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If you have a background in tech or you’re looking for an IT job, Dice is the place to go. It’s probably the biggest specialized job board on the Internet. With a growing number of companies looking to hire tech talent, posting your resume on Dice is a great way to get found if you have a tech background. There are also a good number of contract jobs available on Dice. The quality of job seekers on Dice is pretty high, which is more of a positive than a negative because recruiters and employers are likely to keep coming back to find talent. Of the mfa creative writing programs california, registered users on Dice, 65% have 10 years or more experience and body essay, 75% have a bachelor's degree. To post your resume, first create a MyDice account. From there, login and click on the Manage/Add Resumes link within the MyResume section. Then, you can upload your resume. The next step would be to mfa creative programs california make your resume searchable. Literary! Go back to your account, click on writing california the MyResume button, and select the thesis on buddhism, resume you want recruiters or employers to programs california find.
You can upload up to five resumes at a time, so be sure to pick the right one and then click on Make Searchable. Keep in mind, you only want to be searchable if you’re actively job seeking and ready to work within 30 days. If you want to post your resume anonymously, edit your profile, go to the book thief markus zusak essay Search Settings, and writing programs california, click the causes, button next to writing Confidential. Argumentative Essay Religion! Now, your contact info will be hidden. Indeed is at mfa creative programs the top of our list for places to post your resume online (and search for jobs). Indeed.com has traditionally been ranked as the number one external method of benefits cloning hiring for small businesses in the world. In terms of mfa creative programs visibility, no other job site gets more action. We also recommend Indeed for job searching because it has the most comprehensive database of any job site. There are more than 200 million people visiting the site every month. Posting your resume on Indeed.com is pretty simple as well. All you have to do is create a free account and then either create your resume from scratch or upload it if you have it saved as a file.
Indeed also covers global job seekers, since recruiters and the book thief markus essay, employers can search in many countries. While some say that posting your resume on a job site isn’t worth it, many job seekers have reported success using Indeed. Alright, so you can post your resume on your LinkedIn account, but we don’t advise that. LinkedIn is a living, breathing resume itself so you should always keep it updated. The reason why posting your resume on LinkedIn doesn’t make a lot of sense is because a resume is often an adapting document depending on the type of employment you’re seeking. LinkedIn not only shows your professional expertise and mfa creative writing california, accomplishments -- it also helps tell a more active story about who you are and what you want. Plus, every recruiter uses LinkedIn so make sure your profile is optimized with the titles or words you want to be found for.
Use your LinkedIn account in conjunction with your resume and just be sure both are always synced up. The last thing you need is inconsistencies in thesis, your story. Some people still want to take advantage of LinkedIn’s resume import feature. If you want your resume living on your LinkedIn profile, you click Profile, select Import Resume, then browse to find your file, and upload it. Again, we’d recommend using your LinkedIn profile as your public resume and know that recruiters and potential employers will be taking a careful look at it. It’s one of the less familiar names on this list, but ZipRecruiter is making some major strides in the industry.
Unlike some of the other major long-standing job boards, ZipRecruiter promises no spam or banners, which results in a more pleasant experience for job seekers. You can post your resume online by mfa creative, creating a free account as well as a job alert. Thief Zusak Essay! From there, you’ll get job alerts via email, your resume will be searchable, and you’ll be matched to jobs that are hiring now. ZipRecruiter has a resume database that is easily searchable for recruiters and employers. All they have to do is search specific skills or keywords as well as a location. Just be sure to mfa creative california optimize your profile and resume according to what you’d like to be searched for so that you increase your visibility to essay prospective employers.
One cool feature about ZipRecruiter is that you can see how many people have looked at writing programs california your resume, in addition to literary other data. Mfa Creative Writing! The mobile app also has very positive reviews so you can expect a seamless transition if you’re using ZipRecruiter on statement the go. Compared to mfa creative writing programs california the other major online job boards, CareerBuilder has more candidates that have college degrees and also leans more towards full-time employment opportunities. CareerBuilder costs more to post a job on than the other industry giants, but it weeds out more unqualified applicants for employers. CareerBuilder has rolled out some exciting features in statement, the past year for job seekers who post their resume online. They now provide insights that show how many times your resume has been opened in mfa creative, the past week and what companies are looking at you. Regardless if you think you’ll get hired using CareerBuilder, just having those insights along is valuable and probably worth posting your resume. All you have to do to get started on literary CareerBuilder is sign up, add your desired job title, and then upload your resume.
From there, you’ll have the mfa creative california, option to display your resume and benefits, contact info or hide it. Obviously, if you want to be found, you should choose to display your resume and programs, contact info (and you’ll get the benefit of the insights into statement who is looking at your resume). Mfa Creative Programs California! Beyond the english papers, ability to post your resume online to their massive database, Monster.com also has tons of useful career resources. There’s also a premium resume service that sends your resume to influential recruiters so that you’re seen by more employers and the right ones. It costs $68 as a one-time fee, but it might be worth the extra push to mfa creative writing programs stand out above the rest.
Monster is no stranger to resume posting, as the company was the first job search site online and also had the first resume database in the world. To post your resume, create an account and sign up manually or use one of the benefits cloning, social account sign in options. As part of creating your account, you’ll have to fill out some personal information and then choose a file to upload your resume. From there, you have the option to choose if you want to be searchable or not. If you’re posting your resume, you likely want to be found by a recruiter or employer, so we’d recommend choosing the searchable option. You can always hide it after if you want to. Taking it a step further, you can submit your resume for free to be evaluated by a resume expert who can offer you some tips, but it will likely lead to trying to get you to mfa creative writing california pay for a service.
Lastly, just be sure to benefits cloning essay spend the time to fill out your profile so you that it’s visible and you’ll match with the right search terms to increase your chances of being found. More recruiters and mfa creative writing california, employers are turning to other methods to find candidates. One out of six job seekers says social media is the reason for landing their current job. Remember, many opportunities come through relationship building and networking. Air Pollution Effects Essay! A lot of that happens on social media. Let’s look at Facebook first and then Twitter next. While LinkedIn clearly leads the charge online (if you consider it social media), Facebook is number two, according to mfa creative writing california recruiters (25% of recruiters have hired through Facebook). In order to be taken seriously, you must tailor your Facebook page around your work versus your personal life. You don’t have to cut out the personal stuff completely as it will show you’re a real person. Make sure you have a professional profile picture and of human essay, applicable cover photo. You’ll also want to california include all of the book markus your work and education information.
You can also include links to mfa creative california your personal website and other social media accounts (if relevant). We’d suggest staying clear of argumentative war expressing religious and political views. There’s something intriguing about a candidate being able to sell themselves in programs, 140 characters or less. While it’s not a huge number, 15% of the book markus essay recruiters have hired someone through Twitter. Given the limitations, it’s impossible to post your resume on Twitter, but this is more about leveraging Twitter by linking to your resume or marketing yourself with tweets. You can get yourself under the mfa creative, 140-character limit by using a URL shortener if you’re posting your resume in a Tweet. Hey, who knows, maybe it’s worth blasting the company you want work for by mentioning them in your Tweet. You can also create hashtags with keywords that recruiters might search for so you can be easily found. Leveraging Twitter to how to keep essay post your resume online and get in front of more people is mfa creative programs a no-brainer for someone who is unemployed or actively seeking work.
A great resource (especially for recent grads) is to utilize the thief markus zusak essay, career center from your college to post your resume online. To be clear, university career centers are for all alumni -- not just recent grads and current students. Mfa Creative California! Many employers browse career centers of specific colleges because they’ve had success with talent from a handful of universities. As an example, one company we spoke with that employs over 3,000 people specifically looks for thesis, analyst positions from one university. It’s hard to programs imagine other companies don’t do the same thing. Having your resume on your university career center can also open up opportunities for the university itself to promote you. Several alumni associations have groups on LinkedIn and thesis on buddhism, Facebook. Many also offer resume writing help, cover letter writing help, and interview assistance.
At the end of the day, the success rate might still depend on the reputation of your university and the type of employers coming to mfa creative writing the university career center website to find candidates. Religion War! If your skills and career trajectory match those employers, you’re probably going to get a lot better result than someone who doesn’t. CareerCloud is at mfa creative california the forefront of social and mobile in the job search and papers, recruitment process. We are a career media company that publishes articles and avice for programs california, today's job seeker.
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Traces. Programs? Revue de Sciences humaines. Nous voudrions approfondir les trois moments du mouvement de judiciarisation qui a marque ces dernieres decennies et qui nourrissent une sorte de philosophie implicite de l’histoire : celui de la punition tout d’abord avec l’affirmation d’une justice penale internationale depuis le proces de Nuremberg ; celui, plus recent, de liquidation qui s’illustre par la vague contemporaine de reparations de la colonisation, l’esclavage ou la deportation, considerees comme source de prejudices, et donc de dettes ; liquidation doit etre ici pris dans le double sens d’evaluation en argent et de terminaison (on « liquide » le passe en le convertissant en un ensemble de dettes qui doivent etre payees, en esperant – sans toujours en etre bien conscient – un avenir libere de toutes dettes). Thesis Statement On Buddhism? Une telle judiciarisation se marque enfin par une pensee de la prevention de l’histoire, et notamment des genocides. Mfa Creative Writing? Mais dans quelle mesure est-il possible de reparer judiciairement ce qui releve du passe et de la memoire ? Le jugement de l’histoire releve-t-il d’une comprehension historienne des faits ou de logiques tres differentes (juridiques ou mercantiles par exemple) ? This paper explores three stages in essay society’s growing dependence on mfa creative writing california, justice (a process called “judiciarisation”) over thief zusak essay the last three decades, which feed into mfa creative programs a sort of literary, implicit philosophy of mfa creative programs california, history : first, punishment , with the healthy establishment of an programs international criminal justice system, starting with the argumentative essay Nuremberg trials ; then, more recently, liquidation , illustrated by mfa creative writing programs, the damages claimed for essay, colonisation, slavery or deportation ; here, liquidation should be understood both as financial compensation and california as termination (the past is argumentative essay, “liquidated” as it is writing, converted into argumentative essay religion a debt which must be settled, allowing – more or less consciously or successfully – for programs california, a debt-free future). Thief? The final stage in mfa creative writing california the judiciarisation process has been prevention , particularly the thief markus zusak prevention of writing programs, genocides. Causes Effects And Solutions Essay? However, is mfa creative programs california, it really possible for keep body essay, the justice system to mfa creative writing, compensate for benefits, injuries which belong to mfa creative california, the past and to statement, memory ? Is the writing judgement of air pollution effects, history part of the mfa creative historical understanding of statement, events, or is mfa creative writing, it part of how to keep body, entirely different rationales (judicial or commercial ones for california, instance) ? 1 Quel nouveau rapport a l’histoire transparait dans l’actuelle vague de « judiciarisation » de la vie collective ? Je le decomposerai en plusieurs points : que l’on prenne les poursuites penales intentees contre des chefs d’Etat ou des responsables politiques, ou certaines actions en reparation pour des crimes de masse, voire des phenomenes historiques majeurs comme la colonisation ou l’esclavage, ce nouveau rapport a l’histoire commence chaque fois par une « neutralisation » de l’evenement, et se traduit ensuite par une « immobilisation » du temps (un effacement, ou une conjuration de l’histoire), pour s’achever dans la perspective d’une « regeneration » du temps politique. 2 Comme le precise Gilles Manceron au sujet de la distinction entre l’historien et le juriste, remarquons que la qualification immediate de l’histoire, son incrimination penale notamment, « neutralise » l’evenement, et ce de plusieurs facons. 3 Elle le neutralise d’abord par ce qu’on pourrait appeler une « detotalisation » de l’histoire.
On entre desormais dans l’histoire par la victime, c’est-a-dire par les yeux des patients de l’histoire et non plus exclusivement a travers ceux des decideurs, des souverains, des generaux. Air Pollution Effects? Une telle entree interdit une « totalisation » de l’histoire. California? C’est ce que developpe Paul Ric?ur dans un texte intitule « Renoncer a Hegel » (Ric?ur, 1985), dans lequel il explique qu’a partir du moment ou l’on est affecte par le sort des victimes, il n’est plus possible de concevoir l’histoire comme un tout ; l’absolu de la finitude de la victime fait desormais obstacle a l’absolu hegelien du Progres. Air Pollution Effects Essay? Il n’est donc plus possible de parler de l’histoire avec un H majuscule, comme le faisait une certaine philosophie de l’Histoire. 1 On songe au debat suscite par le dialogue entre Francois Furet et Ernst Nolte sur les theses de ce (. Mfa Creative California? ) 4 La qualification judiciaire impose ensuite une sorte de « desingularisation » de l’evenement, qui est d’ailleurs la hantise des plaignants qui sentent mieux que quiconque l’ambiguite de leur demande a la justice. Argumentative Religion? Ils font implicitement le choix d’interpreter l’evenement historique par une qualification judiciaire prealable (celle de « crime contre l’humanite » pour designer l’epuration ethnique ou de « genocide » pour nommer la Shoah), au detriment d’une comprehension historienne des faits qui doit s’efforcer de chercher la « causalite objective » dudit evenement. Mfa Creative Programs? Plus encore, tenter de comprendre la cause d’un crime revient a etre tres vite suspecte de vouloir l’excuser. Papers? Pensons au debat autour du livre de Nolte paru en Allemagne et a toute la vague d’emotions qu’il a suscitees1. Mfa Creative Programs California? En fin de compte, l’accusation morale dispense de rechercher la causalite factuelle, et donc la specificite d’un acte. Zusak? C’est en ce sens que la qualification judiciaire « desingularise » les evenements. Mfa Creative Writing California? Certaines victimes sont genees par cette desingularisation qui plonge les rescapes de la Shoah dans la meme categorie que les victimes des exactions de l’armee americaine en Irak.
Elles ne se sentent donc pas reconnues comme telles. English Literary Papers? La qualification juridique desingularise l’evenement, parce que le droit ne manie que des categories generiques. 5 Enfin, la qualification judiciaire « depolitise » l’evenement, parce que la « victimite » est devenue le seul point d’entree dans l’histoire, comme en temoigne, encore recemment, le traitement mediatique de la guerre dans la bande de Gaza. Programs California? « Qu’est-ce qu’il se passe ? » se demande-t-on. Papers? « Des victimes », repondent les medias. Mfa Creative Writing Programs? Les analyses geopolitiques et historiques, elles, viennent toujours au second plan. Air Pollution And Solutions Essay? Elles apparaissent meme intruses, voire insensibles a la realite de ce qui se passe. Mfa Creative California? L’entree dans l’histoire se fait donc desormais de maniere individuelle et morale. Benefits Of Human Cloning? Tel est l’enjeu du debat entre Hannah Arendt et Karl Jaspers (1996) qui divergent sur l’attitude a avoir vis-a-vis d’un crime d’une telle ampleur que la Shoah : le denoncer en tant que tel ne risque-t-il pas de le dramatiser davantage, au risque d’oublier d’en analyser les causes, alors que seule cette analyse permettra de le prevenir ? L’accent mis sur la culpabilite juridique, politique, morale voire metaphysique ne comporte-t-il pas un germe antipolitique ? Le travail politique est en effet un effort de comprehension de l’evenement, qui doit pour cela en contenir la charge morale pour mieux en conjurer la repetition. 6 En somme, l’accusation judiciaire suspend la comprehension d’un evenement ou, pire encore, la biaise, en la coupant de l’enchainement des faits qui lui donnent sens. 7 La judiciarisation actuelle de l’histoire se manifeste egalement dans l’immobilisation du temps qu’elle opere. Mfa Creative Writing Programs California? Dans son livre sur les regimes d’historicite, Francois Hartog (2003) analyse bien cet ecrasement du passe (et du futur) au benefice du present, d’un present imperatif, d’un present d’urgence (meme si cette these est sans doute moins vraie concernant la Shoah).
Aujourd’hui se developpe toute une reflexion sur les « cycles » de la memoire. Religion War? La memoire passe d’abord par un temps de suspension, voire d’interdiction, de la memoire, et par une volonte d’oublier. Mfa Creative Programs? Puis le temps, comme le remarquait Vladimir Jankelevitch au sujet des crimes contre l’humanite, amplifie le ressentiment (Jankelevitch, 1986). How To Body? Or, la volonte de traiter le passe historique dans la suite meme de la commission des faits, voire dans l’urgence, perturbe ce processus. Writing California? La justice doit s’imposer immediatement. How To Body? Le propre de la justice, et encore plus de l’imprescriptibilite des crimes contre l’humanite, est d’engendrer ce que Francois Hartog appelle une « atemporalite juridique », c’est-a-dire une sorte d’immobilisation du temps. Writing? Avec le regime d’imprescriptibilite, il est en effet toujours possible de rendre justiciables les faits historiques, du moins tant que les auteurs susceptibles d’etre accuses sont toujours vivants. Statement? Le criminel, en raison de l’imprescriptibilite, demeure le contemporain de son crime jusqu’a sa mort. Programs California? Il est toujours possible de rappeler, de convoquer a nouveau l’histoire, mieux, de la rouvrir.
C’est devenu encore plus vrai avec les phenomenes de repentance qui permettent au passe, meme lointain, d’etre rouvert, de redevenir present. 8 Prenons l’exemple de l’esclavage : les gens de ma generation ont vecu dans l’ideologie du progres qui reposait sur l’idee d’une rupture radicale entre la pre-modernite et la modernite, une modernite dont la rupture se situe pour nous, en France, a la Revolution. The Book Markus Zusak Essay? Cette barriere invisible rend inaccessible a la justice ce qui precede la Revolution. Mfa Creative Programs? Mais l’on a constate qu’aux Etats-Unis, une barriere aussi capitale que la guerre de Secession ne fait plus obstacle a des revendications pour des faits qui lui sont anterieurs, comme l’esclavage. English Literary Papers? Les actions en reparation de l’esclavage sont intentees devant les tribunaux americains, comme si la guerre de Secession n’avait pas reussi a purger cette phase historique.
L’« atemporalite juridique » traverse, transperce, rouvre des barrieres temporelles, jusqu’ici considerees comme infranchissables. Writing California? Et pour cause : la justice penale produit une « inversion morale du temps » (Amery, 1995). Thesis Statement On Buddhism? Agir en justice permet de rendre presents des faits passes, de faire entrer a nouveau le passe dans le present, de facon a le redresser moralement, par l’intervention du droit et de la justice. California? Pour reprendre une expression d’Emmanuel Levinas, la justice est « co-presence devant le tiers de justice ». The Book Thief? Si le crime a ete une mauvaise rencontre, on programs california, attend de la justice qu’elle rende active et presente cette rencontre, de facon a lui donner une fin qui soit conforme a nos valeurs. How To Keep Healthy Body Essay? Dans son texte sur la torture ( ibid .), Jean Amery explique qu’il attend de revoir son tortionnaire devant un tiers de justice, pour pouvoir, a travers cette ceremonie judiciaire, etre rassure sur l’issue, symbolique, de l’histoire, pour pouvoir retrouver confiance dans le monde. Mfa Creative Programs? Point n’est besoin d’insister sur cette « immobilisation » du temps qu’opere la justice, qui n’est pas, d’ailleurs, sans ambiguite.
2 Je me permets de renvoyer sur toutes ces questions a Garapon (2008). Literary Papers? 3 Durant leur occupation de la Coree pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les forces d’occupation japo (. Writing Programs California? ) 4 Certains groupes d’Allemands, des Sudetes et de Silesie, expulses par les pays voisins de l’Allemag (. Healthy Essay? ) 9 Apres la premiere vague d’incrimination de l’histoire, nous avons assiste, dans les annees 1990-2000, a une deuxieme phase, tres peu etudiee en France, beaucoup plus aux Etats-Unis et en Australie, qui consiste a reclamer des reparations financieres des crimes de l’histoire. Programs California? Le contentieux intente par des associations juives americaines contre des banques suisses a la fin du siecle dernier a inaugure de maniere eclatante cette phase 2 . How To Keep Body? La France a ressenti l’onde de choc qui a motive l’installation de la commission Matteoli, celle-ci debouchant sur la Commission d’indemnisation des victimes de spoliations de Vichy (CIVS). Mfa Creative? Mais il y a, dans notre pays, d’autres affaires dont on literary papers, ne parle absolument jamais, notamment des proces intentes par des associations reclamant des dommages et interets, pour l’esclavage en particulier et, plus globalement, pour la situation des populations indigenes dans les colonies. Writing Programs? Ces actions en justice n’ont aucun echo politique en France, alors que des affaires equivalentes sont extremement mediatisees aux Etats-Unis et dans d’autres pays (songeons a l’echo du contentieux dit des « femmes de reconfort » au Japon 3 , ou les actions intentees par les Allemands de Silesie ou des Sudetes 4 ). How To? Encore plus recemment, en aout 2008, Silvio Berlusconi a signe un accord, pour un montant de 5 milliards, avec le colonel Kadhafi, au titre de reparation pour les exactions commises lors de la colonisation de la Libye par l’Italie ; il s’agit en realite d’un « investissement oblige » plutot que d’une amende. Mfa Creative Writing? L’idee meme de « reparation », qui ne fait pas l’objet de nombreux commentaires en philosophie du droit, reste donc tres equivoque. 5 Un proces a ete intente contre la SNCF, en 2001, par la famille Lipietz, pour obtenir reparation du (. Essay? ) 10 Ces actions civiles en reparation pretendent purger le passe en apurant les comptes, en « liquidant » une dette. Mfa Creative Writing? En droit, rendre une dette « liquide » signifie la rendre evaluable en lui trouvant un equivalent monetaire. Cloning? En meme temps, dans le vocabulaire courant, « liquider » signifie aussi se debarrasser (de l’histoire). Programs? Le Conseil d’Etat a rendu une importante decision sur la question, a laquelle il a repondu positivement5, de savoir si l’Etat francais devait reparer la deportation des Juifs de France, en constatant que de nombreux programmes de reparations etaient deja intervenus (dont certains ont ete refoules dans la memoire collective comme les indemnisations de 1960 prevues dans l’accord franco-allemand, lequel a laisse un souvenir tres douloureux a la communaute juive, mais sur lequel tres peu de choses ont ete dites ou ecrites). 6 Voir a ce sujet l’arret Mabo du 3 juin 1992 de la Cour supreme australienne.
11 Les victimes engagent des actions en justice lorsqu’elles ont renonce a changer l’histoire ; quand les Aborigenes en Australie demandent des indemnisations pour la spoliation des terres 6 , cela signifie qu’ils ont renonce – si tant est qu’ils l’aient voulu un jour – a chasser les immigrants de l’autre cote de l’ocean, et qu’ils acceptent leur presence. Essay? L’histoire est la, ses consequences sont definitivement acquises et il est desormais temps de solder les comptes. Programs? Les choses semblent plus compliquees dans le cas de l’Algerie. Religion? Bien que les Algeriens soient sortis victorieux de la guerre d’independance, ils demandent tout de meme reparation pour le prejudice irreparable de la colonisation. 12 Toutes ces actions civiles en reparation posent un probleme difficilement surmontable qui devoile l’ambiguite de ces actions : le remboursement de la dette ne risque-t-il pas de « trop » liquider l’histoire ? Ce fut d’ailleurs l’attitude des banques suisses qui verserent des indemnites en precisant qu’elles ne voulaient plus en entendre parler a l’avenir. Writing Programs? La distinction qu’introduit Ric?ur entre la dette et la trace (Ric?ur, 1995) – la dette qui peut s’eteindre, et la trace qui s’entretient par la memoire et par la « piete » a l’egard des victimes (Trigano, 2000) – n’est pas toujours verifiee : dans maintes affaires, la dette finit par emporter la trace, en quelque sorte. L’anhistoricite des proces de l’histoire. 13 Ces actions en justice, civiles et penales, convoquent une double anhistoricite : celle du droit prive, et celle du marche. 14 Qu’il y ait des reparations apres une guerre, des pillages, puis des compensations (souvenons-nous des compensations francaises en 1870-1871), cela est vieux comme la guerre elle-meme.
Que les Etats indemnisent ceux a qui ils ont cause un tort, comme l’Allemagne a Israel, n’a rien de neuf non plus. Markus Zusak Essay? Ce qui est nouveau dans l’actuelle vague de judiciarisation de l’histoire, c’est de voir transposees, a des rapports historiques entre peuples ou entre groupes, les categories du droit prive, c’est-a-dire d’un droit qui ne concerne que des personnes privees vivant sous une souverainete commune. Programs California? Une dette civile est censee mettre un terme a une tranche d’histoire. Thesis? Elle se situe dans une perspective « atemporelle » en cherchant a surmonter ou annuler un evenement comme un accident, une rupture de contrat ou un dommage quelconque. Programs? Le droit prive a precisement pour fonction de ne pas refaire l’histoire ! Derriere cette transposition, non elaboree, des categories du droit civil a l’histoire et la politique, il y a donc cette premiere anhistoricite qui va se trouver redoublee par l’anhistoricite du marche. 7 Arret du 13 decembre 2006 de la chambre d’appel du 7 e circuit federal des Etats-Unis, Afro-American (. Essay? ) 8 Arret Nike Inc. Mfa Creative Writing Programs? V. How To Keep? Kasky , 539 U.S. Writing Programs? 654 (2003).
9 C’est-a-dire des actions de groupe visant a geler des avoirs libanais un peu partout dans le monde. 15 Prenons l’exemple de l’action des Afro-Americains descendants d’esclaves, recemment jugee par les plus grands juges liberaux americains, ceux de la chambre d’appel du 7 e circuit federal7. Air Pollution Causes Effects And Solutions Essay? Ils ont decide que les descendants d’esclaves n’avaient pas droit a des reparations, mais avaient en revanche le droit, en tant que consommateurs, d’etre informes du comportement des producteurs de facon a ne pas acheter les produits fabriques par les entreprises qui se sont enrichies par l’esclavage. Writing Programs California? Les juges se sont referes a l’arret Nike , prononce contre le celebre fabricant de chaussures, pour non-respect des droits de l’homme8. Argumentative Essay Religion War? Nous assistons la a un entrechoc entre l’historique, le politique et l’economique ; a une confusion entre le passe et le present. Writing? Lorsque se pose un probleme de reparation civile du passe, on cloning, repond desormais par l’instantaneite du marche qui doit se montrer capable d’integrer aussi le passe. Writing California? Cette decision emblematique caresse le reve liberal de resorber les problemes de l’histoire dans un present eternel, celui du marche economique et de l’echange financier. Benefits Essay? Lors de la derniere guerre du Liban, alors que les combats faisaient encore rage, des class actions 9 furent intentees par des Israeliens ; pour reparer quoi ? Une histoire en train de se faire ! Donc pour reparer le present. Mfa Creative California? Francois Hartog estime que le « presentisme » est devenu tellement puissant que les moments contemporains incluent desormais d’emblee leurs auto-commemorations (Hartog, 2003), de la meme maniere que certains reclament des indemnisations en temps reel. The Book Thief Markus Essay? L’ideologie du « temps reel » dans la pratique de la justice quotidienne participe d’ailleurs de ce presentisme, et de ce nouveau rapport a l’histoire.
Temps preventif et regeneration du temps politique. 16 On a beaucoup parle des crimes contre l’humanite, mais un constat analogue pourrait etre fait a propos du terrorisme, dans lequel on writing, retrouve le meme probleme de ces qualifications « infamantes » qui interdisent de comprendre la causalite historique, et de faire un travail politique. Effects And Solutions Essay? La position vis-a-vis de l’avenir est devenue preventive et conjuratoire. Mfa Creative? A partir du moment ou le crime contre l’humanite est saisi d’abord comme une catastrophe, avant d’etre compris comme un evenement historique, il est logique de chercher a le « prevenir », comme on the book thief essay, previent les catastrophes. Mfa Creative Programs? Notre rapport a l’avenir se decalque de notre attitude a l’egard des catastrophes naturelles, c’est-a-dire qu’il se concentre desormais autour de la prevention. Thesis? On rencontre, dans le proche entourage de Barack Obama, deux membres tres actifs de la « prevention » des genocides qui reflechissent a la maniere d’empecher que de telles « catastrophes » se reproduisent. Mfa Creative Programs California? Comme si un genocide etait un « probleme », au meme titre qu’une eruption volcanique… On deplore une certaine confusion entre le mal naturel et le mal politique, si caracteristique de notre nouveau rapport a l’histoire, et d’une philosophie problem solving , sous-jacente a la pratique du droit et de la politique. How To Body Essay? Un rapport preventif similaire se met en place a propos du terrorisme : il devient finalement moins important de le juger que de le prevenir. Mfa Creative? Le temps ne sert plus a construire quoi que ce soit, mais a anticiper le pire.
17 Ce nouveau rapport a l’histoire contient enfin le reve d’une sorte de « regeneration » du temps politique, exprime notamment par les commissions Verite et Reconciliation, qui suivent le temps de la catastrophe. Markus Essay? Apres la catastrophe, il faut se reconstituer (au sens litteral de « refaire une Constitution ») et refonder (Garapon, 2004). Writing Programs? Cette demarche releve d’une conception cyclique du temps, et non plus dialectique comme le proposait la philosophie hegelienne de l’Histoire. 18 En reaction a cette philosophie, que l’on a pu juger devastatrice au vu des massacres perpetres tout au long du xx e siecle, un nouveau rapport au temps, a la fois genereux et illusoire, s’est forge. Thief Markus Essay? Genereux car il ne desespere pas d’un avenir plus juste, illusoire parce qu’il croit qu’une scene suffira a fonder un temps nouveau.
Mais ne soyons pas trop pessimistes, ni trop categoriques dans notre appreciation de ce nouveau rapport a l’histoire. Programs? Peut-etre que la judiciarisation contemporaine n’est qu’un pis-aller, une politique a minima , en attendant de rouvrir un rapport au temps (passe comme futur) plus constructif et partage par tous. Amery Jean, 1995, Par-dela le crime et le chatiment. Literary? Essai pour surmonter l’insurmontable , Arles, Actes Sud. Arendt Hannah et Jaspers Karl, 1996 , Correspondance (1926-1969) , trad.
E. Writing? Kaufholtz-Messmer, Paris, Payot. Garapon Antoine, 2004, « La justice comme reconnaissance », Le genre humain , n o 43, p. Markus? 181-204. — 2008, Peut-on reparer l’histoire ? Colonisation, esclavage, Shoah , Paris, Odile Jacob. Hartog Francois, 2003, Regimes d’historicite : presentisme et experiences du temps , Paris, Le Seuil. Jankelevitch Vladimir, 1986, L’imprescriptible.
Pardonner ? Dans l’honneur et la dignite , Paris, Le Seuil. Ric?ur Paul, 1985, Temps et recit , t. Mfa Creative Writing California? 3, Le temps raconte , Paris, Le Seuil. — 1995, « Le pardon peut-il guerir ? », Esprit , n o 210, p. Essay? 77-82. Trigano Shmuel, 2000, « Que faire avec l’indemnisation des spoliations ? », Le Monde , 2 mars. 1 On songe au debat suscite par le dialogue entre Francois Furet et Ernst Nolte sur les theses de ce dernier qui voyait dans le nazisme une replique a la brutalite du stalinisme. 2 Je me permets de renvoyer sur toutes ces questions a Garapon (2008). 3 Durant leur occupation de la Coree pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les forces d’occupation japonaises ont prostitue de force un certain nombre de jeunes femmes (coreennes en majorite). Mfa Creative Programs? Elles reclament aujourd’hui au gouvernement japonais une reconnaissance de cette violence dont elles ont ete victimes et une indemnisation.
En 1995, le Japon a donc cree un fonds d’indemnisation special, alimente par les citoyens eux-memes. English Literary? Voir Garapon (2008, p. Mfa Creative California? 185-190). 4 Certains groupes d’Allemands, des Sudetes et de Silesie, expulses par les pays voisins de l’Allemagne pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, ont demande que l’adhesion de ces pays voisins a l’Union europeenne soit suspendue a des dedommagements materiels, a la restitution des anciens biens des expulses, voire a des gestes symboliques ou juridiques comme l’abrogation des decrets Ben e s. Statement On Buddhism? Voir Garapon (2008, p. Writing Programs? 244). 5 Un proces a ete intente contre la SNCF, en 2001, par la famille Lipietz, pour obtenir reparation du prejudice d’avoir ete internee, puis deportee, durant l’Occupation. The Book Zusak? Le tribunal administratif de Toulouse a condamne l’Etat a verser la somme de 40 000 euros et la SNCF, 20 000 euros pour « faute de service ». Mfa Creative Programs? Depuis, plus de 1 800 plaintes ont ete deposees contre la SNCF. 6 Voir a ce sujet l’arret Mabo du 3 juin 1992 de la Cour supreme australienne. 7 Arret du 13 decembre 2006 de la chambre d’appel du 7 e circuit federal des Etats-Unis, Afro-American Slave Descendants Litigation , rendu par les juges Easterbrook, Posner et Marion. 8 Arret Nike Inc. Cloning Essay? V. Programs? Kasky , 539 U.S.
654 (2003). 9 C’est-a-dire des actions de groupe visant a geler des avoirs libanais un peu partout dans le monde. Antoine Garapon , « Punition, liquidation, prevention : un nouveau rapport a l’histoire ? », Traces. The Book Thief Markus? Revue de Sciences humaines [En ligne], #09 | 2009, mis en ligne le 25 novembre 2011, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. Mfa Creative Programs? URL : http://traces.revues.org/4330 ; DOI : 10.4000/traces.4330. Magistrat, docteur en droit, secretaire general de l’Institut des Hautes Etudes sur la Justice. ISSN electronique 1963-1812.
Informations Titre : Traces Revue de sciences humaines En bref : Revue de sciences humaines et sociales etudiant les objets en contexte.
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Nowhere to Go: “An Epistle to a Lady” That Still Holds Up. Amongst this week’s readings, for the theme of writing programs women and causes working class labour, Mary Leapor’s An Epistle to a Lady is one that stood out most to me. Mfa Creative Writing California? Particularly, in the sense that Leapor portrays a very resigned woman’s interpretation of the world, in which she suggests that no level of education can “comfort” (13) her, due the difficulty presented by her status as a woman. It’s certainly a bleak perspective, but I think her sentiments are still relevant today, in air pollution effects and solutions, that the state of women’s work has improved throughout history, in writing programs california, a lot of thesis ways, but there are also many ways in which it hasn’t. I’m particularly interested in looking at gender segregation in the labour market, and how even when there’s equality of education between the genders, there still exists a great deal of inequality. To delve more into the poem first, lines 11-18 show that Leapor considers the significance of education: But though these eyes the learned page explore, And turn the mfa creative california pond’rous volumes o’er and o’er,
I find no comfort from their systems’ flow, But am dejected more as more I know, Hope shines a while, but like a vapour flies, (The fate of argumentative essay religion war all the curious and the wise) (11-18) Unlike a lot of the poetry we’ve read, which deals with uneducated women who work hard and wish they had an education, this passage deals with an california, educated woman who suggests that she’s “dejected more as more I know” (14).
There’s both a sense of stagnancy with that line, and the turning of the volumes “o’er and o’er” (12), in the sense that she can learn all she wants, but given her status as a woman, of that time period, she’ll have no way to apply it. We see her later refer to a “prison of expiring clay” (47), which suggests that perhaps the issue isn’t her level of education, but that women are often trapped in the confines of benefits of human their gender, and mfa creative writing that it’s perhaps the thief markus zusak essay “clay” moulding that gender that is the issue. I think this definitely rings true when looking at the state of the labour market, even in mfa creative writing programs, modern times, as the division of labour into male and female jobs, is what systemically confines women to low-paying “job ghettos”, even if they have an healthy, education equal to that of men they’re competing with ( Krahn et al, 203). That is, jobs that are traditionally deemed more for women are typically low-paying jobs that don’t allow much opportunity for mobility and advancement (Krahn et al, 203). A lot of this has to do with gender-role socialization, which is the mfa creative writing california idea that “the socialization of girls and boys into traditional gender roles creates cultural norms and literary papers expectations that they will carry into the workplace as adults” (Krahn et al, 206). Since men traditionally gravitate towards careers that allow for more high-paying jobs, women that pursue a career in the same realm still end up suffering systemic discrimination, because men are usually in positions of greater authority within these organizations. Also, given the male-dominated demographic of these organizations, male management tends to draw on social stereotypes regarding women that adhere to mfa creative, their traditional domestic responsibilities, and the notion of women as more dedicated to war, nurturing the family, rather than their career (208). Thus, I can definitely see where Leapor is coming from with the line “hope shines a while, but like a vapour flies” (15), as it seems that despite the opportunities one is mfa creative california thought to have as a result of their education, the knowledge that it doesn’t really ensure you anything just because of your gender, is rather discouraging. Efforts have been made to change the effects of english papers discrimination regarding job opportunities, for groups that have been historically excluded, such as women (Krahn et al, 211). An effort towards this was made with the 1986 Employment Equity Act , with progress in the sense that organizations with equity programs saw an increase in the presence and status of women, and narrowed the wage gap between women and men (Krahn et al, 214). However, many organizations have complained about the expense of these equity programs, and there has been great “backlash with what men see as the mfa creative writing programs california threat of feminism in action” (Krahn et al, 213).
It seems that the bleakness with which Leapor painted An Epistle to a Lady came with great reason, as the division in labour is still very much present in effects and solutions, our lives, and as was shown in mfa creative, terms of domesticity, it hasn’t even changed much, in thesis statement, some ways. Krahn, Harvey J. et al. Work, Industry, and Canadian Society . United States of America: Nelson Education Ltd, 2011. Print. Leapor, Mary. An Epistle to a Lady . 1748. The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century . Ed. Joseph Black et al. Programs California? 2 nd ed. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012.
Print. Mary Collier and Mary Leapor fall under the category of eighteenth century Laboring-Class Poets, defined by our Broadview anthology as “poets with first-hand knowledge of rural labor… who found their way into print—generally with the help of friends or patrons” (“Laboring-Class Poets” 890). The works of these two women deliver a stark contrast to what was the essay religion war common representation (or should we say, mis representation) of the peasantry or laboring-class in eighteenth and nineteenth-century art, including pastoral poetry and visual artistry. Commonly the mfa creative california peasantry was depicted in “vision[s] of idyllic rural happiness”, almost euphoric utopias of merriment, in which the life of the peasant seemed to be a life of naive gaiety (“Laboring-Class Poets” 890). In the works of Collier and Leapor, first-hand accounts of the life of not only a rural laborer, but a female rural laborer, it is literary papers no surprise that such depictions were critiqued as not only absurdly hyperbolic, but terribly misleading. In July of 1856, George Eliot published her essay entitled “The Natural History of German Life” in the Westminster Review, in which she reviews German sociologist and political author, W.H. von Riehl’s, books Die Burgerliche Gesellschaft (1855) and Land und Leute (1856). In her review, she describes how Riehl’s method of experiencing the German peasantry and then later replicating that experience in art is a method which English artists should duplicate to reflect the English peasantry. George Eliot, too, described her skepticism of the truthfulness in her contemporaries’ representations of the English peasantry, citing examples such as William Holman Hunt’s 1851 painting entitled “The Hireling Shepherd” [seen below] , where Eliot describes the writing programs peasants in the foreground as “not much more real than the idyllic swains and literary damsels of our chimney ornaments” (Eliot 52). William Holman Hunt’s “The Hireling Shepherd” (1851) What we see in this painting is precisely the ‘peasant livelihood’ that laboring-class poets like Collier and Leapor meant to shoo from the minds of their observers and their audiences: a peasant life in which a shepherd could freely abandon his flock to court some young, lustrous, rosy-cheeked peasant maiden sun-bathing gaily with her lamb and apples as her admirer’s forearms glisten in the sun.
Collier, particularly, took offense to these presuppositions in her critique of Mr. Programs California? Stephen Duck, wondering where he had seen, since she “ne’er could see, what [he had] lately found,/ Our wages paid for thesis on buddhism, sitting on the ground” (Collier 52). Once can probably be sure, however, that Holman Hunt was not the mfa creative first to draw a peasant-lady on her rump, and if that is the case, it is no wonder where Duck saw many babes-a-bathing, or at least many babes a grazing, gazing, and lazing-around. Collier’s “The Woman’s Labour” is literary very cyclical in writing programs california, construction, mirroring the life of the woman laborer that she finds to be quite contrary to the preconceptions of the gaily grazing peasant-lass above. On Buddhism? It is writing programs california a repetition of women’s duties (that, to her view, far surpass that of a man’s) in which there is barely a moment of rest: “Early next morning we on you [men] attend”, “we, alas! but little sleep can have”, “early we must rise”, “Sol…/ …summons drowsy mortals to arise”, and “For us, you see, but little rest is found” (Collier 83, 113, 144, 168-9, 237). Thesis Statement? Amidst Collier’s various descriptions of the slave-like conditions the woman laborer must endure, what seems to programs, me, personally, the most detrimental and greatest loss of these women is, what Collier describes in: “Our toil and labour’s daily so extreme,/ That we have hardly ever time to dream” (Collier 133-34). The connection is obvious between one’s physical inability to rest, and thus, one’s inability to dream, but more importantly, the english papers hypothetical implications of the writing california woman laborer who is air pollution so emotionally and programs mentally exhausted that the act of dreaming—something personally employed and enjoyed—is taken from her. Argumentative? This is the mfa creative most disheartening of all losses.
To dream is to imagine and hope for how to keep body essay, the bigger and better of life’s possibilities, but Collier’s poem ends in a melancholic observance of what life for programs california, a woman laborer is: “poor… recompense [for] their toil and pains” (Collier 246).These images of idyllic, pastoral life encompassing the day-dreaming peasant maid are precisely the images of which Collier laments there is english literary just no time. Leapor, in mfa creative california, contrast, particularly in her “Crumble Hall”, means to body essay, make example of her own magnificent imagination and creativity (and, in directly, that of mfa creative writing programs other laboring women, even in their assumed lack of thesis formal education). I, myself, cannot quite place just what the palace of Crumble Hall means to mfa creative california, Leapor, but to me it is a vivid representation of thesis a servant woman’s dream-world, not necessarily a utopia but at california, least a creation . War? It is california Leapor’s to own and control, one that she may freely invite us into and throughout as she tells us to “step within”, to “count the stairs” but to also “be careful how [we] tread” (Leapor “Crumble Hall” 35, 72, 96). In “An Epistle to a Lady”, Leapor speaks of Mira , her poet name for herself, and how “Mira dreams”, but even amidst the the book markus dreaming, Leapor never fails to mention that, Mira also wakes: “She awakes, alas!” (Leapor “An Epistle to a Lady” 21, 31). Leapor refuses to deny herself her dreaming, but she also refuses to allow herself to get swept away in it. Dreaming is a necessity, but it should not stop a woman from living and carrying on. What Leapor delivers to her readers in her two poems is a balance of the real and mfa creative writing the recreational, of markus zusak essay what a peasant maiden can create and what she can do with what is already created before it. To observe dreams or reality is not to abandon its counterpart, but instead, to embrace it.
Collier and Leapor seem to be more realistic examples of the poor maiden of the more than 300 year old fairy tale, Cinderella, first published by Charles Perrault in 1697. In Disney’s 1950 Cinderella , Cinderella sings what is now the famous “A Dream is a Wish Your Heart Makes” which seems more than fitting in light of Leapor and Collier. Collier and Leapor’s poems seem to ignite the same kind of feelings in programs, me that Cinderella’s song does: a reflection on the importance and beauty of dreaming (whether in sleep or lounging in a field among lambs and apples), but also on the importance of life itself and endurance in argumentative religion, life for hopes of bettering it. Collier, Mary. “The Women’s Labour.” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012. 894-97. Eliot, George. Writing Programs California? “The Natural History of German Life.” Westminster Review . Thief Zusak? 66 (July, 1856).
51-79. Print. “Laboring-Class Poets.” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century. California? Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012. 890. Leapor, Mary. “An Epistle to a Lady.” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012. 898. Markus Essay? Print. Leapor, Mary. “Crumble Hall.” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century.
Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012. Mfa Creative Writing Programs California? 900-02. Print. Escaping Domesticity: to the Land of Poetry. When reading works from the Eighteenth century, written about argumentative essay, women and working class labour, it is interesting to examine poetry as a tool women use to escape their life and to comment on or to complain about many aspects of writing programs a woman’s domestic role. Simultaneously, the effectiveness of the book thief poetry as a tool used to challenge these expectations is writing programs demonstrated. Through poetry, Mary Leapor, Anne Letitia Barbauld, and Mary Collier confront the domestic tasks set upon english literary papers women and redirect any negative effects of their female experience into the creation of mfa creative programs california poetry. If poetry is understood as a place of escape it may contain secrets. Mary Leapor, or perhaps more properly referred to english, as ‘Mira’ Leapor, presents an alter ego in mfa creative writing programs california, her poetry. Mira, which is described in a footnote as “Leapor’s poetic name for herself” (Leapor, 898), appears in many of her works. Leapor desires to play a certain role in the content of her poetry but does not want her true identity to be revealed.
Leapor can therefore live vicariously through Mira. Ironically, it appears as though by writing a poetic self into existence, Leapor allows more truth to enter the content of her poems. In this way ‘Mira’ is able to critique the misery of a working class woman and lament about her daily responsibilities. For example, in “An Epistle to a Lady” she describes how Mira “wakes, alas! To business and to woes,/To sweep her kitchen, and to mend her clothes” (Leapor, 898). Leapor is not only able to articulate Mira’s woes by english papers, separating herself as the writing poems subject, but allows for thesis, a mourning of mfa creative programs california her responsibilities through rhyme.
In fact, Leapor is able to english literary papers, find comfort in her poetry by turning her woes into something pleasurable and creative, producing a piece of work that is new and writing california exciting. Anne Letitia Barbauld’s poem “Washing Day” parallels this use of poetry. She is able to describe her hatred of causes effects and solutions essay washing day, along with all the domestic chores she is expected to complete, while also finding comfort in the rhyme she is able to create. Her poem concludes in a positive light, noting that: “Earth, air, and programs california sky, and ocean, hath its bubbles/ And verse is one of them – this most of all” (Letitia Barbauld, 21). It becomes evident here what role her poetry plays for her personally, and how important she thinks it is. Although she must spend her days creating bubbles from washing clothes, she is cloning essay also able to writing programs california, create bubbly verses that allow her escape from what the content of her poem describes.
Interestingly, Mira’s identity as a poet has always been disclosed. Leapor describes how “Mira dreams,/as slumbering poets may” (Leapor, 898). It is thesis statement on buddhism Mira who is allowed the subvert the everyday chores of women and dream about mfa creative programs california, other things, although in the very act of writing these lines Leapor allows herself a literary dream as well. Writing becomes a space of retreat from the mundane nature of her life. In ENG 305, Swift, Pope and contemporaries, we discussed the poem “Mira’s Picture”, another one of Leapor’s poems. In this piece Mira is causes a misunderstood poet who men criticize for her ugliness and artistic oddness. Mira is Leapor’s version of a self portrait. or a more commonly known as a ‘selfie’ This self reflectivity is therefore interesting to examine in writing, the context of the references to Mira in Leapor’s “An Epistle to on buddhism, a Lady”. Leapor paints a picture of herself in these poems as a way of mfa creative writing california escape.
Where as in “Mira’s picture” she is lamenting about essay, her misunderstood identity as a poet, in mfa creative writing california, “An Epistle to a Lady” she laments about her responsibility as a female labourer. Mira becomes a reflection of herself in both poems and therefore allows for an escape from how to keep body essay reality. Mary Collier also finds poetry an writing programs, effective way to address her concerns. In her poem “The Women’s Labour” she directly responds to another poem we discussed in ENG305 by Stephen Duck called “The Thresher’s Labour”. She constructs a literary conversation with him. Collier makes her project known by statement, satirically referring to mfa creative programs california, the “great Duck” (collier, 895), whose poem directly insults women and underestimates the amount of work they do not only in the house, but in the field as well. Duck says that “Soon as the golden Harvest quits the Plain,/And Ceres’ Gifts reward the Farmer’s Pain” (Stanza 2, line 1-2). In a direct reference to this line, Collier responds that “When Harvest comes, into the fields we go,/And help to reap the wheat as well as you” (Collier, 895). Collier uses Duck’s imagery and ideas and complicates them with her own opinions. Collier is therefore able to escape her reality by engaging in a debate about on buddhism, it. Programs California? A poetic battle breaks out.
Poetry becomes the medium in which Leapor, Letitia Barbauld and Collier can confront and express the issues of domestic labour they encounter and it becomes a way to address it publicly and personally. Thesis Statement On Buddhism? Whereas Leapor creates a second poetic identity to carry out her words, Letitia Barbauld makes reference to the importance of her own poetry and Collier uses poetry to engage in california, a poetic battle concerning women’s reality. Poetry is the literary space where this becomes possible. Collier, Mary. “The Women’s Labour.” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century. Peterborough: Broadview Press (2012): 894-97. Leapor, Mary. “An Epistle to programs california, a Lady.” The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century.
Peterborough: Broadview Press (2012): 898. Letitia Barbauld, Anne. “Washing Day.” Romantic Women Poets Anthology 1770-1838. Ed. Andrew Ashfield. How To Healthy Body Essay? New York: Manchester University Press. 1797.
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Essay on Communalism in Indian Politics. In this essay we will discuss about the communalism in mfa creative california, Indian politics. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Role of Communalism in Indian Politics 2. Communal Politics after Partition of India 3. Causes Responsible for Communalism. List of Essays on air pollution causes Communalism in Indian Politics. Essay on the Role of Communalism in Indian Politics Essay on Communal Politics after Partition of India Essay on programs the Causes Responsible for literary papers Communalism. 1. Essay on the Role of writing, Communalism in Indian Politics: For centuries people belonging to different religious communities have been living together in benefits, India without any friction or ill will.
Major communities in India being the california Hindus, the Muslims, the Sikhs, the air pollution Christians, the Parsees, the Jains, the Buddhists, etc. All these communities lived with each other in perfect toleration. It was only at the turn of the mfa creative writing programs century that the British rulers in the book, India followed policy of divide and writing programs california, rule and with that the gulf between various religious communities very considerably increased. The device of giving separate representation to how to keep healthy body, each major community in elected bodies and writing programs california, civil services widened the gap, particularly among two major Indian communities, namely, the Hindus and the Muslims. When late Muhammed Ali Jinnah expounded his two nation theory, gap between these communities still more widened. The result of all this was that there was communal hatred. Before the partition of the country, there were communal riots in keep healthy essay, some parts of the country resulting in the killing of california, several hundred people and looting and burning property worth crores of rupees.
Everything inhuman and unhuman was done in the name of religion. The country had to be partitioned because the Muslim League, under the leadership of M.A. Jinnah made it clear that the Muslims and the Hindus were two separate nations, which could not live together and partition of India was the only solution of communal and thesis on buddhism, political problems of the country. 2. Essay on Communal Politics after Partition of India: In 1947, India was partitioned and with that migration of writing programs california, population started. Conditions in the country were such that it was almost impossible for the Hindus to thesis statement on buddhism, respectfully live in the areas which formed Pakistan and mfa creative writing california, thus they had to effects, migrate. Writing California? From India some of the Muslims migrated but a vast majority decided to remain in the county.
When constitution was being enacted there was a demand that the Hindus should have full control over political life of India because the thesis statement on buddhism country had been partitioned 011 the basis of two nations theory and that the Muslims had got their home land. They should migrate there and if they decided to live in India they should remain as second rate citizens. But leadership at that time firmly stood against this view point. It was made clear that religion should have no part and role to play in Indian politics. It had already done sufficient harm and could not be allowed to do more harm to our polity. It was, therefore, decided that India will be a secular state and subsequently this was incorporated even in the preamble of the constitution itself. Several clauses in the constitution accordingly provided that no distinction between religious communities in any walks of life will be made on the basis of mfa creative programs california, religion.
In other words, constitution fathers were determined to literary, see that religion did not become a heavy weight on mfa creative california political life of the english literary papers country. Writing California? In order to lessen the influence of how to keep body, religion on politics under the writing Representation of cloning, People’s Act, it was made clear that influencing of voters in the name of religion or exploitation of religious sentiments to get votes, was liable to even make the election of successful candidate invalid. No such symbol will be allotted to any political party, which is likely to exploit religious sentiments of any religious community or injure those bf any other. There will be no religious instructions in any state owned controlled or fully or partly financed educational institution. Similarly none in the state will in any way get preference in any way simply because of writing programs california, religion. But unfortunately much which was expected by constitution fathers about the role of religion in politics has not come true.
Some of the orthodox religious minded persons could not reconcile themselves to the idea of argumentative religion war, a secular India in which the Hindus were to be placed on california equal footings with other religious communities. But they had no popular base support and strength and it was accepted by a vast majority of India’s population that the country should be a secular state. But in spite of all this in India there have been communal riots from of human cloning, time to time between two major religious communities; namely, the Hindus and the Muslims. These indicate that even after the writing lapse of such a long time some in India, belonging to both the communities, have not fully reconciled themselves to the basic idea and philosophy of argumentative essay religion, secularism. After the partition of the mfa creative programs country, when there was turmoil, for about a decade or so, there were no communal riots in India and it appeared that all was going well, but situation began to gradually change thereafter. It was, however, in October, 1961, that communal riots broke out in Aligarh Muslim University and the trouble spread outside the english university and in some parts of mfa creative writing, U.P., Bihar, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh.
It was with great difficulty that situation could be controlled. To the satisfaction of all, for some time there were no riots in air pollution, the country till 1963 when communal riots broke out in J K. In December of writing california, that year it was reported that sacred hair of Prophet Mohammed was missing from english, Hazratbal Mosque in Srinagar. Mfa Creative Writing Programs California? There were hartals, demonstrations and violence as well as lawlessness in the state. The relic was recovered and certified as the original one. Argumentative Essay Religion? But some orthodox Muslims did not accept its genuineness and continued demonstrations which spread in mfa creative programs, some part of the East Pakistan. Large number of the how to keep healthy body Hindus was killed and their properties looted. Thousands of them were forced to mfa creative writing, leave the country to migrate to India. It is estimated that more than 5 lakhs Hindus and those belonging to air pollution and solutions essay, other religious minorities were forced to cross over to India.
There were riots in some parts of Bengal and Bihar as well. It was again with great difficulty that communal harmony could be restored. Communal riots again broke out at Washim in programs, Maharashtra in 1966. Benefits Essay? On October 2, i.e. on the birth of Mahatma Gandhi, the prophet of non-violence. It is said that some members of a religious community threw stones on the processionists of the other community who were taking out a procession in support of cow protection. This resulted in opening of fire by the police, in which several persons were killed. In 1967, there were again serious communal troubles. The issue of trouble was that a girl belonging one community was converted and married to a boy belonging to the other community. The former did not tolerate this. The agitation gradually spread to some other parts of the state and resulted in several casualties. The troops had to mfa creative writing, be called out to control the situation.
But in October of the same year there were riots in the state. Air Pollution And Solutions? This time the point of infuriation was that it was alleged that some torn pages of holy Quran were found in a latrine. Again police had to be called out. Four days later Jan Sangh also organised a demonstration and thus situation became tense and was tactfully brought under control. In 1968, there were riots in four states, namely, U.P., Assam, West Bengal and writing programs california, Bihar. In U.P. early in the book markus zusak, the year in January some people belonging to one community are alleged to have attacked a political meeting of the mfa creative california other community and in the riots that followed 17 persons were killed. On March 15 riots broke out in Allahabad on Holi day resulting in the death of three persons. In Assam riots broke out on March 2,1968 on healthy essay a stray cow incident and in that seven persons were killed. A few days later cow became the cause of communal riots at Tinsukia. But serious riots broke out in Bihar in 1968 over the issue of Urdu to be given the status of second official language. This was opposed by Jan Sangh, a constituent unit in the government.
The riots were of mfa creative programs california, so serious magnitude that more than 150 Persons are stated to have been killed. In Calcutta, in cloning essay, March of the same year there was some quarrel between a Hindu and a Muslim, which took a communal turn. In order to control the situation, police had to be given shoot at sight orders. In Aurangabad riots broke out when a Muslim baker killed a cow. Mfa Creative Writing California? This infuriated the Hindus who looted property and destroyed bakery. Several houses were burnt and thus considerable damage was done to public and private property.
In 1969, serious communal riots broke out in Ahmedabad in September of that year. English? In this case again cow became cause of trouble. It is stated that a herd of cows which belonged to a Hindu Temple injured few Muslim boys near a mosque. Writing Programs California? The Muslims in turn drove the cows in the temple to which these belonged. This infuriated the Hindus, who retaliated and as a consequence tension developed which shortly became riots. According to some sources about 600 persons were killed, while others estimate it at 1200. Several political leaders and benefits cloning, Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, who happened to be in India at mfa creative programs california that time, went on fast to touch the conscience of the people to give up communal hatred. But in May 1970, communal riots broke out at air pollution Bhiwandi near Bombay, when it is alleged that a procession being taken out in honour of california, Shivaji was stoned by some miscreants. These infuriated the processionists and in the riots that broke out about a thousand houses were destroyed and some 80 persons were killed.
In a statement issued by the then Union Minister of State in the Ministry of Home Affairs in the year 1973 as many as 242 incidents of communal violence took place in the country. One serious riot of the year broke out in December of that year in Meerut, in which political parties charged each other for air pollution causes effects and solutions essay the outbreak of riots in which nine persons were killed. In May 1974, serious riots broke out in Delhi and in order to writing california, control the situation Border Security Force had to be called out. During 1975-77 India was under emergency and on communal fronts there were no riots. Thesis Statement? But trouble again started after Janata Government came to power in 1977. In 1978, there were serious riots in mfa creative writing programs california, Aligarh resulting in loss of many lives. There were incidents of communal violence in some other parts of the country as well. Communal trouble again started in thesis, August 1980 on Id day at Moradabad. It is alleged that when prayers were going on some stray animal went in the mosque. It became the source of trouble. In the mfa creative programs subsequent communal trouble about 150 persons including some police men were killed.
As a consequence communal trouble also started in Delhi on 15th August, 1980 soon after the Prime Minister had finished her speech from the healthy ramparts of Red Fort on independence day. The same spread in some parts of Gujarat and mfa creative programs california, J K. Thesis Statement On Buddhism? But few days later trouble also started at Allahabad and in some other parts of U.P. including Sambal and Aligarh. At every place there was loss of life and property. To control the situation army had to be called and curfew imposed. In recent years as many as 180 communal incidents took place during 1986. Mfa Creative Programs? Of these about 50% broke out in Gujarat alone. It has been estimated that about 200 lives were lost in these incidents.
In 1987, serious communal riots broke out in Meerut which resulted in heavy loss of life and property. But communal tension in India very much increase because of Ram Janam Bhumi and Babri Masjid dispute. When the argumentative war masjid was demolished on 6th December, 1992 there were riots in programs california, some parts of the country and thief, even outside India resulting in heavy losses of lives and programs california, property. In 1993, there were communal riots in Bombay in which hundreds were killed and property worth crores was looted. The riots are always a matter of concern both for the society as well as the government but these are becoming of great serious concern because the country side which used to be free from communal tension is now becoming victim of how to body essay, communal disharmony. In addition, earlier younger generation kept away from communal politics.
It did not much care for caste and religion but now that generation too is getting involved in this ugly politics. 3. Essay on the Causes Responsible for writing california Communalism: There is no denial that under the existing conditions in India, all major Indian communities must live in close harmony with each other, in case both these communities as well as the nation as a whole wants to make rapid progress. Each communal riot results in loss of life of the people, creating problems for the families left behind. There is looting of property and its destruction in the wake which creates serious social and economic problems for of human essay the individuals as well as the society. It creates tensions for the neighbours who had been otherwise living very peacefully. Heavy strain is put on the civil administration, which is mfa creative writing california, forced to air pollution effects and solutions essay, divert its resources to the riot torn areas. The task of maintaining law and order becomes very difficult and all developmental activities come to a stand still for some time.
The task of reconstruction and rehabilitation of those who are affected by communal fury is in no way easy. Writing? The irony is that no religious, social or political leader of any community openly supports communal disharmony. As soon as riots break out keep healthy body essay these leaders invariably issue prompt statements for maintaining communal harmony. They tour riot effected areas and form peace committees and serve on these as well. And yet riots break out.
Then another tragedy is that all this is done in programs california, the name of markus, religion, whereas no religion propagates either communal hatred or disharmony or violence or looting of property and killing of the people. A very important question, therefore, arises as to mfa creative california, why communal disharmony is literary papers, presisting between major religous communities, though the writing constitution has established a secular set up. Some of the important causes responsible for this are as under: Under the constitution, India has been declared a secular state. Argumentative Essay War? The constitution fathers had hoped that all religious communities, including the Muslims will join the main stream of national life and that they will contribute to the task of mfa creative california, national-reconstruction. In fact, soon after the partition of the country many Muslim leaders appealed to the Muslims to actively associate themselves in the task of national development which laid before the air pollution causes essay country. But unfortunately quite a vast majority has not come closer to Hindu majority and general impression and stigma that the writing california Muslims in India were responsible for the partition of the country in the past continues. Some of the Muslims have organised themselves in such organisations as Jamaite-Islami; Jamait-ul-ulama-i-Hind; Muslim Majlis, Muslim League of India and so on. Though these bodies today have no significant role to play in national politics, yet the fact remains that by and large the Muslims remain aloof from the majority community and thus the scope for appreciating and understanding each other’s view point is considerably reduced.
In this way communal harmony is hindered. Then another serious problem is religious orthodoxy of the Muslims. In every society religion, of body essay, course, plays a big role but at the same time each society is likely to mfa creative programs, receive a serious set back unless it modernises itself. But there are certain organisations among the Muslims which still preach orthodoxy and do not approve of modernisation. These stress on medieval glories of Islam and supremacy of religion in argumentative religion, the life of the individual. These organisations still stress on basic differences which exist between the Hindu and the Muslim ways of living and thinking.
These are not prepared to bring about writing programs california any change in Muslim personal laws, in air pollution and solutions, spite of the fact that in some Muslim countries these laws are being reviewed and changed. Not only this, but they threaten that if any attempt is made to change these laws then the california Muslims will not hesitate to make any sacrifice to save that. They want that Art 44 of the constitution, which provides for a uniform civil code should not be applied to the Muslims. These organisations have good following among the Muslims and as such differences between the two communities are made to continue. iii. Thesis Statement? Economic Backwardness of the Muslims:
During the British regime whole of India was economically backward, but even in those days the Muslims were comparatively economically more backward, as compared with the Hindus. It was hoped that after independence when equal opportunities would be provided to all, the Muslims in India would also take the mfa creative writing fullest advantage of that. But even now the percentage of Muslims going to keep healthy essay, educational, technical, medical and other professional institutions is much less than their population. The result is that they are educationally backward, do not occupy high offices and also economically lag behind in business. As such they are today economically backward. This economic disparity between the two communities is creating wide gap and many misunderstanding; one community feeling that it is being constantly exploited by the other or that the writing california richness of one is only at the cost of thesis, poverty of the other.
Pakistan was created on the basis of two nation theory, i.e., that the Hindus and the Muslims were are separate nations, which can not live together. With the creation of Pakistan, the Muslims got their homeland and those Muslims who did not wish to live in India migrated to Pakistan. It was very much hoped that after the creation of this new state both the countries will attend to their domestic problems and devote themselves to the task of national reconstruction, not interfering in the internal affairs of other country. But from the very beginning Pakistan tried to play the role of guardian of the Muslims in India. On the least pretext it tries to provocate the Muslims of India. In every communal riot it holds the Hindus of India responsible. It always tries to show the world that the Muslims of India are deliberately being kept backward and in mfa creative programs california, a state of slavery. Pakistan radio and press constantly propagates that the air pollution effects and solutions essay Muslims of India are at the mercy of the Hindus and that all crimes against the Muslims of India are committed in writing programs, a planned way and with indirect approval of the government.
In this way many Muslims fall into the trap of propaganda of Pakistan and carry some misconceived notions which do not help bringing the two nations as closer to each other, as otherwise these would have come. v. Responsibility of the Government: Many have held government responsible for how to healthy body essay the continuance of communalism. Mfa Creative Programs? They point out the book thief markus zusak essay that Ministers both at the Centre and states make such statements at times to programs, win favour of religious communities which result in disharmony, raise un-necessary hopes and make false promises which they cannot keep. These governments so far have failed to find out real causes of essay, communal riots. Writing Programs California? Ministers approach religious leaders for getting their blessings and request them to appeal to their followers for casting their votes in thesis statement on buddhism, their favour, etc. All this encourages communalism. Not only mfa creative california this, but it is alleged that quite often law enforcing agencies fail to thief essay, quickly control communal riots, thus, creating many apprehensions in mfa creative writing programs california, the minds of worst affected religious community. India has decided to be a secular state in essay, which communal politics should play no role and there should be no communal parties.
But even then such communal parties as Jamait-i-Islam, Itahadul Musalmeen, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, etc., are formed which play with religious sentiments of the people belonging to their community. They try to develop narrow out look among them. They do not hesitate to spread communal violence to maintain their existence and if need be spread even communal hatred. Their leaders know that their leadership is closely linked with creating communal disharmony among various religious communities living in India. Even before the partition of India, when two nation theory was being preached by the Muslim League, there were Hindu organisations which always stressed that India was essentially a land of the Hindus and that the Muslims had come to the country as invaders only. But after the partition of the country many among the Hindus forcefully argued that since the Muslims had got their homeland, India which was now left behind, should be the land of the Hindus. They talked of Hindu Rashtra, Hindu Sanskriti, Hindu Maryada and so on.
They wanted that high offices in programs, India should exclusively be the monopoly of the Hindus. Cloning Essay? According to writing california, them the Muslims should be Indianised, if they are to become nationalists. Some preached that the Hindus of India should not only remain Hindus but fanatic Hindus as well, so that they could preserve Hindu culture and civilisation. Some of these leaders declared that the air pollution and solutions essay Muslims in programs california, India were taking undue advantage of the endurance of the Hindus and that this should in no way be allowed to linger on. They charge the air pollution effects and solutions essay government of following policy of appeasement towards the Muslims. When some of the Muslims demanded separate electorates for themselves the Hindu Chauvinists very sharply reacted to the demand and demanded that these Muslims still believed in two nation theory and should be sent to Pakistan. They characterise the Muslims as dangerous and the biggest den of communal and anti-national activities. This attitude of these Hindus creates many apprehensions among the minds of the programs california Muslims and english literary, thus widens the gap between the two communities. India is a democracy in which each political party tries to mfa creative, catch maximum voters for itself. But in India unfortunately political parties try to have religious communities as a vote bank, which means that community as a whole should vote for essay religion it. These try to appease them and leave an writing programs california, impression that interests of thesis statement on buddhism, one religious community are not safe in mfa creative programs california, the hands of other.
For this the parties try to create communal ill feelings and many misunderstandings as well. ix. Ever Increasing Muslim Population: By and large, the Muslims of India have not accepted family planning and welfare programmes launched by the Government of english literary, India with the result that their population has rapidly increased. This has created many apprehensions in the minds of the Hindus who feel that in programs, case this tendency is religion, not checked, Muslim population in mfa creative writing, the country will so much increase that demand will once again be made for the partition of the country. This widens the gap between the two communities resulting in disharmony and apprehensions. Lastly, then comes the attitude of the thesis government. Though at times there have been communal riots in the country, yet the causes of problem have not been fully diagnosed. Every time the ruling parties everywhere satisfy themselves by saying that the riots had been masterminded by the opposition parties.
In some cases Jana Sangh and R.S.S. are held responsible whereas in other cases blame is thrown on Muslim League and other Muslim dominated parties. But nothing concrete has been done to find out real causes and also remedies of communal disharmony. This casual attitude of the mfa creative writing programs government does not help in finding real solution of the thesis on buddhism problem but perpetuates that. xi. Suggestions for mfa creative programs Checking Communalism: Thus several causes combined together are responsible for the gap which exists between two major religious communities in India. In case it is desired that this gap should be abridged for that concrete and solid steps will have to be taken. The task is difficult, but the satisfaction is and solutions, that both the communities have not shown any disunity or major differences at the times of emergencies say e.g., during Indo-Pakistan wars. The Muslims and the Hindus stood side by side with each other and writing, did not hesitate to sacrifice their lives for the sake of how to keep healthy body essay, mother India. It will be most appropriate, if such religious and political parties are legally banned which propagate communal hatred and mfa creative programs, live on the exploitation of the religious sentiments of the people, both directly and indirectly. The government should invigorate its propaganda machinery to make the masses realise the harm which these parties are likely to do to thesis on buddhism, national unity and integrity.
Community festivals which help promoting national unity should be encouraged. It has been found that quite often riots take place at the time of mfa creative programs, taking out of processions. Elaborate arrangements should be made on these occasions for maintaining law and order. In addition, a code should be developed for essay all processionist’s which should be strictly enforced. Rumours should not be allowed to play any role and writing programs california, immediate counter rumours steps should be taken. Those who play important role in curbing communalism and communal riots should be publicly honoured. Mohalla Samitis should be organised, consisting of non-political and non-communal minded persons. Immediate steps should be taken to remove mistrust, if any, between the communities living in the area. No time should be allowed to of human cloning essay, lapse because that increases mistrust.
In maintaining law and order police authorities should seek maximum co-operation of the minorities and weaker section of society. Those police officers who have communal feelings should not be posted in communal sensitive areas. Need, importance and utility of communal harmony should be propagated vigorously. An eye should be kept on mfa creative programs california the activities of english, communal militant organations and where necessary checks should be applied. It should be ensured that religious places are not used for preaching communal disharmony or hatred. These should not be allowed to be used for storing weapons.
Where riots frequently break out collective fines should be imposed so that all feel the punch of communal fury. It is only then that religion will not become a heavy weight on the political life of India, but will become a cementing force for nation’s unity and mfa creative, territorial integrity. Those preachings of all religions which aim at communal harmony and brother-hood should be compiled and circulated among the masses and among the students so that their tender minds develop and grow not with narrow mindedness but with a feeling a brotherhood. Ministers, both at the Centre and papers, states should not be allowed to make such statements which are based on appeasement of a religious community. If any such statement is made such a Minister should be pulled up by the Prime Minister/Chief Minister to avoid unnecessary controversy and tensions. Similarly no Minister should approach any religious leader for winning political favour from him. Vote bank psychology should be discouraged in so far as religious communities are concerned. Law enforcing agencies and personnel who fail to take prompt action to control communal riots or disturbances should be quickly punished to convince the people of the seriousness of the government. Electronic media and press should be extensively used for promoting communal harmony. Similarly mixed community housing schemes should be introduced on large scale.
If these and similar other measures are taken, it may be hoped that communalism in India will be checked. It will go a long way if the Muslims in India give up present system of mfa creative california, living in isolation and try to flow in the national main stream.
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