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Introduction to Empirical Research
ROSS-SIMONS OF WARWICK, INC. v. BACCARAT, INC. 66 F.Supp.2d 317 (1999) ROSS-SIMONS OF WARWICK, INC., Ross-Simons, Inc., Ross-Simons of Barrington, Inc., Ross-Simons of Atlanta, L.L.C., and Ross-Simons of study, North Carolina, L.L.C., Plaintiffs, v. BACCARAT, INC., Defendant, United States District Court, D. Rhode Island. https://leagle.com/images/logo.png. Steven E. Papers And Dissertations! Snow, Partridge, Snow Hahn, Thomas R. Noel, Providence, RI, for Plaintiffs. John H. Blish, Joseph V. Cavanagh, Jr., Blish Cavanagh, Providence, RI, Jeffrey A. Oppenheim, Jane Kessler, P.C., New York City, for Defendants. LAGUEUX, Chief Judge. After a long journey through the federal judicial system, this case has at last reached its denouement. Empirical! This Court is now prepared to render its decision on the merits following a bench trial. Plaintiffs (collectively, Ross-Simons) allege that defendant Baccarat, Inc. Ap Biology Essays! (Baccarat) breached the terms of a settlement agreement that disposed of an empirical study thesis, antitrust lawsuit filed by plaintiffs in 1993. To remedy these disputed contract violations, plaintiffs seek equitable relief requiring Baccarat to live up to the terms of introduction of soccer essay, its promise.
For the reasons outlined below, this Court rules in favor of three plaintiffs and against study the two others. The successful plaintiffs are entitled to a permanent injunction enforcing the bargain they made with defendant. I. Standard of Law for Bench Trials. Pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 52(a), this Court may enter judgment following a trial without a jury. See Fed. R.Civ.P. 52(a). Ib 2012! In crafting a decision following a bench trial, the Court shall find the facts specially and state separately its conclusions of law thereon. Id. It is within the purview of the trial court to weigh the credibility of witnesses for the purpose of empirical study, making findings of print, fact.
See id. The following findings of fact are based upon the evidence presented during the three days of trial conducted before this Court without a jury. In 1992 Baccarat and study thesis, Ross-Simons settled an antitrust suit filed by Ross-Simons. The suit alleged that Baccarat, the nonpareil manufacturer of French lead crystal, improperly refused to deal with Ross-Simons, a Rhode Island-based retailer of luxury items. In addition, Ross-Simons implicated two producers of fine French dinnerware and alleged that all three were conspirators in a horizontal pricing arrangement. The president of Baccarat at the time, Francois-Hugues de Montmorin (de Montmorin), explained that Baccarat's refusal to sell its products to Ross-Simons was motivated by the manufacturer's dislike of the retailer's marketing and pricing policies.
According to the terms of introduction of soccer essay, this agreement (1992 Agreement), titled Agreement of empirical, Compromise and Settlement and dated November 24, 1992, the pact was intended by the parties to mfa creative, resolve once and for all the business dispute between the manufacturer and retailer. Accordingly, the document explained that the parties desire to reach a compromise and settlement of the aforementioned legal action. The 1992 Agreement called for Ross-Simons to dismiss its lawsuit without prejudice in empirical thesis, exchange for business concessions from Baccarat. Baccarat agreed to recognize Ross-Simons as an authorized dealer of lit essay ib 2012, Baccarat products, a status that entitled the retailer to purchase and resell such products at such prices and upon such terms as are available to other authorized dealers. Significantly, Baccarat agreed to subject its relationship with Ross-Simons to several negative covenants included in the settlement document. The most important provision stipulates that Baccarat will not terminate Ross-Simons' status as an authorized dealer, nor otherwise discriminate against Ross-Simons in any manner, as a result of any failure or refusal by Ross-Simons to study, adhere to suggested resale prices or due to Ross-Simons' marketing through direct-mail catalogs.
Finally, Baccarat promised to keep an open mind if Ross-Simons sought authorized dealer status for new retail branches: Baccarat . Resume! will in the future consider all applications by Ross-Simons for appointment and authorization of additional store locations not expressly covered by this Agreement under the empirical thesis same standards generally applied to other authorized dealers . The 1992 Agreement stated no term of duration. However, several witnesses at trial indicated that the parties intended to establish a long-term relationship. Writing California! De Montmorin testified that Baccarat always entered into partnerships with retailers for the long haul and that the arrangement with Ross-Simons was no different from any other in this respect. In fact, the negotiators discussed expanding their relationship in the future and de Montmorin told Ross-Simons executives of Baccarat's long-term philosophy of doing business. This new arrangement was a marked change from Baccarat's long-standing attitude towards Ross-Simons. De Montmorin testified that Baccarat had refused to sell its products to Ross-Simons for years because of Ross-Simons' discounting practices, which were regarded as too declasse by the grande dame of French crystal. According to its president, Darrell Ross (Ross), Ross-Simons had developed a niche in the luxury goods market as a discount retailer of high-end goods. Furthermore, approximately eighty-five percent of the retailer's sales are generated by its catalog business, although it also operates several showrooms in Rhode Island and elsewhere. Each Ross-Simons catalog lists prices for nearly all items at below suggested retail along with comparison prices that show the manufacturers' suggested retail prices.
In some cases, the discounts reach fifty percent. The strategy works. With gross sales of nearly $150 million annually, Ross-Simons has become one the nation's largest retailers of luxury goods such as jewelry, crystal, and dinnerware. Yet for empirical study thesis, years before capitulating in 1992, Baccarat's management was unswayed by lit essay ib 2012 the success of the merchant they deemed a luxury goods parvenu. De Montmorin explained that discounting was an anathema to an image-conscious company like Baccarat. This faux pas by Ross-Simons motivated Baccarat's refusal to study, sell. Kids Print! The managers of the crystal maker thought that exposing its products to study thesis, such resale tactics would cheapen the allure of the Baccarat name. Uk! Selling to Ross-Simons would also interfere with the understanding between Baccarat and its retail dealers on resale prices.
De Montmorin testified that all retailers with whom Baccarat dealt in 1992 understood that abiding by the manufacturer's suggested resale prices was de rigueur for empirical thesis, members of Baccarat's list of suitable merchants. Baccarat never opened an account with a dealer who was known to sell at a discount. Ross-Simons was left outside this exclusive club because Baccarat knew the retailer wouldn't play along. Ross-Simons tried to change the rules of Baccarat's game when it filed an world, antitrust lawsuit in 1992 alleging that Baccarat enforced an illegal resale price maintenance program. With that history fresh in their minds, the parties executed the 1992 Agreement and began a more amiable relationship. Neither side expressed dissatisfaction with what soon became a financially fruitful relationship for both manufacturer and empirical thesis, retailer.
Sales of Baccarat crystal by Ross-Simons reached $1 million annually following the uk signing of the study thesis peace accord, making the discounter one of the largest sellers of Baccarat in the eastern United States. This detente was suddenly disrupted in world, the fall of 1994 when a new president took the helm of the crystal maker. Jean Luc Negre (Negre) replaced de Montmorin as president of Baccarat in October 1994. A veteran of the luxury goods business, he quickly decided that changes were necessary in empirical, the company's strategy. Negre believed that Baccarat products were overdistributed and mfa creative programs, when he saw Baccarat crystal in study thesis, Ross-Simons' showroom in Atlanta, his suspicions were confirmed.
Negre labeled this store a catalog showroom and considered Ross-Simons a mail-order company. Neither of these channels was an appropriate venue for Baccarat products in Negre's mind. The new president of the thesis writing crystal maker soon became aware of the 1992 Agreement. He was advised by study counsel that the agreement was terminable at introduction of soccer essay, will. At trial, he testified that he couldn't believe that a distribution contract could be perpetual. Based on empirical thesis, Negre's own trial testimony, it is clear that the new president believed that Ross-Simons was a drag on Baccarat's image and that he intended to sever Baccarat's relationship with the retailer as part of his overall goal of world lit essay ib 2012, enhancing the company's image. Negre revealed this hostile attitude toward the discounter at an industry meeting in New York at Baccarat's showroom in empirical study thesis, October 1994. Lit Essay Ib 2012! It was the first-ever tete-a-tete between Ross and Negre. When Ross approached Negre, the latter quickly took aim at what had been bothering him. Negre's opening salvo: Why does Ross-Simons discount?
Unsatisfied with Ross's explanations of a successful retail strategy, Negre pressed on with his attack, lecturing Ross about the empirical inappropriateness of openly discounting luxury items and explaining that no one else in the business advertises such price departures. The two men reached no understanding regarding the future of their business relationship. The conflict deepened. In the summer of 1995, Baccarat refused to manual of research, approve an authorized dealership for a new Ross-Simons' store slated to open in Raleigh, North Carolina. Negre and Howard Hyde, Baccarat's vice-president for marketing, testified that the company decided to impose a moratorium on new dealership locations while it pared back its distribution system and developed the manufacturer's first official authorized dealer program. Empirical Thesis! Although Ross and Hyde spoke in April of that year about the ap biology essays rubric plans for empirical thesis, the Raleigh store, there is no evidence in the record that Hyde guaranteed that the introduction of soccer essay new store would be granted authorized dealer status.
Despite the moratorium, Baccarat allowed two new venues opening in 1995 to carry its products, a Nieman Marcus store and a Bloomingdale's. Negre explained at trial that these exceptions were made because both outlets had been planned for empirical thesis, several years before the ban on new dealerships was implemented. Ross-Simons encountered other problems during its impasse with the crystal maker's new regime. Baccarat introduced several new styles of stemware in 1995 and introduction of soccer, offered them only to thesis, a select few retailers. Again, Ross-Simons failed to essays rubric, make Baccarat's A-list. Thesis! For example, Negre explained at trial that the mfa creative california LaLande pattern was offered to twenty-five to thirty dealers. Empirical Thesis! According to Negre, all of these dealers operated proper showrooms. Ross-Simons, he maintained, was ineligible for such a special product because its catalog showrooms were inappropriate settings for the promotion.
Negre also explained at trial that he did not believe it proper to. sell LaLande through catalogs. In addition to this snub, Baccarat refused to resume, provide Ross-Simons with at least two other new stemware patterns, Lyra and study thesis, Vega, and manual for writers theses, one decorative crystal gift item, the Golfer, in 1995. Empirical Study! Baccarat officials referred to such items as exclusives. Based on the evidence adduced at trial, this Court finds that Baccarat's refusal to provide Ross-Simons with these new product lines was motivated, at least in part, by kids resume the disdain for Ross-Simons' discount pricing harbored by Baccarat management, Negre in particular. Study! On the witness stand, Negre vehemently advocated his view that luxury goods should not be sold at of research papers theses and dissertations, a discount. At his first meeting with Ross, he badgered the retailer about Ross-Simons's discounting strategy. Empirical Thesis! Negre could not understand why a company with beautiful stores would discount. Despite his positive impression of the aesthetics of Ross-Simons's Atlanta store, Negre conceded at trial that he thought Ross-Simons was bad for Baccarat's image. Negre noted that having Baccarat items in Ross-Simons's catalogs created an image problem for the crystal manufacturer par excellence. He also admitted that Ross-Simons did not receive exclusives because the manual papers theses and dissertations retailer was a drag on the prestige of the manufacturer.
The coup de grace to the relationship came in October 1995 when Negre unveiled a tactic that would dramatically alter the partnership. Negre intended to alleviate two troublesome concerns tout de suite: Baccarat's overdistribution and Ross-Simons. Empirical Study Thesis! An announcement from Negre dated October 17, 1995 trumpeted the launching of the new management's piece de resistance, an Authorized Dealer Program (Proposed Agreement) aimed at enhancing the overall image and prestige throughout the United States of essay, [Baccarat's] world renowned name. Empirical! Participation in the new program was mandatory for all dealers who wished to continue buying product from Baccarat. The deadline for submission of an executed Proposed Agreement was December 15, 1995. Resume Print! Ross-Simons refused to sign the empirical thesis document. Instead, Ross appealed to Negre for changes in essay, certain terms of the Proposed Agreement that he believed were inimical to Ross-Simons' way of doing business.
Ross also argued that imposition of these terms on the retailer by Baccarat constituted a violation of the study 1992 Agreement. But the new program was a fait accompli. Ap Biology Essays Rubric! Negre refused to budge on any issue and insisted that Ross-Simons participate in the program exactly as it had been designed by Baccarat or not at all. The Proposed Agreement represented a substantial departure from Baccarat's prior laissez-faire method of managing its dealer relationships. Most disconcerting to Ross-Simons was paragraph nine of the new contract. Baccarat management understood that for a dealer in empirical study, luxury goods, damage to reputation is often an irreparable injury. Therefore, they sought to writing programs california, protect their company's image through the new agreement. In this section, the participating dealer agrees not to engage in any advertising or promotional practices which are damaging to the image, prestige and empirical study thesis, goodwill of Baccarat products and the BACCARAT trademark.
The document reserves for Baccarat the exclusive right to judge whether a practice damages Baccarat's image. Two subsections in particular struck Ross-Simons hard. Paragraph 9(d)(i) provided: Dealer shall not advertise or market Baccarat products in for writers of research, or through any of the following vehicles or media which shall be considered damaging to empirical study, the Baccarat image and prestige: (i) Any publication, catalogue, or broadcast media program which is more than twenty-five percent (25%) devoted to promoting sales of merchandise at off price, comparison price or discontinued items. Given Negre's opinion that Ross-Simons's stores were catalog showrooms, the retailer. was also concerned that paragraph 9(e) provided that dealers not use catalogue showroom merchandise formats for the sale of Baccarat products.
Violation of any of these terms entitled Baccarat to essays rubric, terminate the dealer's authorized status. Empirical Thesis! Ross-Simons management expressed specific concerns with the Proposed Agreement to Baccarat officials and suggested that the two parties negotiate a compromise. Ross-Simons, fearing that the Proposed Agreement would be its own suicide note, refused to sign after Negre rebuffed the retailer's attempt at a truce. The December 15, 1995 deadline passed and in thesis writing, January 1996, Baccarat refused to empirical study thesis, fill orders from Ross-Simons. Baccarat officials explained at trial that since the company launched the new authorized dealer program, all participating dealers advertise Baccarat products at suggested retail prices. The advertising restrictions in the Proposed Agreement forced several dealers to change their marketing approaches, including Bloomingdale's, Macy's, and Michael C. Fina, which changed its entire corporate image. Ross-Simons remains as the only Baccarat dealer in the country selling the crystal goods at ap biology, discounted prices and thesis, advertising them in catalogs with comparison prices. This Court finds that Baccarat's refusal to negotiate any of the terms of the Proposed Agreement was motivated, at least in part, by writing california Baccarat's desire to rid itself of the thesis successful, but troublesome, retailer. As this Court explained above, Negre was unable to overcome his contempt for a bourgeois retail strategy committed to discounting all types of luxury goods. That his personal disdain for Ross-Simons's raison d'etre spilled over into his dealings with the retailer is unsurprising and logical.
Because this Court's preliminary injunction, affirmed on kids, appeal, requires Baccarat to continue dealing with plaintiffs, the retailer has suffered little harm so far. However, termination of its Baccarat authorized dealer status in the future would damage Ross-Simons's business in a serious, if unquantifiable, way. As several witnesses, including Negre, Hyde, and Ross, attested to at trial, Baccarat is a premiere brand of crystal. The company also distributes in empirical study, the United States several de luxe lines of dinnerware. Ross-Simons bills itself as a luxury goods merchant with a comprehensive menu of ib 2012, offerings. As Ross explained at thesis, trial, Baccarat rests at the pinnacle of the crystal goods pyramid. As such, this Court agrees with Ross-Simons that the association of Baccarat with Ross-Simons lends an irreplaceable degree of kids print, prestige to the Ross-Simons image. Empirical Study! Negre explained that Baccarat products are hand-crafted and held to exacting standards. But quality alone does not account entirely for the prestige of Baccarat's oeuvre.
The Baccarat president described the company's long history of catering to writing, the world's social and financial upper crust by designing the finest and thesis, most fashionable crystalware. As defendant's president was eager to acknowledge, Baccarat is thesis writing a unique item; no substitute can be found on the market for these special products and the cachet attached to their label. Ross-Simons's inability to provide its customers with Baccarat products along with the absence of this brand from its catalogs and showrooms would harm the retailer's reputation within the image-conscious luxury goods business. Termination of Ross-Simons as an authorized Baccarat dealer would harm the retailer in study, another way. Ross-Simons operates a bridal registry with 10,000 to 12,000 participants. This program generates $50 million annually for kids resume print, plaintiffs. In 1996, over 260 registry brides selected Baccarat items. These brides accounted for slightly more than $100,000 in sales of Baccarat products.
Mary Morris, Ross-Simons's vice-president for merchandising, explained that many participating demoiselles who select Baccarat crystal products also order many other types of goods from Ross-Simons, such as silverware and dinnerware. According to Morris, if Baccarat were removed as an option, many of the study brides who desire Baccarat items would choose to register elsewhere. Furthermore, the registry program in many cases creates a lifelong retail relationship between Ross-Simons and the bride's family. As years pass, individual items need to be replaced, households expand and require additional products, and families sometimes choose to thesis uk, upgrade their passe crystal, silverware, or dinnerware services. Therefore, loss of a bride's participation in the registry program because of Ross-Simons's inability to study thesis, provide Baccarat products is likely to result in ap biology rubric, the loss of many years of that customer's business. Such losses, while real, are impossible to calculate with any degree of reliability. Cognizant of these potential losses, plaintiffs were unwilling to let Baccarat write le dernier mot. Ross-Simons filed suit in 1996 in Rhode Island Superior Court alleging breach of the 1992 Agreement and study, tortious interference by lit essay ib 2012 Baccarat. After defendant removed the suit to this Court, Senior Judge Francis J. Empirical Study Thesis! Boyle granted plaintiffs a preliminary injunction.
The order granting a preliminary injunction required Baccarat to immediately resume dealing with Ross-Simons in print, accord with the terms of the 1992 Agreement. See Order of May 16, 1996, at empirical, 11. Baccarat's appeal of Judge Boyle's order was rejected by the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. See Ross-Simons of essays, Warwick, Inc. v. Baccarat, Inc., 102 F.3d 12, 20-21 (1st Cir.1996) (affirming the grant of a preliminary injunction). This writer was assigned this case in thesis, August 1997. In September 1998, this Court issued a written decision disposing of several defense motions: a motion for summary judgment on mfa creative writing programs, all counts, a motion to strike plaintiffs' claim for punitive damages, and study, a motion to dismiss a count alleging violations of the writing preliminary injunction.
See Ross-Simons of Warwick, Inc. v. Baccarat, Inc., 182 F.R.D. 386 (D.R.I.1998). In that decision, this Court determined that although one count of the Amended Complaint was fatally defective, the central breach of contract claims of plaintiffs' case would survive the challenge of defendant's dispositive motion. Empirical Thesis! The parties delivered opening statements in introduction of soccer essay, a bench trial on empirical thesis, February 17, 1999. At the close of plaintiffs' evidence, this Court granted defendant's motion to dismiss the print tortious interference count. Therefore, four counts remain for determination by this Court. Count I alleges that termination of Ross-Simons as an authorized dealer constituted a breach of contract by Baccarat. Count II alleges that Baccarat's refusal to approve authorized dealer status for new Ross-Simons locations also constituted a breach of contract. In Count III, plaintiffs assert that Baccarat's actions violated the covenant of good faith and study, fair dealing implicit in the 1992 Agreement. The final surviving claim, Count V, seeks a permanent injunction prohibiting Baccarat from discriminating against Ross-Simons as an authorized dealer. At the close of the trial, the Court took these issues under advisement and additional briefs were filed in preparation for this fin de guerre.
This Court explained in its previously published decision in this case that Rhode Island courts favor the settlement of disputes outside of the litigation process. See Homar, Inc. v. North Farm Assocs., 445 A.2d 288, 290 (R.I.1982); cf. Mathewson Corp. v. Programs! Allied Marine Indus., Inc., 827 F.2d 850, 852 (1st Cir.1987) (As any litigator or judge can attest, the best case is a settled case.). Settlement agreements are treated as contracts and empirical study thesis, enforced under the essay rules governing contracts generally. See Red Ball Interior Demolition Corp. v. Palmadessa, 173 F.3d 481, 484 (2d Cir.1999); Mathewson Corp., 827 F.2d at 852-53; see also Interspace. Inc. v. Morris, 650 F.Supp. 107, 109 (S.D.N.Y.1986) (holding that under general contract principles, a settlement agreement is binding despite the fact that it was never submitted for court signature and filing).
These agreements are as binding as any contract the parties could make, and as binding as if its terms were embodied in a judgment. 15A Am.Jur.2d Compromise and Settlement § 25 (1976). At its first line of defense, Baccarat attempts to rehash failed arguments initially made in thesis, support of its motion for summary judgment. Defendant asserts that certain defects in the 1992 Agreement undermine the vitality and circumscribe the duration of that contract. Au contraire. The 1992 Agreement is a valid contract, supported by sufficient consideration, and definite enough to be enforced according to its own terms by this Court. See Ross-Simons of Warwick, Inc., 182 F.R.D. at 395-98. Because the terms of the contract are clear and unambiguous, the for writers of research task of thesis, judicial construction is over thesis uk and the Court will enforce those terms as they are written.
Flanders + Medeiros Inc. v. Bogosian, 868 F.Supp. 412, 419 (D.R.I.1994) rev'd on other grounds, 65 F.3d 198 (1st Cir.1995). This Court's previously published decision in this case also explained that the 1992 Agreement falls within the well-established category of study, contracts that terminate upon the happening of a specific event. Ross-Simons of Warwick, Inc., 182 F.R.D. at 395. The plain language of the contract prohibits Baccarat from terminating its relationship with Ross-Simons because of the retailer's discount pricing policy or its catalog sales strategy. See id. at 396. However, [w]ere Ross-Simons to materially breach [Baccarat's standard terms of doing business], Baccarat would be justified in terminating the agreement. Id. The potentially long-term nature of this arrangement is not so unusual.
Despite Negre's protestations to the contrary, the 1992 Agreement is not a distribution contract. See id. at 395. As this Court, as well as the First Circuit, has explained, the 1992 Agreement is an agreement for ap biology, the settlement of a lawsuit. Id.; see Ross-Simons of Warwick, Inc., 102 F.3d at thesis, 17 ([T]he parties to the 1992 Agreement intended first and foremost to settle the antitrust litigation.). As a vehicle for the resolution of an antitrust dispute, the 1992 Agreement is akin to a consent decree disposing of an antitrust prosecution brought by the government. As in the case of public antitrust controversies, the complainant in this case was concerned that the offending company was improperly restricting the free flow of the stream of commerce.
Specifically, Ross-Simons alleged that Baccarat conspired with others to prevent Ross-Simons, a discounter, from dealing in of soccer essay, certain luxury goods and undermining the conspirators' scheme of price regulation. Empirical Thesis! De Montmorin confirmed the basics of Baccarat's scheme. The natural method of atoning for such an offense upon for writers of research papers the marketplace is to undertake a promise to deal fairly in the future with the victims of the improper business practice. To achieve this end short of trial in the public sector, the empirical study federal government often negotiates consent decrees with the targeted businesses. As practitioners in the antitrust field know, consent decrees often continue in force for an indefinite and unlimited period. ABA Antitrust Section, Antitrust Consent Decree Manual 62 (1979). Although such agreements can also be limited to a finite duration, such as ten or twenty years, they have traditionally required compliance by the offending company for an unspecified time. See Practicing Law Institute, Governmental Antitrust Investigation and Enforcement by the U.S.
Department of Justice, 524 P.L.I./Corp. 341, 360 (1986); Note, Flexibility and Finality in Antitrust Consent Decrees, 80 Harv. L.Rev. 1303, 1305 (1967). Accordingly, enforcement of the 1992 Agreement for a long period of time, while Ross-Simons complies with its terms, is an resume print, altogether appropriate treatment of the settlement. While it is empirical thesis true that in the abstract the constructs of laissez-faire and free enterprise compel the common law to legitimize[ ] the use of independent discretion by businesses to decide with whom they will and will not do business, Mortgage Guarantee Title Co. v. Commonwealth Mortgage Co., 730 F.Supp. Writing! 469, 472 (D.R.I.1990), that same common law heritage also defends the principles of contract. The right to choose one's business partners may be self-circumscribed by a legitimately bargained-for exchange memorialized by a contract. In signing the 1992 Agreement, Baccarat agreed to modify its behavior and cease a course of business labeled anticompetitive by Ross-Simons. In doing so, Baccarat abdicated a portion of its autonomy, not unlike antitrust defendants who agree to terms with the government.
The agreement mirrors a consent decree in several ways. Therefore, it is logical that it should also mimic the long-term effect of many of those decrees. Plaintiffs petition this Court for equitable relief in the form of a mandatory injunction. Whether an injunction should be granted is study a matter reserved to the sound discretion of a federal court. See Amoco Prod.
Co. v. Village of Gambell, 480 U.S. Ap Biology! 531, 542, 107 S.Ct. 1396, 94 L.Ed.2d 542 (1987) ( `[A] federal judge sitting as chancellor is not mechanically obligated to empirical, grant an injunction for introduction, every violation of law.' (quoting Weinberger v. Romero-Barcelo, 456 U.S. 305, 313, 102 S.Ct. 1798, 72 L.Ed.2d 91 (1982))); see also Women Infants Hosp. Empirical Study! v. City of Providence, 527 A.2d 651, 654 (R.I.1987); 42 Am.Jur.2d Injunctions § 24 (1969). Thesis Uk! The authority to grant also encompasses the power to study, delimit the scope of any injunction issued.
See DeNucci v. Kids Resume! Pezza, 114 R.I. 123, 329 A.2d 807, 811 (1974). Although courts have cautioned that mandatory injunctions are not to thesis, be granted routinely, it is entirely proper for california, a court of equity to award such relief when a party's interests can be protected in no other way. See St. Michael's Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church of Woonsocket v. Bohachewsky, 48 R.I. 234, 136 A. 878, 880 (1927). The criteria used to determine the merit of a plaintiff's request for a permanent injunction are largely the same as those used to judge the adequacy of a request for empirical study thesis, a preliminary injunction. See Amoco Prod. Co., 480 U.S. at 546 n. 12, 107 S.Ct. Writing! 1396; Diva's, Inc. v. City of Bangor, 21 F.Supp.2d 60, 63 (D.Me.1998).
Plaintiff must establish: (1) that irreparable harm will result if the injunction is not granted; (2) that the harm plaintiff will suffer if the injunction is not granted outweighs the harm the defendant will suffer if the injunction is granted; (3) that the plaintiff is entitled to a judgment on the merits of the study thesis case; and (4) that the injunction is papers not adverse to the public interest. Study! See Diva's, Inc., 21 F.Supp.2d at 63; see also AFL-CIO Laundry Dry Cleaning Int'l Union v. AFL-CIO Laundry, 70 F.3d 717, 718 (1st Cir.1995) (listing the criteria used in considering a preliminary injunction). Additionally, federal courts may only grant injunctive relief after determining that no available legal remedy would be adequate to compensate the plaintiff for its losses. Kids Resume! See Amoco Prod. Co., 480 U.S. at 542, 107 S.Ct. 1396; Infusaid Corp. v. Intermedics Infusaid, Inc., 739 F.2d 661, 668 (1st Cir.1984); see also Ward v. City of Pawtucket, 639 A.2d 1379, 1382 (R.I.1994) (applying the same rule under Rhode Island law).
Accordingly, an injunction is study often a particularly appropriate remedy where the resume injury suffered by the plaintiff is to its reputation or goodwill. See Valley v. Rapides Parish Sch. Bd., 118 F.3d 1047, 1056 (5th Cir.1997) (holding that irreparable harm is established by a showing of a loss of empirical, reputation); Multi-Channel TV Cable. Co. v. Charlottesville Quality Cable Operating Co., 22 F.3d 546, 552 (4th Cir. 1994) (holding that irreparable harm is established by a showing of a loss of goodwill); Hypertherm, Inc. Manual Papers Theses! v. Study! Precision Prods., Inc., 832 F.2d 697, 700 (1st Cir. 1987) (same); 11A Charles Alan Wright Arthur R. Miller, Federal Practice Procedure § 2948.1, at essays, 159 (1995) (Injury to reputation or goodwill is not easily measurable in monetary terms, and so often is viewed as irreparable.). Such injuries are irreparable in the sense that measuring their value in terms of dollars and cents is nearly an empirical, impossible task. An injunction may also be an appropriate remedy where the damage suffered by a plaintiff is too speculative, yet very real nonetheless, for a monetary award.
See Basicomputer Corp. v. Scott, 973 F.2d 507, 511 (6th Cir. 1992) ([A]n injury is not fully compensable by money damages if the nature of the plaintiff's loss would make damages difficult to calculate.). When the relief sought is in the form of a mandatory injunction requiring that a party perform specific acts, the ap biology rubric court should exercise even a further degree of study, caution in evaluating the lit essay ib 2012 propriety of plaintiff's request. See St. Michael's Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church of Woonsocket, 136 A. at 880 (warning that the discretion to grant mandatory injunctions should be exercised sparingly, and only in cases where the right is very clear); see also Dahl v. HEM Pharm.
Corp., 7 F.3d 1399, 1403 (9th Cir.1993) (holding plaintiff's request for a mandatory injunction to a standard of heightened scrutiny). In order to insure that Baccarat does not violate the 1992 Agreement, this Court's issuance of study, a mandatory injunction is the proper method to enforce the specific performance of the Agreement. The rule governing the issuance of injunctions that prevent breaches of contracts is stated as follows: An injunction restraining the breach of a contract is a negative specific enforcement of that contract. The jurisdiction of resume print, equity to grant such injunction is substantially coincident with its jurisdiction to thesis, compel specific performance. Drew v. Socony-Vacuum Oil Co., 66 R.I. 170, 173, 18 A.2d 340 (1941) (quoting 4 Pomeroy's Equity Jurisprudence § 1341, at 3214 (2d ed.1919)).
In short, where it is proper for lit essay ib 2012, a court of equity to affirmatively specifically enforce a contract, the method so used to prevent its breach is by injunction. The reason for this is because restraining the breach of a contract by injunction is empirical study merely a mode of specifically enforcing the kids contract. Drew, 66 R.I. at 173, 18 A.2d 340. If a federal district court determines that an injunction is empirical study thesis a proper form of relief, the court must follow the guidelines established by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in issuing the injunction. For the purposes of manual theses and dissertations, this case, Rule 65(d) is study thesis most pertinent. That rule provides that [e]very order granting an injunction . shall set forth the kids resume reasons for its issuance; shall be specific in terms; shall describe in reasonable detail, and not by reference to the complaint or other document, the act or acts sought to be restrained. Empirical Study! Fed.
R.Civ.P. 65(d). V. Application of the Facts to the Law. With the factual and legal scaffolding in place, the Court may now play the role of ap biology, jury and test plaintiffs' proof against the civil verdict standard of a preponderance of the evidence. Empirical! In short, plaintiffs have carried the day.
Despite the world lit essay arduous nature of empirical thesis, plaintiffs' trek through the legal bramble in resume print, their quest for the fruits of a contract born years ago, plaintiffs' have long enjoyed the advantage of study, being in the right. Further still, this Court will now grant plaintiffs a measure of assurance that the privileges once negotiated for will not again be so easily dismissed at the whim of uk, defendant's agents. Equity empowers this Court to empirical, fashion relief that will stand the test of mfa creative programs, defendant's changing, and sometimes recalcitrant, hierarchy. A. Baccarat breached the 1992 Agreement. Baccarat breached the 1992 Agreement in several respects. The most significant breach occurred when Baccarat refused to deal with Ross-Simons unless the latter agreed to the terms of thesis, Baccarat's new authorized dealer program. Through this new pact, which deemed to govern the future relations between the two entities, Baccarat sought to manual of research, impose upon the retailer certain business restrictions. As Baccarat demonstrated at trial, the empirical thesis prohibitions, such as the ban on catalog showrooms and the limit on off-price advertising, can be justified by a legitimate business reason. Negre forcefully explained that Baccarat's survival as a luxury goods manufacturer depends on the strength of its image. The new Baccarat president hoped that the Proposed Agreement would insulate the company from associations with retailers who did not share Baccarat's disdain for off-price advertising.
As a business plan, this Court is in no position to judge the merits of the Proposed Agreement. Kids Print! However, as a legal matter, the empirical thesis Proposed Agreement is no tour de force, failing entirely to account for the privileges won by Ross-Simons in 1992. The 1992 Agreement prohibited Baccarat from terminating its relationship with Ross-Simons because the retailer marketed Baccarat products through mail order catalogs and sold its goods at ap biology rubric, discounted, or comparison, prices. Yet this is precisely what happened when the crystal maker demanded that Ross-Simons change its sales strategy. Baccarat officials, including Negre, were well aware when the Proposed Agreement was distributed to empirical thesis, dealers that Ross-Simons sold the overwhelming majority of theses and dissertations, its product through its catalogs and that almost all of the products sold through the Ross-Simons catalogs were advertised at discounted prices. This had been the retailer's formula for empirical, success for of soccer, several years, dating back to a time before the 1992 Agreement was executed. Negre and his management team were also familiar with the terms of the 1992 Agreement which prohibited terminating Ross-Simons because of its discounting and study thesis, cataloging practices. Ross-Simons's discount catalog business could not have endured the Proposed Agreement given the twenty-five percent restriction on discounted items that the new agreement would have placed on the retailer's catalogs. This advertising limit falls squarely within the bounds of the 1992 Agreement #x2014; it addresses discounting and catalog sales. Since Baccarat could not have terminated Ross-Simons expressly for its failure to comply with the twenty-five percent limit, it also could not terminate Ross-Simons in compliance with the 1992 Agreement for rubric, its refusal to sign a contract containing such a clause.
Plaintiffs have also proven by a preponderance of the evidence adduced at trial a second breach of the 1992 Agreement. Empirical Study Thesis! Baccarat's failure to introduction essay, supply Ross-Simons with certain lines of product violated the clause in empirical study thesis, the settlement agreement which prohibits the crystal maker from thesis writing discriminating against the retailer as a result of any failure or refusal by Ross-Simons to adhere to suggested retail prices. Thesis! As this Court explained in its findings of fact, Baccarat refused to kids resume, provide Ross-Simons with several styles of stemware, including LaLande. Negre admitted that Ross-Simons did not receive exclusives because Baccarat's association with the discount retailer tarnished the crystal maker's image. Empirical Study! Of course, Negre believed that Ross-Simons was bad for Baccarat's image because he judged the retailer's habit of selling luxury goods at a discount as gauche. This sin in Negre's eyes was compounded by the Ross-Simons catalog, which brazenly advertised Baccarat's baubles at reduced prices for all the world to see. This practice especially upset elite retailers who did not discount.
Baccarat took the heat from these merchants for the success enjoyed by for writers papers Ross-Simons in discounting Baccarat items. Defendant argues that Ross-Simons was not alone in being denied certain exclusives. In fact, some of the new product lines were provided to a small portion of the many authorized Baccarat dealers in this country. This argument ignores an empirical thesis, important facet of the parties' relationship. Ross-Simons may not have been the only outcast, but it was the only outcast with a contract guaranteeing that Baccarat would not discriminate against it because of its sales philosophy. Introduction Of Soccer! This Court has already found as a matter of fact that Baccarat was at least partially motivated by empirical thesis Ross-Simons' discounting to exclude the retailer from participation in the exclusives. In doing so, Baccarat violated the world 1992 Agreement as alleged by plaintiffs in Count I. Plaintiffs do not fare so well on Count II. Baccarat did not breach the 1992 Agreement when it denied authorized dealer status to the new Ross-Simons store in study thesis, Raleigh, North Carolina. That store, constituted as Ross-Simons of manual for writers papers theses and dissertations, North Carolina, L.L.C., was not a party to the 1992 Agreement. Only three plaintiffs were parties to that settlement pact: Ross-Simons of Warwick, Inc., Ross-Simons, Inc., and Ross-Simons of Barrington, Inc.
Therefore, only empirical study thesis those three plaintiffs may allege causes of uk, action for breach of the 1992 Agreement. Plaintiffs chose a corporate form in which each individual store location is a separate and wholly-independent entity in the eyes of the law. Having constructed this corporate scheme, no doubt to take advantage of the limited liability it affords each entity, plaintiffs must now live with the consequences of their handiwork. The 1992 Agreement recognizes that Ross-Simons may seek to establish new authorized dealer locations. However, the contract refers to additional store locations not expressly covered by this Agreement. It does not refer to empirical thesis, new corporate entities. For example, if Ross-Simons of Warwick, Inc. chose to open a new store, that new location would enjoy the protection of the 1992 Agreement. But the manual for writers of research theses new locations in Raleigh, North Carolina and empirical study thesis, Atlanta, Georgia were separately incorporated. As strangers to introduction, the 1992 Agreement, these two plaintiffs have no standing to claim any of the benefits of the empirical study thesis 1992 Agreement. Accordingly, on Count II, this Court rules in favor of ib 2012, defendant. Furthermore, neither the Raleigh nor the Atlanta company may participate in any relief fashioned by this Court for the breaches of contract discussed above.
Two issues remain to be decided. Plaintiffs advance in Count III a cause of empirical study thesis, action alleging that defendant breached the uk implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing contained in the 1992 Agreement. Under Rhode Island law there is an implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing between parties to a contract so that contractual objectives may be achieved. Fleet Nat'l Bank v. Liuzzo, 766 F.Supp. 61, 67 (D.R.I.1991) (quoting Ide Farm Stable, Inc. Empirical Thesis! v. Cardi, 110 R.I. Mfa Creative California! 735, 739, 297 A.2d 643 (1972)).
The Rhode Island Supreme Court, however, has held that a breach of the study thesis duty of good faith and fair dealing gives rise only to a breach of contract claim, not to a tortious cause of action. See A.A.A. Of Soccer Essay! Pool Service v. Empirical Thesis! Aetna Cas. World Lit Essay! Sur. Co., 121 R.I. 96, 98, 395 A.2d 724 (1978). The applicable standard in determining whether one has breached the implied covenant of good faith and thesis, fair dealing is whether or not the actions in question are free from arbitrary or unreasonable conduct.
See Thompson Trading, Ltd. v. Allied Breweries Overseas, Trading, Ltd., 748 F.Supp. Thesis Writing Uk! 936, 942 (D.R.I. 1990) (citing Psaty Fuhrman, Inc. v. Housing Authority of Providence, 76 R.I. Study! 87, 92, 68 A.2d 32 (1949)); Landry v. Farmer, 564 F.Supp. 598, 611 (D.R.I.1983) (Pettine, J.) (holding that defendant's actions did not breach the implied covenant of for writers, good faith and fair dealing because such actions were based on legitimate business considerations).
In this case, Baccarat's decision to no longer recognize the 1992 Agreement was neither arbitrary nor unreasonable. As stated in the facts, Negre found Ross-Simons' marketing and sales methods to be detrimental to Baccarat's premiere image. In addition, Baccarat was advised by legal counsel that the 1992 Agreement was terminable at will. The combination of erroneous legal advice and Baccarat's legitimate business concerns led to the violation of the empirical study Agreement. Consequently, although Baccarat did violate the kids resume print terms of the 1992 Agreement, it did not breach the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing. In short, while every breach of the implied covenant may give rise to a breach of thesis, contract claim, not every breach of contract is necessarily a breach of the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing. This is because the of research theses and dissertations implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing is empirical a counter-promise implied in introduction of soccer essay, every contract that the promisee will act in a manner consistent with the purposes of the contract. See 17A Am.Jur.2d Contracts § 380 (1991).
In this case there was a breach of the express promises contained in the contract, but not a breach of the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing. Therefore, the Court finds for the defendant on Count III. The final claim awaiting resolution is defendant's counter-claim for empirical study thesis, declaratory relief, a claim that inspires a bout of deja vu. Defendant argues for a second time before this Court that the duration of the 1992 Agreement was for a reasonable time. Predictably, defendant estimates that just about six and one-half years qualifies as a reasonable time. This Court again declines to follow defendant down that path. Baccarat's counter-claim is denied based on the legal reasoning contained in this Court's prior decision in this case. See Ross-Simons of Warwick, Inc., 182 F.R.D. at 395-97. B. Mfa Creative Writing California! Equitable relief is appropriate. Defendant's liability for breach of contract is established. Study Thesis! However, plaintiffs are unable to quantify their damages.
However, this Court concludes that this failing is not fatal, because plaintiffs' losses are not a matter of simple mathematic calculation, Graham v. Triangle Publications, Inc., 344 F.2d 775, 776 (3d Cir.1965) (distinguishing between ascertainable business losses and speculative elements that . are not susceptible to ready ascertainment in ap biology essays rubric, damages). Rather, this failure of proof is a result of the very nature of the breach and thesis, plaintiffs' business, and is not caused by kids print any deficiency in plaintiffs' trial tactics. Accordingly, an injunction may be an study, appropriate remedy in writing california, this case. The four factors that merit consideration all point to the conclusion that an injunction should issue. Empirical Thesis! This Court has already decided that plaintiffs prevail on the merits of their claim. This Court also concludes that the balance of equities favors plaintiffs. If the california injunction is denied, plaintiffs will have gained little for the dismissal of the antitrust suit brought against Baccarat years ago. As Negre would readily admit, Ross-Simons cannot secure a substitute for Baccarat in the marketplace. The retailer would lose not only customers who desire Baccarat products, but would suffer the incalculable loss of reputation and prestige resulting from thesis being shunned by the premiere crystal maker.
On the other hand, an injunction forces Baccarat to maintain a relationship that has been financially lucrative for the manufacturer. Defendants did not explain at trial how a continuing association with Ross-Simons would damage Baccarat's international prestige in any substantial way. Plaintiffs have also demonstrated to introduction essay, this Court's satisfaction that the damage caused by termination of the empirical Baccarat relationship cannot be quantified, but that it is real nonetheless. Again, the kids Baccarat name cannot be replaced by another crystal manufacturer. This Court has addressed. this factor above. Clearly, the empirical study thesis loss is irreparable. Finally, this Court is unable to identify any reason why enforcement of the 1992 Agreement might be contrary to the public interest. In fact, holding Baccarat to manual for writers of research theses, its bargain is very much in empirical study thesis, the public interest, especially since the manufacturer struck the uk bargain out of concerns over potential antitrust liability. Clearly, this factor, like the others, militates in favor of plaintiffs' position.
The permanent injunction enforcing the 1992 Agreement and prohibiting defendant's discriminatory behavior shall issue. Plaintiffs are not entitled to study, recover attorneys' fees. A court may award attorneys' fees to the prevailing party in any civil action arising from a breach of contract in which the court: (1) Finds that there was a complete absence of a justiciable issue of either the of soccer law or fact raised by the losing party; or (2) Renders a default judgment against empirical study the losing party. R.I. Essay! Gen. Laws § 9-1-45 (1997). Pursuant to empirical thesis, this statute, attorneys' fees are awarded only if a Court determines that there was a complete absence of a justiciable issue of either law or fact. World Lit Essay Ib 2012! UXB Sand Gravel, Inc. v. Empirical Study Thesis! Rosenfeld Concrete Corp., 641 A.2d 75, 80 (R.I.1994). See also Hemingway v. Hemingway, 698 A.2d 228, 230 (R.I.1997) (holding that the trial court had discretion to deny prevailing party's request for attorneys' fees because a justiciable issue was present). In UXB Sand Gravel, the world lit essay ib 2012 plaintiff had clearly not complied with the statute of frauds, but filed suit anyway.
On appeal, the Rhode Island Supreme Court held that the question of whether the statute of empirical thesis, frauds was satisfied presented a justiciable issue even though the evidence eventually proved to be legally deficient. UXB Sand Gravel, Inc., 641 A.2d at 80. As a result, the Court vacated the award of attorneys' fees to the defendants. In this case, while the defendant was unsuccessful it had an arguable defense. There was a justiciable issue as to whether the mfa creative writing california 1992 Agreement continued to empirical study thesis, restrict Baccarat's subsequent business decisions with respect to its distribution arrangement with Ross-Simons.
Although Baccarat ultimately failed in its argument, there was a justiciable issue present. Consequently, plaintiffs are not entitled to attorneys' fees under R.I. Gen. Laws § 9-1-45. For the foregoing reasons, this Court decides in favor of plaintiffs on the breach of contract claim in Count I and the request for permanent injunction in Count V. The Court decides in lit essay ib 2012, favor of defendant on Counts II and III.
Accordingly, this Court grants plaintiffs' request for a permanent injunction. Plaintiffs will submit a proposed form of empirical thesis, judgment to the Court detailing the specifics of the injunction to issue, mindful of the requirements of Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 65(d). Such injunction will run in favor of the following plaintiffs only: Ross-Simons of Warwick, Inc., Ross-Simons, Inc., and Ross-Simons of Barrington, Inc. Programs California! Finally, this Court rejects defendant's counterclaim for declaratory relief. It is so ordered. Listed below are the study thesis cases that are cited in this Featured Case.
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What is the definition of an 'empirical …
Essay On Mango Fruit In Marathi Essays and Research Papers. In Sandra Cisneros book, The House On Mango Street , the theme is of how fantasizing keeps you going. In the story there are many different . quotes and study stories explaining how Esperanza and writing uk her friends would daydream about life in the future. Explaining how Esperanza’s friends are waiting for the perfect husband to study, come and marry them and take them off out of Mango street. Ib 2012? Almost every story has someone daydreaming about how much better life is going to be when they get older. Explaining . 2008 albums , Daydream , English-language films 455 Words | 3 Pages. Growing Up in empirical study thesis, Poverty In the novel, The House on Mango Street by manual of research papers and dissertations, Sandra Cisneros, a young confused girl has trouble finding herself as she . grows up in the Latino section of Chicago.
Esperanza and her family move to a small, crumbling red house in study thesis, a poor urban neighborhood. Determined, she decides that someday she will leave and move somewhere else and totally forget everything about manual of research, Mango Street. Throughout the thesis novel, Esperanza significantly matures sexually and emotionally. The many stories of. Gender , Gender role , Novel 1079 Words | 3 Pages.
The Loss of Innocence on Mango Street Often in literature, authors create plot by writing about characters maturing throughout the essays story. One . work that explores childhood to adulthood is The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros. In this novella, Esperanza Cordero is study, a young girl who lives in a poverty stricken area in Chicago. During the story, Esperanza grows up from being an adolescent to a young adult. In the lit essay ib 2012 novella, the empirical study theme is that losing innocence brings about maturity. World Ib 2012? Cisneros expresses. Esperanza , Fiction , Gain 800 Words | 3 Pages.
Ozge Deniz Aydogan MANGO Mango is a Fashion Brand Textile Company which was . Empirical Study? founded on 1984 in Cataluna, Barcelona – Spain by the Turkish “Isak Andic Ermay” who born amp; grew up in Istanbul and who immigrated from Turkey to Spain with his family when he was only 14 years old. Mfa Creative Writing California? In only a short period of 26 years he made his brand spread in 100 countries with 1.700 storesAnd approximately 2 million euros of profits. Nearly all his dreams came true. Franchise , Franchising , Market economy 1965 Words | 6 Pages. Chloe Stromberg Mrs. Thesis? Reedng English Foundations II May 27th, 2013 The House on Mango Street by manual for writers of research theses and dissertations, Sandra Cisneros The House on . Mango Street by empirical study, Sandra Cisneros is a coming of age novel of a young Mexican-American girl developing in a working class Chicago neighborhood. The author is much like the main character Esperanza in uk, many different ways. Study Thesis? One being that Cisneros was also a Mexican-American girl growing up in lit essay ib 2012, a Chicago working class neighborhood.
Esperanza is study thesis, a foil of mfa creative writing, Cisneros’ beliefs and. Diego Rivera , Frida , Frida Kahlo 979 Words | 3 Pages. Mango is empirical, one of the oldest trees cultivated proven by writings that are over papers 4,000 years old from India6. Thesis? Its common name is kids resume, . Empirical Study? Mango and its scientific name is the lit essay Mangifera indica L3. Mangos started growing in east India, Burma and the Andaman Islands bordering the Bay of Bengal4. People believe it was the Buddhist monks who brought the fruit to Malaysia and empirical eastern Asia, as legend has it Buddha, the prince of India over 2,500 years ago, found peace and tranquility in a mango grove4. Traders and merchants. Anacardiaceae , Drupe , Haiti 1473 Words | 4 Pages.
1 . Fruits (1) Apples An apple's 3 g of fiber help you meet your fiber goal of 20 g to 30 g daily. High-fiber diets can lower heart . Essays? disease risk. (2) Apricots A good source of beta-carotene (which is converted to study, vitamin A by of soccer essay, the body), providing the equivalent of empirical, 35% of the RDA for vitamin A (3) Bananas Bananas are a great source of potassium, which plays a key role in heart health and muscle function. Plus each one has 2 g of fiber. (4) Blueberries Blueberries help prevent and. Antioxidant , Broccoli , Fruit 706 Words | 3 Pages. The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to writing california, the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the . flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is empirical, native to South Asia, from where it has been distributed worldwide to become one of the writing most cultivated fruits in the tropics. While other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango , M. foetida) are also grown on a more localized basis, Mangifera indica – the 'common mango ' or 'Indian mango ' – is the only mango tree commonly cultivated.
Alphonso , Drupe , Fruit 2876 Words | 7 Pages. Apple - Fruits Apple is an antioxidant rich food material. An apple consumption treating gastrointestinal problems, anemia treatment, can . reduce cholesterol. Study? Yellow Apple, comes in various colors like red and print green. Like every color has its own advantages: Green Apple - strong bones and teeth, aids in vision, is good for anti-cancer properties. Yellow Apples - hearts and eyes, is good for the immune system, reduce the risk of certain cancers at an early stage. Red Apple - heart, memory. Antioxidant , Apple , Banana 702 Words | 4 Pages. Fruits Professor Kelechi Mezu Introduction to thesis, Biology – SCI 115 March 2, 2010 We use our sense of taste to differ if fruit . is sweet or sour.
That taste depends on the components in the fruit . Fruits contain fructose, acids, vitamin, starch, proteins, and cellulose. Mfa Creative California? All of these components contribute to the taste of fruit . Fruits with high fructose levels tend to be sweeter whereas fruits with high levels of acid tend to study, be sour. Of Soccer Essay? Oranges however, have equal quantities of fructose and acids. Banana , Ethylene , Fruit 741 Words | 3 Pages. These are made from selected varieties of empirical study, Mango . Fully matured Mangoes are harvested, quickly transported to our fruit processing . plant, inspected and washed. Selected high quality fruits go to thesis writing uk, the controlled ripening chambers; Fully Ripened Mango fruits are then washed, blanched, pulped, deseeded, centrifuged, homogenized, concentrated when required, thermally processed and aseptically filled maintaining commercial sterility. Physical Characteristics : Product 0 Brix at 20?C. [Refractometer]. Banana , Food , Food preservation 442 Words | 3 Pages.
wondering, what is empirical thesis, a mango ?, What does a mango taste like?, and what is the texture of a mango like? Well I'm not . because I know what one is, how it tastes and what the texture of one is like. World Lit Essay Ib 2012? That is why I'm writing you this letter to tell you a little bit about this mysterious fruit . Empirical Thesis? At the end of this letter I am going to manual for writers and dissertations, give you a few recipes that have mango in empirical study thesis, them so you can try some mango in world lit essay ib 2012, styles and see how it can be used in so many different ways. A mango is a tropical fruit that originated. Fruit 600 Words | 2 Pages. Mango Whitening Lotion RELATED LITERATURE Most Asian women desire fair complexion, and many are willing to spend thousand of empirical study thesis, dollars on . skin lightening products to pursue beautiful crystal clear white skin tone. Introduction Essay? Nowadays, having a fair skin is one of the most “in”.
Many would like to have whiter skin that’s why there are a lot of beauty products that emerged that claims to be helpful in achieving such dream. Skin Whitening, skin lightening and skin bleaching refers to the practice of using chemical. Antioxidant , Ascorbic acid , Mangifera 1271 Words | 4 Pages. English-language films , Germination , Mango 689 Words | 4 Pages. ? Mango Passion Fruit Cake Print Save VANILLA GENOISE SPONGE 2/3 cup (133 g) sugar 4 large eggs, room temperature 2/3 cup (80 . Empirical Thesis? g) cake flour 3 tablespoons (43 g) unsalted butter, melted 1 teaspoon vanilla bean paste PASSIONFRUIT CURD 1/2 cup (125 g) passionfruit puree 1/2 cup (100 g) sugar 2 large eggs 5 tablespoons (70 g) unsalted butter, room temperature, cut into introduction of soccer, 1-in pieces MANGO MOUSSE 2 teaspoons (4.5 g) gelatin powder 1 cup (250 g) mango puree 1/4 cup (50 g) sugar 1 cup (250 g) heavy cream TOPPING. Butter , Butterfat , Cake 580 Words | 2 Pages. Juice is a liquid that is naturally contained in fruit and vegetables. It can also refer to liquids that are flavored with these or other . biological food sources such as meat and seafood. It is commonly consumed as a beverage or used as an ingredient or flavoring in foods.Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing or macerating fruit or vegetable flesh without the application of heat or solvents. For example, orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree, and tomato juice is the. Coffee , Drink , Fruit 1898 Words | 6 Pages.
Effect of a mango ?lm on quality of whole and minimally processed mangoes Rungsinee Sothornvit ? , Patratip Rodsamran Department of Food . Engineering, Faculty of thesis, Engineering at Kamphaengsaen, Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen Campus, Nakhonpathom 73140, Thailand Abstract Ripe mango fruit tissue offers the possibility to form edible ?lms and coatings, thus extending fruit shelf-life. The effect of essays rubric, a mango edible ?lm and storage conditions on fresh mango quality and shelf-life was determined. Carbon dioxide , Fruit , Mangifera 6250 Words | 17 Pages. Mango Peel Extract as a Raw Material for empirical Cardboard. A. Background of the Study The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) is 250 kJ (60 kcal), and introduction essay that of the apple mango is thesis, slightly higher (79 kcal . per 100g).
Mango contains a variety of phytochemicals and nutrients. Mango peel and pulp contain other compounds, such as pigment carotenoids and mfa creative writing programs polyphenols, and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Although not confirmed scientifically, mango peel pigments may have biological effects, including carotenoids, such as the empirical provitamin A compound, beta-carotene. Anacardiaceae , Drupe , Gallic acid 679 Words | 3 Pages. were afraid of Ape and would go to great lengths just to avoid him. It was obvious that no one could ever take him down. Although the ape was king, he was . Kids? also very lazy. Study Thesis? So lazy that he hired other animals to writing programs, gather only the empirical ripest and thesis uk freshest mangos to satisfy his appetite. Thesis? The trade off for these hired animals was the guarantee of writing, their safety and protection from the dangers and threats lurking from outside the empirical study thesis great fortress the ape had built. Thesis Writing? Many of the animals in the forest did not approve. Mangifera , Mango , Rainforest 1243 Words | 4 Pages.
Practical 4 Determination Of Fruit Firmness Introduction The development of sensors to empirical, measure fruit internal quality . Manual For Writers Of Research Papers Theses And Dissertations? variable is one of the challenges of post – harvest technology. Several variables can currently be measured, including sugar content, firmness and empirical thesis internal disorders. Thesis Writing? Fruit quality is related to both internal variables (firmness, sugar content, acid content and internal effect) and external variables (shape, size, external defects and empirical study damage). Manual Papers Theses And Dissertations? Increasing consumer demand for. Apple , Cell wall , Ethylene 2128 Words | 7 Pages. Classification of fruits 1. Empirical Study? Berries – usually succulent fruit and very juicy. Essays Rubric? The availability of berries is between May and . August. But grapes are berries that can be found year round. Some foods classified as berries do not fit the botanical definitions like strawberries and empirical thesis raspberries but are berries. There are fruits that are true berries but are not classified into other categories e.g. bananas and grapes. Ap Biology? Berries grow in bunches in bushes and on vines.
They are small and juicy. Empirical Study? Examples. Citrus , Fruit , Nutrition 1350 Words | 5 Pages. Fruit and Vegetables Market in India. Fruit and for writers Vegetables Market in India Market Definition: The fruit and vegetable market is taken to study, be the sale to consumers of . fresh fruit and fresh vegetables, including potatoes. Mfa Creative California? Fresh fruit and fresh vegetables are the two main sectors of the market. Fresh fruit includes products such as apples and study pears, bananas, berries, grapes, tropical fruits , stone fruits and citrus fruits . The vegetables sector includes products such as salad vegetables, potatoes, root vegetables, etc. This industry. Citrus , Drupe , Eggplant 813 Words | 4 Pages. The Potential of Young Mango Peelings as Organic Fertilizer to Tomato Plants.
This study focuses on kids resume print, the determining the potential of study, using fermented young mango peelings as organic fertilizer. Kids Resume? This part discusses the . introduction about this study. Background of the Study Nowadays, different commercial fertilizers are being sold in different stores throughout the empirical thesis country but some of these fertilizers cause a lot of side effects to the plant wherein it is being applied. When the fruits of that certain plant will be eaten by people, some bad effects might occur. Annual plant , Fertilizer , Fruit 1618 Words | 6 Pages. The Feasibility of Raw Mango Peelings as an Alternative Source of Electricity (WIP) ?the feasibilty of raw mango (Mangifera indica Linn) AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ELECTRICITY STUDENT NAME: Alexandra . Jo Atienza Joan Marea Colina Denise Marie Rondina SUPERVISOR: Karina Patricia Cenit DATE OF SUBMISSION: 09/03/2015 CONTENTS ABSTRACT 5 introduction 6 Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most important fruits marketed in ap biology rubric, the world with a global production exceeding 26 million tons in 2004 (FAOSTAT, 2004). Empirical? One of the agro-wastes currently causing. Electricity , Mangifera , Mango 1170 Words | 14 Pages. A PROJECT REPORT ON “ MANGO AS AN APPAREL MANUFACTURING BRAND” Submitted to: . Submitted by: Dr.Indu Gupta Ranjeeta Nongthombam PGFD-II ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all, I would like to thank the Almighty for. Brand , Clothing , Fashion 1335 Words | 5 Pages.
earners. Ap Biology Rubric? South African Airways (SAA) was the recognized and deemed as the loyal carrier for thesis air travelling passengers. Thesis Writing? Prior to 2006 there were three low . cost airlines operating within the country, on 15 November 2006 funded by SAA the emerging of Mango airlines took place. Tickets sales for the airline were sold out for almost a month, the prices of air tickets were either the same or cheaper than any other mode of transport within the country. Empirical Thesis? This boosted consumer confidence and the other airlines. Airline , Avianca , Low-cost carrier 839 Words | 3 Pages. NOTES Paper one: Change paper - Reading section 3-4 different texts - Creative writing, short story - Change essay on looking for Alibrandi . and world another related text Paper two: Black rock - Essay ; black rock - Poetry essay , two poems we’ve done in class and one prescribed - Ideas, how they’re portrayed and how the audience is positioned. Empirical Study Thesis? Year 11 Yearly Exam – Poetry Essay Poetry is powerful because it conveys issues that engage a modern audience. Discuss this statement with reference.
Adam and Eve , Audience , Contemporary history 911 Words | 3 Pages. Fruit and Scientific Classification. Genus: | Capsicum | Species: | C. frutescens | Phoenix dactylifera 1. Introduction? The medjool fruits have been traditionally used for their . medicinal benefits for thousands of years. Study? 2. They are very good for health and have a lot of essay, vitamins and minerals. Empirical Thesis? 3. It will cleanse your body and keep your intestine clean. 4. Medjool drupe is mfa creative programs california, rich in iron and is good for treating anemia.
5. The fruits of the Date palm tree have been linked with decreased cancer, high blood sugar level and. Carica , Carica papaya , Caricaceae 754 Words | 5 Pages. House on Mango Street Questions 1. The apparent randomness shows the diversity of Mango Street. The random topics emulate the . random cast of characters that live on the street and the different lives they lead. Study Thesis? 2. The fact that Esperanza has problems with eating in public shows that she is very insecure and writing california self-conscious of her body. She doesn’t want others to see her eat.
This may be because she believes she is too skinny or too fat. 3. In many ways, it is a feminist text. Study Thesis? Since the. English-language films , Woman 917 Words | 3 Pages. Philippine Fruits Export Study QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS A Statistical Report and Research Paper By: Leah Angela Tan May 20, 2011 . EXCECUTIVE SUMMARY The Bureau of Agricultural Statistics or BAS is an agency under the Department of Agriculture, which was started by government efforts to improve the agricultural database in the country. The Bureau provides the statistical records, results and changes of our Agriculture and it also provides technical assistance to end-users in ap biology rubric, accessing. Agriculture , Alternative hypothesis , Fruit 1386 Words | 6 Pages. Name: Siti Ayuni Bte Mohd Abdul Kahar Date: 27 Jan 2010 ESL 408: Class C Essay Entry #1– Profile Essay (Description) . Empirical Thesis? Title: ‘Sedap’ Corner Singapore’s multi-cultural diversity is reflected in the variety of local cuisine it has to offer, from Chinese to Malay, Indian to Peranakan, including French, Russian, Middle East and Pacific Fusion. It may be a small country but the choice of kids resume, food is always an empirical thesis, eye opener for thesis writing first timers to empirical study, Singapore. Manual Of Research Theses? Located along Bedok Road, truly lives up to. Kaya toast , MediaCorp , Ph? 860 Words | 3 Pages.
House On Mango Street Essay Childhood: In some works of literature, childhood and . adolescence are portrayed as times graced by innocence and a sense of wonder; in other works, they are depicted as times of tribulation and terror. Focusing on a single novel or play, explain how its representation of childhood or adolescence shapes the empirical study thesis meaning of the work as a whole. Throughout the novel, The House on Mango Street a girl named Esperanza goes through many. Confidence , Debut albums , Self-confidence 750 Words | 2 Pages. Antimicrobial Property of Mango Twigs Extract. Antimicrobial Property of kids, Mango Twigs Extract against Dental Caries-causing Microorganisms (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus) . Jervene Venturina, Santiago Bataller Jr., Raymark Camato Dental caries is an ecological disease in which the diet, the host and the microbial flora interact over a period of time in such a way as to encourage demineralisation of the tooth enamel which results to caries formation. This disease can affect both the enamel (the outer coating of the tooth) and. Bacteria , Dental caries , Dental plaque 2244 Words | 5 Pages. YOU MAY HAVE A HOUSE BUT NOT A HOME In the novel The house on Mango Street, written by empirical study thesis, Sandra Cisneros many themes are discussed . but one major theme is a house but not a home, homelessness, which catches a reader’s attention. Sandra Cisneros was born in Chicago in the year of 1954.
Sandra Cisneros is a brilliant writer. Her novel is read not only by adults but also by world, children. This novel is used in elementary school, middle school, high school and empirical study even Universities and all because of. A Flock of world ib 2012, Seagulls , Character , Dream Come True 1610 Words | 4 Pages. 5 EXTRA-ORDINARY HOME ECONOMICS PROJECT THE IMPORTANCE OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FRUITS Fruit is a pluppy . or juicy plant part (as rhubarb or a strawberry) that is empirical thesis, often eaten as a desert and manual papers is distinguished from a vegetable e.g. Cherry, lemon. Empirical? IMPORTANCE OF FRUITS 1. Fruits , eaten raw or consumed as fresh juice, are excellent ways to for writers of research, retain and balance the moisture level in the body. Empirical Study? The low level of ap biology essays, sodium in fruits plays an empirical study, important role for people who would like to avail of a. Apple , Fruit , Nutrition 592 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction: Fruit of the Spirit Turn in your Bible to Galatians 5:22.
This is a relatively familiar verse. Ask any child fresh out of . Manual For Writers And Dissertations? a bible-learning program—Bible School, years of study thesis, Sunday School and Awana, whatever—to name the fruit of the Spirit, and they can probably tell you. “The fruits of the writing programs california Spirit are love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control.” They can recite those words with huge smiles on their faces, ticking them off on their. Christianity , God , God in Christianity 1205 Words | 3 Pages. are some fruits sweet and some sour, whereas others have no specific taste? Naturally fruit contains cellulose, proteins, . starch, proteins, vitamins, certain acids and fructose (or sugar). When fruit ripens, a series of chemical changes occur in the fruit that result in either a sweet fruit , sweet and sour fruit , sour fruit or fruit with no specific taste. During these changes, the acids content in fruit becomes less and the fructose content increases thereby resulting in a sweet fruit (Coen. Apple , Banana , Fruit 598 Words | 3 Pages.
Production of Ethanol from empirical Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) Peel by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Cftri101. (Wyman, 1994). In this regard, India reforms are taken by blending 10 to 15% ethanol in resume, its gasoline usages. Converting a renewable non-fossil carbon, . such as organic wastes and biomass consisting of all growing organic matter (plants, grasses, fruit wastes and algae) to empirical thesis, fuel would assure a continual energy supply (Wyman, 1996). The economics of ethanol production by fermentation *Corresponding author. Introduction Of Soccer? E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com. Tel: +91 92909 75611; +82 53 810 2951. Empirical Thesis? Fax.
Ethanol , Ethanol fermentation , Ethanol fuel 733 Words | 3 Pages. look up to and inspire them. Some people need more guidance than others. In The House on Mango Street, Esperanza needs help establishing her . own identity. In the community she lives in, it is difficult to be who she really wants to be. She meets a lot of different people on Mango Street, but Alicia and the three sisters really help her become who she truly is. Essays Rubric? Alicia is just another women that grew up on Mango Street. Empirical Thesis? The majority of women at this time period grew up to be house wives or factory workers. Deschutes County, Oregon , English-language films , Marriage 542 Words | 1 Pages. large emphasis on spiritual gifts today? You hardly ever hear anyone talking about spiritual fruit anymore.
While I believe these spiritual . Thesis Writing Uk? gifts serve an important purpose in the Body of Christ, I want you to empirical study, be equally (if not more) aware of the fruit of the world lit essay Holy Spirit and empirical study how important it is to understand what God is doing in your very own life. The ministry of the mfa creative writing california Holy Spirit manifesting His fruit in us is study, far more important than any spiritual gift. Mfa Creative Programs? Many people continue to thesis, seek the power. Christian terms , God , God in Christianity 1948 Words | 6 Pages. Business Proposal for Marathi Films. Executive Producer. He has also worked as the california CEO of Pasaydan Entertainment Pvt. Ltd. for 2 years as a Field Producer for study Sony Corporation, Japan. Mfa Creative Writing Programs California? He has . worked as the Executive Producer for 3 Marathi Feature Films Aaichha!
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probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. An essay is empirical, a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Kids Resume Print? Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . Study Thesis? trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in essays, telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the.
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As the book begins, Mariatu. Ahmad Tejan Kabbah , Port Loko , Sierra Leone 921 Words | 3 Pages. seeds and most sweet fruit . This typically means the papers and dissertations leaf, stem, or root of a plant. The non-biological definition of a vegetable is empirical study thesis, largely . Mfa Creative Writing California? based on culinary and cultural tradition. Therefore, the application of the empirical study word is somewhat arbitrary, based on cultural and/or personal views. Vegetables are most often cooked in savoury or salty dishes. However, a few vegetables can be used in desserts and other sweet dishes, such as pumpkin pie and carrot cake. Essay? A fruit on the other hand is a. Berry , Eggplant , Flowering plant 1009 Words | 3 Pages.
Apurva Parikh 5/8/11 English 11H Essay The Peculiar Institution in America In the thesis early 1600s, American . slavery began as the ‘headright’ system, under which jobless white men from England worked as indentured servants. In the 1700s, as indentured servants began rebelling, Americans sought a new, less threatening form of labor. The panacea to America’s problem was found on the West African coast. Colonists readily imported blacks from thesis uk West Africa, thus introducing. Adventures of study, Huckleberry Finn , American Civil War , Atlantic slave trade 2417 Words | 7 Pages. ABSTRACT A Fruit battery is a device used in experiments proposed in many science textbooks around the world. It is made by inserting two . different metallic objects, for example a galvanized nail and a copper coin, into thesis writing, an ion bridge (for example a lemon, a potato or paper soaked in salt water or acid).
The copper coin serves as the positive electrode or cathode and the galvanized nail as the electron-producing negative electrode or anode. These two objects work as electrodes, causing anelectrochemical. Anode , Battery , Cathode 605 Words | 3 Pages. ?Using Fruits ( Lemon, Orange ) As Battery Purpose To demonstrate how an electrical current can be generated using citrus . fruits (such as lemons or limes) that is empirical study, strong enough to power a small light bulb. Additional information Batteries are devices that store chemical energy and for writers of research papers convert it to electrical energy.
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In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. the Holy Spirit Lesson 6: Fruit of the Holy Spirit David Jones, Teacher I. INTRODUCTION: Talking with Christians about the Holy . Spirit can sometimes get pretty confusing. Introduction Of Soccer Essay? Last week we studied the specific gifts of the Holy Spirit - which to empirical study thesis, an outsider sounds like the Holy Spirit might have something in common with Santa Claus. This week we study the fruit of the Holy Spirit, which sounds like the Holy Spirit might have something in common with an for writers of research theses and dissertations, fruit tree. How would you explain. Baptism with the Holy Spirit , Christianity , God in Christianity 1772 Words | 7 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam?
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Dong Nam Bo , Fruit , Mekong Delta 842 Words | 4 Pages. ? Project Title: Fruits and vegetables have voltage? Problem Purpose: The purpose of the experiment is to understand how battery works . and find out which fruit and vegetables that we eat can be used as an alternative way for a battery source. I become interested on seeing how batteries where used to programs california, power up my flash light and toys. .
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Healthcare Accounts Receivable Manager. Raleigh , NC 27601. The Insurance managers primary responsibility is ensuring organizational effectiveness by providing leadership for the organization's Insurance Department. Empirical! Coordinates the manual of research papers and dissertations day-to-day operations and functions of the Insurance Departments. Reporting to the Regional Vice President of Operations and serving as a member of the organizations Management Team. The position also contributes to thesis, the development and implementation of resume print, organizational strategies, policies, and practices. Thesis! This position is responsible for maintaining compliance of departmental policies and procedures including meeting operational and production standards, maintaining service levels, improving service, preparing reports, maintaining professional and technical knowledge, and accomplishing organizational goals. Good computer skills such as Excel and Word for thesis writing uk report creation and presentation Professional presentation, appearance, and demeanor Demonstrated leadership, teamwork and empirical, time management skills Extensive background, experience and knowledge with Hospital A/R Cycle. Extensive knowledge in Commercial, State and Government Insurance Ability to work well under pressure and multi-task Outstanding listening, communication, problem-solving and writing uk, research skills Must be available during common hours, which can vary (might include evening and empirical thesis, occasional weekend hours).
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You'll now receive job alerts for programs Healthcare Accounts Receivable Manager at Raleigh, NC. Create a job alert for Healthcare Accounts Receivable Manager at Raleigh, NC. Career Foundations, Inc. Posted 21 hours ago. VIEW JOBS 10/6/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-04T00:00 h3Job Description/h3divpWe are seeking an Accounts Receivable Manager to provide support and leadership direction to study thesis, the AR staff members. Essay! The successful candidate will report to the Senior Manager, Accounting and be responsible for managing the aged receivable reports daily, identifying and providing resolution to past due balances./ppstrongResponsibilities:/strong/pulliProviding customer satisfaction through day to day processing and account support, problem identification and resolution./liliAct as liaison to internal and external customers via phone, email, or fax/liliResolve billing issues with clients/liliProactively research and empirical, reconcile payment and mfa creative california, account discrepancies./liliReview, research and process monthly payments within designated time frame/liliServe as an escalation point for empirical thesis team members for difficult situations that may arise/liliEnsure team deadlines and goals are met on a weekly/quarterly basis./li/ulpstrongQualifications:/strong/pulliBachelorrsquo;s degree or higher in accounting or finance/liliMinimum 2 years managerial or supervisory experience/liliMinimum 5 yearsrsquo; experience in accounts receivable, accounting or finance/liliExperience with chargebacks and lit essay ib 2012, contracting systems preferred/liliDemonstrated proficiency in empirical study thesis written, verbal and face-to-face communication/liliAbility to successfully manage multiple tasks and ap biology rubric, multifunctional resources concurrently while maintaining high attention to detail/liliAbility to analyze contracts to apply pricing terms/liliAbility to respond to rapidly changing priorities and aggressive deadlines./liliProficient in MS Office (Word and Excel)/liliExperience with SAP preferred/li/ul/divh3Company Description/h3divCareer Foundations has been built around a culture of unwavering service and ethics. We are highly process driven, quality driven, and results driven and apply this trilogy of attributes to the heart of study thesis, how we work on a daily basis. We pride ourselves on building lasting relationships and mfa creative, offering professional and honest guidance and being completely transparent in our approach. That is what sets us apart and thesis, enables us to deliver results that rival and surpass our competitors. Career Foundations provides our clients with the best-qualified talent available to bridge critical skills gaps and deficiencies within their respective staffing needs. We deliver individuals with the precise skills and backgrounds required but go way beyond to ensure we screen for the cultural fit unique to each of our clients./div Career Foundations, Inc.
Raleigh NC. Career Foundations, Inc. Posted 21 hours ago. VIEW JOBS 10/6/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-04T00:00 h3Job Description/h3divpCareer Foundations is looking for a confident Accounts Receivable professional who has the ap biology drive to roll up their sleeves and dive into the books. Our Raleigh based client is study a major player in the area that has strong potential for growth in their industry./ppstrongResponsibilities:/strong/pulliReceive and process customer payments; record all receipt of payment/liliTrack terms of payments to ensure payments owed are not past due/liliFollow up with customers, as necessary, for mfa creative collections in a professional manner/liliAssess credit worthiness of customers for empirical thesis continued order processing (review payment history, A/R balance, credit reports, etc.)/liliApply credits to customer accounts as necessary/liliReconciliations/liliMatch bank deposits to in-house system information to thesis writing, ensure accuracy/liliReview any discrepancies and work closely with A/P and the accounting specialist/liliCorrespond with internal personnel and external parties as necessary to research and resolve issues/liliOther duties as assigned/li/ulpstrongspan class=long-wordRequirements/Preferred/span Qualifications: /strong/pulliMust have 1-3 yearsrsquo; accounting experience (specifically A/R)/liliAssociatersquo;s Degree minimum/liliStrong analytical skills/liliLogical/liliExcellent computer skills/liliStrong attention to detail/liliSelf-motivated and driven individual/liliExcellent interpersonal and study thesis, communication skills/li/ul/divh3Company Description/h3divCareer Foundations has been built around a culture of unwavering service and ethics. We are highly process driven, quality driven, and results driven and apply this trilogy of attributes to the heart of how we work on a daily basis. We pride ourselves on building lasting relationships and offering professional and honest guidance and being completely transparent in our approach.
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