System of Units (SI Units). Refer to units listed in Appendix I of puritans essay thesis Thesis Format for information on prefered usage of london school leadership units, conversion factors, etc. Unit symbols should be used with measured quantites, e.g., 1mm, but unit names are used in thesis text without quantities, e.g., “a few millimeters”. If quantities must be expressed in business school essay English units, the SI equivalents should also be given in parentheses, i.e., “a distance of 4.7 in (12 cm)”. Most acronyms and abbreviations should be defined the first time they are used in text. Puritans Essay Thesis? A list of acronyms and abbreviations, including a list of those that need not be defined, is given in Appendix II of Thesis Format . Defining commands not specific to your thesis.
If you would like to essay, use the essay, same commands in multiple documents, put them in a mydefs.tex file and use input to read in those definitions. For example, if I used typed $xfor 2014_n$ often in many different documents I might put. Then, whenever I typed xn it would be the same as typing $x_n$ . This definition can be made more flexible by managing workplace conflict case, including ensuremath like this. newcommand That way xn can be used in text or math mode and LaTeX will go in puritans essay thesis and out of math mode if necessary. Defining commands specifc to your thesis. I like to put thesis-specific command definitions after any input command I use. If I was writing a lot about different vectors with elements 1 to some upper limit, I could put the following in my root file. I only managing workplace conflict case support documents that use “ documentclass [options] ” and use the latest puthesis.cls file available from this web page. Can I run LaTeX on the web?
Answer. Converting LaTeX to Word? Answer. How can I get Adobe Reader to read a new PDF file and update the screen? Answer.