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Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Essays and Research Papers. BANKIM : THE ORIGINARY* FIGURE OF INDIAN NOVEL IN ENGLISH Y.V.R. Prasanna Kumar Research Scholar (M.Phil.), (Part-time), Department of a thesis, . English, S.V. Fugitive Essay? University, Tirupathi. A. Steps Paragraph? P.INDIA 517502 INTRODUCTION A great deal of Indian writing in antithesis, English is in the form of novel. In the course of an steps to writing a thesis paragraph eventful history, Indian novel in English demonstrated the convention capacity and steps a thesis paragraph, resilience for lsu resume builder, innovations and attained the status of Universal Form. The post-independence India has witnessed a Sea change of Indian. Paragraph? Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay , Character , Fiction 1807 Words | 5 Pages. Hollander A General and His Army Georgy Vladimov A Himalayan Love Story Namita Gokhale A Last Leap South Vladimir Zhirinovsky A Nation Flawed - Lesson . from Indian History P.N. Chopra A Peep into the Past Vasant Navrekar A Possible India Partha Chatterjee A Psychoanalysis of the Prophets Abdulla Kamal A Reveolutionary Life Laxmi Sehgal A Secular Agenda Arun Shourie A Simple Path Lucinda Vardey A Suitable Boy Vikram Seth A Tale of college disabilities, Two Gardens Octavio Paz A Tribute to People's Princess : Diana.

A. P. J. Abdul Kalam , Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay , India 4767 Words | 28 Pages. Indian National Congress and Pearl S. Buck. His Army | Georgy Vladimov | A Himalayan Love Story | Namita Gokhale | A Last Leap South | Vladimir Zhirinovsky | A Nation Flawed-Lesson from Indian . History | P.N. Chopra | A Peep into the Past | Vasant Navrekar | A Possible India | Partha Chatterjee | A Psychoanalysis of the Prophets | Abdulla Kamal | A Reveolutionary Life | Laxmi Sehgal | A Secular Agenda | Arun Shourie | A Simple Path | Lucinda Vardey | A Suitable Boy | Vikram Seth | A Tale of Two Gardens | Octavio Paz | A Tribute. Arthur Conan Doyle , Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay , George Bernard Shaw 7362 Words | 41 Pages. Rishi Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay (Bengali: ???????????? ????????????? Bongkim Chondro Chottopaddhae)[1] (27 June 1838 [2] – 8 . April 1894)[3] was aBengali writer, poet and steps a thesis paragraph, journalist.[4] He was the composer of India’s national song Vande Mataram, originally a Bengali and Sanskrit stotrapersonifying India as a mother goddess and inspiring the activists during the Indian Freedom Movement. Bankim Chandra wrote 13 novels and cover letter for mba marketing fresher resume, several ‘serious, serio-comic, satirical, scientific and critical treaties’.

1949 , 1956 , Bengali language 282 Words | 2 Pages. ?Critical Essay – ‘ Chandra ’ In the novel Chandra by Frances Mary Hendry, the main character Chandra faces . Steps To Writing A Thesis? difficulties and obstacles that she must overcome. As a result of all the challenges she faces, Chandra’s character grows and gains confidence. Paper? Although at first Chandra is steps, frightened about marrying Roop, she feels better after she has met him because she realises that he is college essays about, ‘modern-minded’ and will treat her with respect. He proves this by agreeing when Chandra asks him ‘Remember my. Character , English-language films , Family 472 Words | 2 Pages. intra-Congress dispute.

Thevar mobilised all south India votes for Bose. However, due to the manoeuvrings of the Gandhi-led clique in the Congress Working . A Thesis? Committee, Bose found himself forced to college about disabilities resign from the Congress presidency. The rise of Subhas Chandra Bose in to writing paragraph, the political scenario of India and his contributions to model school the freedom struggle of the country forms a sensational story. Though he was elected twice as the President of Indian National Congress, his difference with Gandhi prompted him to quit. India , Indian independence movement , Indian National Army 1013 Words | 3 Pages. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose While the Gandhi /Nehru faction of Congress has garnered much of the credit for steps a thesis paragraph, India's freedom struggle, it is . important to remember that India's freedom movement was in fact a movement of the masses and costco paper, there were a number of great leaders with fierce patriotism and to writing a thesis, great visionary ideas who sacrificed their entire lives for the nation's cause. Virginia Convention? We continue our series on the freedom fighters, on steps paragraph the occasion of research paper, Netaji's 102nd birthday. -Jyotsna Kamat January 26. British Raj , India , Indian independence movement 1471 Words | 4 Pages. Subhas Chandra Bose ( listen (help•info); January 1897 – 18 August 1945 [unconfirmed]) byname Netaji (Hindi: “Respected leader”) was an Indian . revolutionary who led an Indian national force against the British Raj (and therefore also against steps to writing the allied Western powers) during World War II. Bose was one of the essay most prominent leaders in steps to writing a thesis paragraph, the Indian independence movement and is a legendary figure in India today.

He is presumed to have died in absentia on 18 August 1945 from letter marketing fresher, injuries sustained in an. All India Congress Committee , British Raj , India 1437 Words | 4 Pages. To Writing A Thesis? Subhash Chandra Bose | Date of Birth | : | Jan 23, 1897 | Date of fugitive, Death | : | Aug 18, 1945 | Place of Birth | : | Orissa | | | . Freedom Fighters | | | Subhashh Chandra Bose (January 23, 1897 - August 18, 1945), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against a thesis the British Raj. Subhash Chandra Bose was born to an affluent family in Cuttack, Orissa. His father, Janakinath Bose, was a public prosecutor who believed in orthodox. British Raj , India , Indian independence movement 1651 Words | 5 Pages. is known to have started study circles at National College, (Lahore) in order to delve into speech virginia, India's past as well as to steps a thesis scrutinize the finer aspects of world . revolutionary literature and the Russian Revolution.

Along with Bhagat Singh, Comrade Ram Chandra and Bhagwati Charan Vohra, he started Naujawan Bharat Sabha at Lahore. Fugitive Pieces Essay? The main aims of this organisation were to to writing activate youth for college essays disabilities, freedom struggle, inculcate a rational scientific attitude, fight communalism and steps to writing paragraph, end the practice of untouchability. Batukeshwar Dutt , Bhagat Singh , Hindustan Socialist Republican Association 1339 Words | 4 Pages. century-1905 and “Bande Mataram”2 (Hail to Motherland) became the motto among the research paper nationalists. Tagore’s woman Bimala, the pivotal character of steps a thesis, this novel, . emerges as an emblem of tradition and nation during Nationalism. On the other hand, Partha Chatterjee , a cultural theorist in his “The Nationalist Resolution of the lsu resume Women’s Question” criticizes Nationalism that was futile to to writing a thesis paragraph emancipate women, though there were social reforms to resolve women’s position during ‘so-called Renaissance’ period. This. Bengali people , Hindu Mela , Indian independence movement 1842 Words | 7 Pages. 7/17/13 Subhas Chandra Bose: The Afterlife of India’s Fascist Leader | History Today Wednesday, 17 July 2013 | Login / Register Search . the archive Subhas Chandra Bose: The Afterlife of India’s Fascist Leader By Hugh Purcell (/taxonomy/term/281) | Published in History Today (/taxonomy/term/43) Volume: 60 Issue: 11 (/taxonomy/term/23086) 2010 (/taxonomy/term/14784) Tw eet 71 10 Like 851 (/PRI NT/66186) DECOLONISATION (/TAXONOMY /TERM/22516) 20TH CENTURY (/TAXONOMY. Bhagwanji , British Raj , India 3910 Words | 13 Pages. NETAJI SUBHASH CHANDRA BOSE Subhash Chandra Bose Political leader Subhas Chandra Bose also known as Netaji:, . was one of the fugitive pieces essay most prominent Indian nationalist leaders who attempted to gain India's independence from British rule by force during the steps a thesis paragraph waning years of World War II with the help of the costco research Axis powers. Born: January 23, 1897, Cuttack Died: 1945 Spouse: Emilie Schenkl (m.

1937) Education: Scottish Church College, Calcutta (1918), More Books: Alternative Leadership, More Children. Bengal , British Raj , India 278 Words | 2 Pages. Steps To Writing A Thesis? Rajasthan Public Service Commission Rajasthan State and Subordinate Services Combined Competitive Examination New Scheme of essay, Examination and Syllabus (2013) . To Writing A Thesis Paragraph? RAS Mains (New Pattern) Scheme of Examination: (a) The number of candidates to be admitted to the Main Examination will be 15 times the total approximate number of vacancies (category wise) to be filled in the year in research, the various Services and posts, but in the said range all those candidates who secure the same percentage of marks as may be. Haryana , History of to writing paragraph, India , Indian National Congress 1927 Words | 8 Pages. MATH'S PROJECT- HOME BUDGET -Vidhi chokhani Xth Roll no-05 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ? I would like to thank my Math's Sir , Vilas Wagh , for giving me such . an interesting project .i have learnt a lot about cover letter for mba resume, planning a house in this project . Steps Paragraph? I also thank my parents for their constant help and model essay school, support for me during this project. To Writing A Thesis Paragraph? CONTENTS ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? What is Budget? Types of Budget What is Personal Budget? Tools used for creating a personal budget Following a Budget Home.

Budget , Budget constraint , Budgets 1685 Words | 7 Pages. The Prodigy of India-Subhash Chandra Bose! Subhash Chandra Bose is model essay middle school, one of the a thesis most dynamic leaders of India's struggle of lsu resume builder, . independence. affectionately known as Netaji, he was one of the most prominent Indian nationalist leaders who attempted to gain India's independence from British rule by force during the waning years of a thesis, World War II . Hence, on his birthday centenary, and in the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the essays about disabilities independence of India, it is appropriate to paragraph pay our tribute to antithesis speech virginia this glorious. To Writing A Thesis? Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind , British Raj , India 683 Words | 2 Pages. Subhash Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897 at Cuttack, in builder, Orissa. He was the sixth son of Janakinath and Prabhavati Bose.

Subhash was . an excellent student and after school joined the steps a thesis paragraph Presidency College, Calcutta, where he studied philosophy, a subject he was interest in. As a young boy Subhash felt neglected among his 8 siblings. At his English school he suffered under the discrimination faced by model school Indians which made him even sadder. He wanted to work for the poor but his father, had other. Andaman Islands , Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind , Azad Hind 532 Words | 2 Pages. Subhas Chandra Bose From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Unbalanced scales.svg This article may be unbalanced . towards certain viewpoints. Please improve the article by paragraph adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the pieces essay issue on the talk page. (March 2012) This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about steps to writing a thesis, living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed.

Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind , British Raj , India 6202 Words | 18 Pages. Subhas Chandra Bose (Bengali: ????? ?????? ???, Shubhash Chondro Boshu) was an Indian revolutionary who led an Indian national political and . Antithesis Speech? military force against Britain and the Western powers during World War II. Popularly known as Netaji (literally Respected Leader), Bose was one of the most prominent leaders in the Indian independence movement and is a legendary figure in India today. Steps A Thesis? Bose was born on 23 January 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa to lsu resume Janakinath Bose and Prabhabati Debi, and is presumed. British Raj , India , Indian independence movement 5001 Words | 10 Pages. Zee Tv Entrepreneur Subhash Chandra. The Real Entrepreneur: Subhash Chandra Subhash Chandra is the steps to writing a thesis founder of Zee TV, India's first private TV channel. India's . leading media mogul Subhash Chandra was a one-time rice trader in Haryana and fugitive pieces, is credited with launching India's satellite television revolution. His other business interests include packaging, theme parks, lotteries and cinema-multiplexes. A Thesis Paragraph? He also makes no bones about his background, preferring to speak Hindi than English and paper, smoking 'bidis.' The founder Chairman of Essel. Essel Group , Satellite television , Television 4865 Words | 16 Pages.

REVOLUTIONARY CHANDRA SHEKHAR AZAD. REVOLUTIONARY CHANDRA SHEKHAR AZAD We all know Chandrashekhar Azad. Azad was born on 23rd July, 1906, in the village, Bhavra, in Jhabua . Steps To Writing? district of Madhya Pradesh. Essays About Learning? His father was Pandit Sitarm Tiwari and his mother was Smt. Paragraph? Jagrani Devi. The financial conditions of his father were not so good, and research paper, hence Azad spent his days more or less without any restraints, or duties and passed his days happily in childhood plays and pranks. He found pleasure in putting gun-powder in his toys and to writing a thesis, then. Chandrasekhar Azad , English-language films , Hindustan Socialist Republican Association 494 Words | 2 Pages. Subhas Chandra Bose (About this sound listen (help·info); 23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945 (aged 48)[1]) was an Indian nationalist whose . defiant patriotism made him a hero in pieces, India, but whose attempt during World War II to to writing a thesis paragraph rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Japan left a troubled legacy.[4][5][6] The honorific Netaji (Hindustani language: Respected Leader), first applied to Bose in Germany, by the Indian soldiers of the Indische Legion and by the German and Indian officials.

British Raj , India , Indian Army 675 Words | 2 Pages. novels does owe a lot to Bengali literature and convention, the sheer brilliant and dazzling writers that had come up during pre-Independent India, in a thesis paragraph, the middle 19th to . late 20th centuries. The likes of Rabindranath Tagore, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Bankin Chandra Chattopadhay, Sarat Chandra Chattopadhay, Tarashankar Bandopadhyay, Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay, Manik Bandopadhyay, Bimal Mitra and a little later, Satyajit Ray, have forever been included in the elite list of Bengali novel writers, superlatively. Essay School? Bengal , British Empire , British Raj 1202 Words | 4 Pages. while transforming it into a celluloid. With the inception of steps a thesis, Cinema, Literature has attracted all the costco research paper creative film makers, pioneers in steps a thesis, the world of pieces, cinema . such as Pramathesh Barua, Debaki Basu have based their films on the eminent works of Sarat Chatterjee , Tarashankar Bandhopadhyay and others. Satyajit Ray’s “Pather Panchali” was the first which brought International Acclaim, was wholly based on the great work of literature of Bibhuti Bhusan Bandhopadhayay, Other than his Imaginative Creation Of. Art , Drama , Fiction 1783 Words | 5 Pages. Subhas Chandra Bose and India's Struggle for Independence. Steps Paragraph? Subhas Chandra Bose and India's Struggle for Independence By Andrew Montgomery When one thinks of the model school Indian independence movement in the . 1930s and early 1940s, two figures most readily come to mind: Mahatma Gandhi, the immensely popular and saintly frail pacifist, and his highly respected, Fabian Socialist acolyte, Jawaharlal Nehru.

Less familiar to Westerners is Subhas Chandra Bose, a man of com parable stature who admired Gandhi but despaired at his aims and methods, and who became. British Raj , Fascism , India 12526 Words | 38 Pages. To Writing A Thesis? Life and Work of Subhas Chandra Bose. Orissa. He headed a large extended family, in which, Subhas was to later recall in his autobiography An Indian Pilgrim, he felt like a thoroughly . insignificant being. My parents awed me to a degree. It is now 111 years since the birth of cover fresher, Subhas Chandra Bose, and steps a thesis paragraph, sixty-three years since his last known journey out of South East Asia, reportedly to the Soviet Union, in mid-August 1945. On 23 January every year Subhas' birth anniversary is model middle school, celebrated across India.

Speeches extolling Bose's charisma. British Raj , India , Indian independence movement 14049 Words | 35 Pages. A Thesis Paragraph? Role of Press in Indian Freedom Struggle. Hindi Patriot! Established in 1853, by the author and playwright, Grish Chandra Ghosh, it became popular under the editorship of Harish . Chandra Mukherjee. In 1861, the costco research paper published a play, Neel Darpan and launched a movement against the British, urging the a thesis paragraph people to stop cultivating the essays about Indigo crop for steps to writing paragraph, the white traders. This resulted in model, the formation of paragraph, a Neel Commission. Later, the paper was taken over by Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar. The paper strongly opposed the builder Government's excesses and. To Writing? Bipin Chandra Pal , India , India House 1815 Words | 6 Pages. only one viceroy for lsu resume, its adminstration.

16th oct 1905 -anti partition act -wana bhana day -raksbandhan dat -black day (sad day) -morning day . PROGRAMMES - Protest meeting -songs of a thesis paragraph, rabindranath tagore(amar sona bangla) - slogans by bankim chandra chaterji ( vande mataram ) -picketing of shops(curfew) -- 4point programe a.swadeshi and boycott b.national education c.massmovement d.swaraj LEADERS IN SUPPORT OF ANTI PARTION MOVEMENT -Bal gangadher tilak(maharastra) -SURENDRA NATH. Bangladesh , Bengal , Kolkata 498 Words | 3 Pages. Literature Is a Mirror of Society. comparatively more imaginary and less real. A few of the stories and novels deal exclusively with historical themes, and cover fresher resume, such works are essentially realistic . and serve as the correct picture of to writing a thesis, society. The novels of research, Scott., Galsworthy, Bankim Chandra , Sarat Chandra , Prem Chand, Chekov, Turginev, Maupassant are of this type. Most of the steps a thesis paragraph modern stories and novels of essay, Russia and India are realistic and steps to writing a thesis, they do reflect the society of the times of their countries. the stories and novels of America or France. Drama , Epic poetry , Existence 933 Words | 3 Pages. ne’er-do-well brother Umapada and college about disabilities, his wife, Mandakini, to stay, offering Umapada employment as manager of the Sentinel’s finances. Manda, a featherheaded . chatterbox, proves poor company for her sister-in-law.

Then Bhupati’s young cousin Amal (Soumitra Chatterjee ) unexpectedly arrives for a visit. Lively, enthusiastic, cultured, an aspiring writer, he establishes an immediate rapport with Charu that on both sides drifts insensibly toward love. “Calm Without, Fire Within,” the title of Ray’s essay on the. Aparajito , Bengali literature , Bengali people 2678 Words | 8 Pages. Evaluation of Ethylene Fractionator Performance in Cold Section Unit of Ethylene Plant PT Chandra Asri Petrochemical Tbk. Fractionator Unit Cold Section di Ethylene Plant PT. Chandra Asri Petrochemical Tbk. Evaluation of Ethylene Fractionator Performance in Cold . Section Unit of Ethylene Plant PT Chandra Asri Petrochemical Tbk. A Thesis? Oleh : Diny Gustini - 091411007 Neli Ulpah Antika - 091411021 Dibuat : 2013-09-27, dengan 4 file ABSTRACK Proses pemisahan ethyleneA–ethane yang terjadi di ethylene fractionator merupakan salah satu proses penting di ethylene plant PT Chandra Asri petrochemical Tbk. Mengingat pentingnya fungsi.

Distillation , Ethanol , Ethylene 434 Words | 1 Pages. Vindhya-Himachal- Yamuna- Ganga Uchhala-jaladhi-taranga. Tava shubha name jage, Tava shubha asisa manage, Gahe tava jaya gatha, Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka, . jaya he Bharat bhagya vidhata. Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he, jaya jaya jaya jaya he ! National Song: Bankim Chandra Chatterjee's 'Vande Matram', which was a great source of inspiration to research paper the people in their struggle for freedom. It was first sung at 1896 Session of the Indian National Congress. Vande Mataram Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja shitalam, Sashya shyamalam. Delhi , Devanagari , Hindi 738 Words | 3 Pages. causes of the growth of indian nationalism.

Vernacular Literature: The Indian Press and vernacular literature aroused national consciousness among the people. The Bengal tribune Indian Mirror and steps a thesis, the . Keshan played the model school important role in arousing national feeling among the people. Anandamath of Bankim Chandra became the Bible of Bengali nationalism. Racial Discrimination: The English followed the policy of racial discrimination. All highposts were monopolised by the European. Steps To Writing A Thesis Paragraph? Lord Lytton passed the Vernacular Press Act and suppressed the speech liberty.

British Raj , Hindi , History of India 700 Words | 2 Pages. Indian literature in the context of changing political and social identities. Number of lectures: 45 Topics 1. Steps To Writing? Introduction (3 lectures) The historical . context – 19th century writings, a discussion of Macaulay’s Minute on Education, Derozio, Bankim Chandra , Krupa Sattianadan 2. Nationalism, the freedom movement, the Gandhian influence (5 lectures) Selected Readings from: Tagore, Sri Aurobindo, Raja Rao, Mulk Raj Anand, R.K.Narayan 3. Fresher? Partition Selected Readings from: Manto, Bhisham Sahni, Khushwant. Communication , Communication studies , English studies 742 Words | 4 Pages. Reformists like Ram Mohan Roy used English language as an steps to writing a thesis paragraph instrument to liberate the society from the clutches of medievalism. On the fugitive pieces essay other hand European . literary genres and ideas have been assimilated in to writing a thesis paragraph, Indian literature.

For example, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee started his literary career in English. His first novel is antithesis virginia, ‘Rajmohan’s Wife’. The novel itself is a British phenomenon. It presents an amalgam of Indian folk tale and steps a thesis paragraph, the English novel. New steps have been taken in builder, this period in the field. British Empire , Colonialism , England 2119 Words | 7 Pages. famous poets of the steps to writing a thesis paragraph period. The era of modern Bengali Literature began in the late nineteenth century Rabindranath Tagore, the Nobel Laureate is a vital part . of Bangalee culture.

Kazi Nazrul Islam, Michael Madhusudan Datta. Sarat Chandra Chattopadhaya, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhaya, Mir Mosharraf Hossain and convention, Kazi Ahdul Wadud are the pioneers of modern Bengali Literature. 2.3 Music: The traditional music in paragraph, Bangladesh shares the perspectives of that of the Indian sub-continent. Lsu Resume? Music in Bangladesh. Bangladesh , Bengal , Bengali language 1389 Words | 6 Pages. Development of the Indian English Novel. in this language.

The writings of people like Raja Ram Mohun Roy, Swami Vivekananda, Mahatma Gandhi and others started pouring in to writing paragraph, and gave rise to a . Costco Paper? body of prose literature having great socio-cultural relevance. To Writing A Thesis Paragraph? Soon poets like Romesh Chandra Dutt, Toru Dutt and many others took to writing poetry in English. But this literature was highly influenced by the style and lsu resume, content of English literature. When Sarojini Naidiu wrote poetry while in England and showed it to a thesis Sir Edmund Gosse. Daniel Defoe , Fiction , First novel in disabilities, English 1495 Words | 5 Pages. life-span is four-hundred years. In the countryside, assemblage for market, meeting, musical orchestra, drama, etc. Steps To Writing Paragraph? takes place beneath their shadow. Essays Learning Disabilities? You . will find their reference in the classics of prolific story-tellers Bankim Chandra , Tarashankar, Prabhatkumar, Sarat Chandra and the like.

I belong to steps to writing paragraph town category. Before I narrate my bringing up, let me add a few words on our life struggle. We live in small town or suburban. Our births generally take place in disputed places. It may be due. Banyan 958 Words | 3 Pages. Fugitive Pieces? Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar CIE (Bengali: ????? ?????? ?????????? Ishshor Chondro Biddashagor 26 September 1820 – 29 July 1891), born Ishwar . Steps To Writing A Thesis? Chandra Bandopadhyaya (Bengali: ????? ?????? ???????????????, Ishshor Chondro Bondopaddhae), was an Indian Bengali polymath and a key figure of the Bengal Renaissance.[1][2] Vidyasagar was a philosopher, academic, educator, writer, translator, printer, publisher, entrepreneur, reformer, and philanthropist.

His efforts to simplify and lsu resume builder, modernize Bangla prose. Bengali literature , Bengali people , Bengali renaissance 2326 Words | 8 Pages. He set up the Social Conference movement, which worked against infant marriages, widows remarriage, spending heavily in marriages and other social functions. . Ranade advocated for widow remarriage and female education. 10. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was a grat poet and novelist. In his famous book Kamala Kanter Daffer pointed out the social evils and blind beliefs prevalent in to writing a thesis, Indian Soiety, which were pertaining to cover letter for mba marketing resume injustice to the poor and the downtrodden. He advocated.

Brahmo Samaj , Hinduism , India 4735 Words | 14 Pages. Steps A Thesis? 30 Premchand Sewasadan (The Abode of Service), Sewasadan deals mainly with the marketing resume poor condition of women in a thesis paragraph, society. 31 Rajanikanta Bardoloi Manomati . First major historical novel in Assam Burmese invasion 32 Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay Durgeshnandini 33 Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay Most popular novelist in middle school, Bengal 34 Ramashankar Ray Saudamani. First Oriya novel 35 Gulavadi Venkata Rao Indirabai, Kannada novel 36 R. Krishnamurthy (penname ‘Kalki’. ) Ponniyin Selvan. Charles Dickens , Daniel Defoe , Don Quixote 738 Words | 8 Pages. My self Aditya kumar chandra and ibelongs to tajpura. My self Aditya kumar chandra and ibelongs to tajpura. To Writing Paragraph? I teach in a primary . school nowdays. I wasveryintersted in it and essays learning, now also.And i hope that i shouldbe a good teacher in future . because from starting my student life its my vision to steps to writing paragraph becomea goodteacher in mylife. school nowdays. I wasveryintersted in it and.

Education , Gymnasium , Junior school 1710 Words | 6 Pages. took to pen, Indian life was seething with unrest. Punjab was the cover letter marketing resume very vortex of nationalistic activities. It was in that province that the Jallianwala Bagh . massacre was perpetrated and Anand was just eleven at that time. With Anand, as with Bankim Chandra before him, political action took the form of writing novels. What made him take this course is written, somewhat voluminously, in to writing a thesis, the autobiographical novel Morning Face. Anand was also associated with the Progressive Writer’s movement in India. Fiction , Leo Tolstoy , Literature 431 Words | 2 Pages.

Chitra Banerjee - New Woman Fiction Writer. histories and personal reflections. Later writers like Michael Madusudhan Dutt, Dutt family and toru dutt, Behramji Malahari and essay, Govardhan Tripati joined the . Brigade. Indian English Fiction marked its beginning with short stories collection of Soshee Chandra Dutt and historical novel “Sanjogita” by K.K. Sinha. Tagore with his sanity, Mahatma Gandhi with his ethics of truth and nonviolence, Sri Aurobindo with doctrine of spiritual evolution of man, Mulk raj Anand with his hope of a brilliant present, R. Steps To Writing? Fiction , Indian English literature , Indian novelists 580 Words | 2 Pages. schools as a medium of learning with vernaculars. Michael Madhusudan Dutt and Bankim Chandra Chatterjee were two . prominent writers of that time who started to write in English. Dutt wrote epic verse in English while Chatterjee wrote his debut novel Rajmohan’s Wife.The novel was started in serialized form in letter for mba resume, a magazine from steps a thesis paragraph, 1864 but did not appear as a book until 1935. Pieces Essay? It is interesting to steps a thesis paragraph note that neither Dutt nor Chatterjee returned back to English writing again and they established themselves as prominent.

English language , India , Indian English literature 3343 Words | 10 Pages. Important Facts of Indian History. Sati system. ? After the death of Raja Ram Mohan Roy on 20 August, 1833, Devendara Nath Tagore assumed the leadership of the Brahmo Samaj. ? Aadi Brahmo . Samaj was established by Devendra Nath Thakur. ? Bhartiya Brahmo Samaj was founded by Keshav Chandra Sen. ? The principles of college about disabilities, Brahmo Samaj helped immensely in the birth and Spread Indian nationalism. ? Raja Ram Mohan Roy established Vedant College, English School and Hindu College at steps to writing paragraph, Calcutta. ? Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the advocate of college essays about, English Education. Bengal , British Raj , Delhi 3674 Words | 10 Pages. Steps To Writing A Thesis Paragraph? year 1842, she got married to the Maharaja of Jhansi, Raja Gangadhar Rao Niwalkar. Subhash Chandra Bose • Subhash . Chandra Bose, affectionately called as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of Indian freedom struggle. Costco? • Subhash Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897 in a thesis paragraph, Cuttack, Orissa. • Subhash Chandra Bose was the ninth child among fourteen siblings. • Subhash Chandra Bose was a brilliant student right from the childhood. • He founded Indian National Congress. Costco Paper? Bal Gangadhar Tilak , India , Indian independence activists 678 Words | 3 Pages. * Download With DAP * DAP Link Checker Settings Our Persons Subhash Chandra Bose Born: January 23, 1897 Died: August 18, 1945 Born . at : Cuttack, Orissa. Studies : Passed Indian Civil Services Exam; elected Congress President in 1938 and steps to writing a thesis paragraph, 1939. Most famous line of Netaji : “Tum mujhe khoon do main tumhe azadi dunga”.

Subhash Chandra Bose was also known as Netaji. He was born on 23 january 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa. His father was Janki Nath Bose and cover letter marketing fresher resume, his mother was Prabhavati devi. His. Bhagat Singh , Bharatiya Janata Party , British Raj 580 Words | 3 Pages. about the steps a thesis same age.

But perhaps because the mothers’ instinct comes early to women, kadambari filled for Tagore the void left by the death of his mother. . To this young brother-in-law of her own age, she had extended great affection and love. College Learning Disabilities? ( Chatterjee OL) More deaths occurred in his family which led to more changes in his outlook towards poetry: “The inner change in Tagore came through the experiences of the steps death of costco research paper, his wife, a son and to writing, a daughter. At this time he wrote the Bengali poems. Bengali literature , Bengali people , Debendranath Tagore 10670 Words | 26 Pages. in costco, his gush of anger entered the office of Mr. Mithun Chatterjee , General Manager (Marketing) and began to discuss: Mr. Mashroo: Why I have . not been promoted, Sir? Since last year you are assuring me to continue working hard and to writing a thesis, that I would be promoted this year. Antithesis Speech Virginia Convention? This year too, you have not promoted me. What is the matter? (Mr. Steps To Writing Paragraph? Chatterjee felt insulted at fugitive pieces essay, Mr. Mashroo's behaviour as some guests were waiting outside his cabin.) Mr. Chatterjee : First take your seat and to writing, cool down.

I am indeed surprised. Cyrillic alphabet , The Promotion , Trigraph 1216 Words | 4 Pages. Costs and costco, Relevant Price Elasticity. Business Economics Case Number 6 Topic : Elasticity of Demand Objective: a) To apply the concept of elasticity of demand b) To correlate elasticity . To Writing Paragraph? with decision making Part -I President Mr. Chatterjee of Indian Institute of Business Economics (IIBE), India is concerned about the pieces essay financial state of to writing paragraph, his institution.

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richard ii essay This study guide is intended for students taking exams at GCE Advanced (A2) and Advanced Supplementary (AS) level in the UK, but is suitable for university students and the general reader who is interested in Shakespeare's plays. Please use the steps to writing hyperlinks in the table above to navigate this page. If you have any comments or suggestions to lsu resume make about this page, please contact me by steps paragraph clicking on this link. This guide is written to support your study of Richard II . The guide indicates the terms in fugitive pieces essay, which examiners will expect you to understand the play. It should be used in a thesis, conjunction with study of Richard II in performance, as far as possible, and of the text in one or more editions designed for study at your level. What other resources should you use? This depends on your own aptitude and readiness for study.

But any serious Advanced level student should expect to use at model least some of the following: Editions of the play: The most authoritative version is the Arden edition. Most students will find this challenging, although the introduction is well worth reading. The New Cambridge edition is good (but uses archaic spelling of names) while sound editions are published by steps to writing a thesis Penguin and Macmillan. For critical writing about the play, you should use the Casebook anthology (Ed. Nicholas Brooke, Macmillan, 1973): read the paper introduction, and study essays selectively, but those by E. H. Steps To Writing A Thesis? Kantorowicz and A. P. Rossiter are strongly recommended. The introductions to costco paper the Cambridge and to writing Macmillan texts are recommended, especially Cambridge edn. pp. 16-43 ( Structure, Imagery, Language and Staging ) and Macmillan pp. 4-14 ( When degree is shak'd - the political background ) and pp. 23-37 ( People and pattern in Richard II ). At a more basic level the builder guides from Brodie's Notes (Pan, 1985) and York Notes (Longman) may help you.

For general background information about Shakespeare, Ms. Marchette Chute's Shakespeare and his Stage (University of London, 1953) is hard to beat. Literature reference: Useful handbooks for the general study of English literature include The Cambridge Guide to English Literature and The Oxford Guide to English Literature , J. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms (Penguin, 1982) and Richard Gill's Mastering English Literature (Macmillan, 1985). Use these books effectively: do not try to read them for extended periods like a story (unless you have unusual intellectual powers!) Study for short periods, then write down simple statements of what you want to remember, or questions to raise in class discussion. Other people's study guides (like this one) are never as effective as your own. A Thesis Paragraph? You may wish to use any or all of the following ways of owning your study of this play: Customize books/guides with pencil markings, icons, inserts or highlighting. If you have access to suitable computer software, ask for copies of files, and fugitive pieces essay adapt them for to writing a thesis your learning. Make audio tapes of parts of the play and fugitive pieces your comments on them, as well as recording spoken essays. Put essential information/quotation on Post-It notes, and display these where you will see them frequently. Richard II is the first play in a series of four (the others are Henry IV, Parts i and ii and Henry V ), the second such series which Shakespeare wrote (the first - perhaps his very first work - was the three parts of Henry VI, followed by Richard III ). In these Shakespeare examines questions of politics (especially kingship, authority and order) which we meet in others of his plays.

Here, however, these issues are considered in relation to real events as known to paragraph the writer or his public. At this point, it makes sense to consider whether Shakespeare is a truthful or inaccurate historian, and what a history play is. If you don't know, find out! As a term to describe a category (kind) of play, tragedy (which means goat song in pieces essay, classical Greek!) originates in Athens in ancient times. Aristotle (a philosopher and scientist, but no playwright) describes rules or principles for steps a thesis paragraph the drama which tragedians should follow. These rules have proved helpful as a working description, but should not be seen as absolute: Shakespeare, in practice, ignores them more or less. Comedy is a term applied to the humorous plays of Greek (e.g. Aristophanes) and later Roman (e.g. Terence) dramatists.

For Shakespeare, a comedy is a play with a happy ending - it may or may not be comical in the modern sense of being humorous. In trying to fugitive arrange Shakespeare's work into categories (as for publication in book form) editors have produced a third category, of histories . More recently critics have noted that Shakespeare's latest plays do not fit any of these categories easily. Thus we have problem plays (or tragi-comedies) in Measure for Measure and All's Well that Ends Well and pastoral plays or romances in steps, Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest . You should know that these labels were not consistently or even commonly applied in antithesis speech virginia convention, Shakespeare's time. Plays classed as tragedies (such as Macbeth ) may have a clearly historical subject. Many of our #147;histories#148; were advertised as tragedies at the time of their performance. This has led to to writing pointless arguments, as to whether Shakespeare wrote Richard II or Richard III as history or tragedy: the dispute implies a distinction which may not have existed for the writer. For the modern student it does, however, pose a question which is worthy of consideration: how historical subjects may allow the playwright to develop tragic themes. When our play appeared in print the disabilities title page read: The Tragedie of King Richard the Second.

The modern student has better access to detailed and accurate accounts of the events depicted in the history plays than Shakespeare did. We do know, however, that he had a good outline knowledge of the history, and that at points he referred to known sources which are extant (that is, still available to steps to writing us). Most school editions of the plays will list these. Research? It is clear that in places, Shakespeare will change details to suit his needs as a dramatist. There is a good example of this in Richard II and the Henry IV plays: as he wishes to present Prince Hal (later Henry V) and Henry Hotspur Percy as rivals for power in the realm, Shakespeare depicts them as of the same age; in fact, Percy was a contemporary of Henry IV, old enough to be Hal's father.

In these same plays, we meet a character called Mortimer (after Richard's death, Henry IV's rival claimant to the throne): two (related) historical Mortimers have been conflated (made into one) to suit the purposes of the drama. There is a genuine question for scholars in how far the to writing change was knowingly made, but it seems Shakespeare will not let the facts get in school, the way of a good story! The dramatic form enables Shakespeare to present characters who voice all kinds of opinions, from which we may, if we wish, attempt to infer the playwright's own view. Such inference is at steps best tentative: it may lead to a muddled attempt to understand the plays in terms of a modern political outlook. Antithesis Virginia? Thus, individualists like Richard II or Hotspur (Harry Percy) are seen as dashing and romantic (in 19th or 20th century terms) while the pragmatic Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV) is seen as devious and dishonest: almost certainly these are judgements which would not have occurred to Shakespeare or his audience. Shakespeare writes at a time when a period of peace at home has created the very conditions in England which have allowed the professional theatre to emerge and flourish, but where this peace is threatened by the ageing queen Elizabeth's lack of an heir. A Thesis? There is no doubt that his plays (history, comedy and tragedy) all reflect a horror of anarchy and cover letter marketing fresher resume a preoccupation with finding a balance between toleration of harmless pleasure and restraint of harmful lawlessness. In order to explore these themes, Shakespeare locates his stories in steps to writing a thesis, other (real or imagined) times and pieces essay places.

In referring to his own times (as at the end of Richard III and the very late history Henry VIII ) he is careful to praise the Tudors generally and Elizabeth particularly, as he also does by implication in A Midsummer Night's Dream in the figure of the childless Titania. In the second history cycle, beginning with Richard II , Shakespeare considers the steps king's divine (God-given) right to rule. Though given by God, this right may be forfeited by antithesis speech the king's failure to exercise it (this is Richard's fault). Technically, Henry is neither usurper nor rebel, because Richard freely abdicates. While he lives, however, Richard will always be a figurehead for new rebellions of the discontented.

Henry, seeing this, reluctantly gives the hint which leads to Richard's murder. This is the murder of a man only (he is no longer king) yet the murderer receives not thanks but banishment from the kingdom, on pain of death: Henry's genuine grief at Richard's killing is steps to writing something most modern audiences find difficult. In the two parts of Henry IV , we see how Henry, though his claim to the throne is weaker (on paper) than that of builder his rival, Mortimer, proves his right to rule by uniting the country, resisting many attempted revolts and providing a model heir, in his son, Hal. Feeling guilty for to writing Richard's death, Henry intends to launch a crusade, but never finds a safe time. He wrongly thinks Hal to be a delinquent and, even more wrongly, admires Hotspur, the pieces son of his friend-turned-enemy, Northumberland. When Hal becomes king, he has no blood on his hands, and the intended religious crusade becomes more a national expedition of conquest.

Henry V is a celebration of Hal's almost legendary exploits in France, culminating in the great reversal of the odds at Agincourt. In this play, Shakespeare shows a great interest in dramatic rhetoric and in symmetry or balance . For the audience (then as much as now) it has two potential weaknesses: these are the lack of comic interludes, and paragraph the lack of action. Lsu Resume Builder? Of the second of these, since there is action of to writing paragraph a kind, but much of it ritualized, ceremonial or in formal gesture , more must be said later. The plot of the college learning play in outline is that of the contrasting fortunes of the principals: King Richard , at a thesis the height of his powers, banishes Henry Bolingbroke (Bullingbrook, in early editions) Earl of Derby and Duke of Hereford, and heir to the estate of John of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster. Henry is model essay middle school banished as a result of steps to writing a thesis Richard's treachery: his (and Richard's) uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, has been killed by Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, almost certainly on Richard's orders. Bolingbroke accuses Mowbray of treason, a charge he denies, but which is to be proved or refuted in a tournament. Richard sets the time (St. Lambert's Day) and place (Coventry) for builder the tournament. He presides over it but halts it at the last moment: if Bolingbroke wins, Richard's guilt will emerge; if Mowbray wins, he will have the king at a disadvantage. So Richard banishes both, but remits the a thesis sentence to antithesis virginia convention a shorter time in Henry's case. On the death of Gaunt, Richard seizes his estates to fund a military expedition to Ireland.

Powerful lords, notably the Northumberland Percy family and other northern lords, observing Richard's mismanagement of the country and his unjust dealing, encourage Henry to steps paragraph return in Richard's absence (in Ireland). The forces Richard has left to guard against such an event either melt away or join Henry, who justifies returning before his sentence is complete by a technicality: he was banished as Hereford; he returns as Lancaster. Richard's actions have been influenced by his favourites, three of whom Henry executes. Model Middle School? On his return, Richard virtually surrenders to Henry. While Henry is reluctant to assume the office of king, Northumberland pushes him to exploit his power and popularity, and Richard is all too ready to abdicate.

Once he has given up his throne, Richard, imprisoned in Pomfret (Pontefract) castle becomes a problem which Henry can only solve by murder, though he wishes to have no part in it. The play ends with an anticipation of Henry's worries about his son, Hal, who has acquired a reputation for foolish and degenerate behaviour. Although he shows us how Henry gains and steps Richard loses power, Shakespeare is careful not to costco research express a single judgement on the (real) events he depicts. Rather, a range of viewpoints can be found, of which more must be said later. Shakespeare wrote plays to to writing a thesis be seen in a complete performance which would (for Richard II ) last about two hours. The play would be performed by daylight (between about two and four o'clock) in the purpose-built open air theatres, or with artificial light (lanterns and candles) in private houses of wealthy patrons. The plays were not written to be read or studied and copies of the cover marketing fresher resume text were originally made (hand-written) for the use of the performers. It is important to steps a thesis bear this in mind when you are required to study the play as a text (with extensive editorial comment) on cover letter for mba marketing fresher, which you will be examined. Shakespeare's company was the most successful of steps paragraph its day, and his plays filled the theatres.

Many (most?) of the audience in a public performance would lack education and be technically illiterate, but these were people for whom the spoken word was of greater value than is the case today: they would be more attentive, more sensitive to patterns of verse and cover letter marketing resume rhyme, and to imagery (word pictures). Shakespeare's scenes represent changes in time or place, but not of scenery, which would be minimal or non-existent. Basic stage furniture would serve a variety of steps paragraph purposes, but stage properties and costume would be more elaborate and suggestive. A range of gestures and movements with conventional connotations of cover letter marketing resume meaning was used, but we are not sure today how these were performed. In order to understand a play, we have to work harder than did the Elizabethan audience.

To see a play entire (in the theatre or on paragraph, film), without interruption save for the interval, may be needed for us to appreciate Shakespeare's strong sense of narrative drive, and to see how the text is not the work but a (loose) blueprint for performance . On the other hand, study of text and editors' notes may be necessary for us to appreciate some of the antithesis virginia attitudes the contemporary audience brought into the theatre. Steps To Writing? Such notes may explain images and costco research paper highlight patterns or structures which otherwise we might not hear, or explain semantic change (changes of meaning) in words or phrases used by the playwright to convey important ideas to his audience. The instant pleasure of a thesis experiencing a work of art (say a feature film or soap-opera or first-person novel) which uses conventions and a range of cultural references which we at once understand is unlikely ever to be found by us in antithesis speech virginia convention, watching Shakespeare in performance. What is amazing is that so much is still accessible, and that by adapting the delivery of lines, and giving some visual clues, performers can make the plays work today. The division of to writing a thesis plays into five acts is more apparent to the dramatist (to whom it gives an idea of how the play's narrative structure will appear in performance) than to the audience (though modern audiences often know act and scene numbers). For the student, the numbering of acts and scenes is of enormous importance in identifying a given point in the narrative.

When quoting a passage, always give act and scene number, while line numbers are helpful, too. When you begin revision, make a mental map of the play, so you know what occurs in each scene. College About Learning Disabilities? List the scenes down the page. After the scene number write no more than ten words about steps to writing a thesis paragraph what happens. Follow this with a phrase from a notable speech. e.g. I, iii: The tournament - halted; the disputants banished: . such is the breath of for mba kings (line 214) II, i: Death of Gaunt - Richard seizes his estates: This royal throne of kings. (line 40) IV, i: The deposition scene: Are you contented to resign the crown? (line 199) These are only suggestions.

Choose a speech which is a clue to you. For an outline which you can adapt or customize, click here. The structure of the play in acts. This is to writing a thesis paragraph not rigid or mechanical, but there is a fairly simple scheme one can see, whereby Richard's fortunes decline as Bolingbroke's go up (he gains ascendancy). But the play ends with hints of trouble to come for the new ruler. You also should be aware of the relationship between public/ceremonial and private/intimate scenes or episodes.

Finally it is worth making a plan of each act, identifying episodes/speeches in which the principal themes are presented. None of this is a guarantee of success in essays learning disabilities, an exam. It is essential preparation, to steps give you the material you need to succeed. General comment on each act of the play. This act establishes a pattern which Shakespeare more or less sustains for college about learning disabilities the whole play, of to writing a thesis alternating scenes of a public or formal character with private, informal or intimate scenes. This is important in establishing a sense of the characters we meet as occupying a public rôle or office and cover for mba resume of the private person behind the public face.

This will be an important idea in steps to writing a thesis, this play, as in lsu resume, the subsequent Henry plays. The ceremonial of the opening at steps a thesis paragraph Richard's court and the third scene (the aborted tournament at Coventry) alternates with two intimate scenes: in paper, the second scene we see Gloucester's widow unable to move the patient Gaunt to vengeance, while the last scene of the act shows the steps a thesis cynicism of Richard in private with his flatterers. This marks another contrast: in private, Gaunt speaks with exemplary honour and complete integrity, but Richard's private conversation reveals his public ostentation to be showy and insincere - he emerges as a cynical opportunist, ready to disregard the law to offset his financial imprudence and wishing the valiant Gaunt into an early grave. Lsu Resume Builder? For the contemporary audience this last would be the most offensive of his errors: to the Elizabethans, Gaunt, like his grandson, Henry V, is a national hero, of legendary stature - it is almost as if we have seen Richard planning to deface a public monument. A lot of the characters in the play have several names or titles: while this helps speakers avoid repetition it can confuse the modern audience.

Make sure you know who's who. If not, ask a teacher! Bolingbroke's quarrel appears to us to be as much a quarrel with Richard as with Mowbray. Explain, as far as possible, why his challenge is directed exclusively at Mowbray, but not at the king. Can we see more than one reason for Richard to a thesis paragraph wish to reconcile the two men? Please note that when Richard says we he speaks of himself (a man) and of his majesty (a metaphysical expression of his kingly office, derived from God). Can you explain the nature of Gaunt's refusal of the Duchess's plea? Why should Shakespeare show us this private conversation at this point? This is the key scene in the act. Note the extreme formality of the language, determined by rules of chivalry, and the number of people on antithesis speech virginia, stage, as well as the ceremonial garments and to writing paragraph weapons which would appear in such a tournament. All of this is required by the tournament which is to take place: the courtesy of the language conceals the enmity of the disputants.

What is the about effect on all this display (of rhetoric, clothing, weapons and action ) of the steps paragraph king's halting of the tournament? Later on, you may wish to consider whether this action, taken to safeguard his position in the short term, is an error from which Richard cannot recover. Here we see Richard with his supporters, three of whom, Bushy, Bagot (who does not speak) and Green, appear for the first time. Can you think why they do not appear in Act I, scene iii? What do Richard's various remarks about Bolingbroke tell us? In the school first scene of this act, Richard spurns the advice of the steps paragraph dying Gaunt, and seizes Gaunt's estates to fund his wars in lsu resume builder, Ireland. Bolingbroke's supporters speak of a plan for the exile to steps a thesis paragraph return in Richard's absence, and cover for mba the next scene brings news, as Richard's flatterers try to comfort the steps a thesis queen, of Henry's return and the enormous support he has received. In the third scene we see this support as Bolingbroke and his allies come to Berkeley in Gloucestershire, where they are confronted by college about disabilities the Duke of York, who has been appointed lord governor in Richard's absence: he rebukes Bolingbroke but is placated by his statement of his limited ambition.

In contrast, the final (brief) scene shows how the forces left by Richard to steps defend the country have dispersed and gone home. This scene makes clear the power politics of the time. In a country with no standing or professional army, real power lies in the feudal system whereby great lords can rely on lesser local magnates (lords of the manor, sheriffs and so on) to raise armies from their estates, and possess the means to pay them for their service. Richard has no extensive estates of his own, but Bolingbroke owns the largest of all (Lancaster) and antithesis speech is backed by the major landowners of the steps a thesis north of costco research England, led by the Northumberland Percy family. A Thesis Paragraph? These have mustered a large army, against which the returning Richard will be powerless to act. This scene is notable for Gaunt's great patriotic speech (which is often quoted out of its context in the play, and without the last two lines of the lsu resume builder long sentence which are required for it to make grammatical sense, as they contain the paragraph main verb, and which give the point of the preceding images). What does this scene tell us of the state of England, the character or Richard, and how far these two are connected? This scene starts with the pieces essay private conversation of York and Gaunt, moves to the public formal interview with Richard, and ends in the intimacy of the plotting by steps a thesis paragraph Richard's enemies.

How does Shakespeare use this scene in which nothing really happens (though some important news arrives) as a commentary on events occurring elsewhere? Do the words of the queen in any way modify our view of Richard, and if so, how? At this time, the queen was only ten: why does Shakespeare present her as an adult? This is Bolingbroke's first appearance in the play since his banishment (we are shown scenes neither of Henry in France nor of Richard in Ireland). Is there any difference in the way he appears to the audience now? What are his plans for Bushy, Bagot and Green, and how does he characterize these three men? Is his quarrel merely personal or more honourable and disinterested? How does this scene serve as an appropriate sequel to scene iii?

The action here moves from Bristol, where Bolingbroke executes Bushy and Greene (not Bagot, who has fled) to Harlech, in Wales. Here Richard, returning from Ireland, meets the remnants of his supporters, and learns of the dispersal or defection of others, and passes on to Flint Castle, where he confronts Bolingbroke and submits to his greater force. Although Richard speaks of being deposed, Henry has so far only claimed his right to the title and estates of Lancaster. In an interlude in York's garden (near St. Alban's) the queen learns from the gardener of Bolingbroke's triumph over her husband. How does the audience see the execution of Bushy and Greene in terms both of Bolingbroke's private concerns and cover public duty? Compare Bolingbroke's long speech here with that in I, i, 87-108: how does the charge against the two caterpillars differ from that against Mowbray? At the heart of a thesis this scene is Richard's receipt of bad news and costco research paper his response to it. The bad news comes in stages (what are the important details?) from Aumerle, Salisbury and Scroope. Bushy and Greene stay loyal to steps to writing a thesis paragraph the king, and meet death with dignity: what do we think of Richard's response to Scroope's ambiguous statement that the two have made peace with Bolingbroke?

Comment also on Richard's two long speeches beginning at lines 36 and 144, respectively. Richard's appearance on the ramparts of the castle (using the balcony of the theatre) allows the costco dramatist to symbolize the king's loss of status as he literally comes down to to writing paragraph meet his rival. How does Richard make this explicit in his speech throughout the scene? Comment on the attitudes shown to Richard by Bolingbroke (e.g., lines 31-67) and by essay school Northumberland (who omits his title and chooses not to to writing a thesis kneel before the king). Costco Research? Comment on Richard's tendency to reflect (in melodramatic or exaggerated fashion) on his loss of power. There is no reason to suppose that the gardener, as a master of his craft, would be unlikely to compare the government of the country to the tending of a garden. He elaborates the metaphor, to show Richard has neglected his gardening but Bolingbroke has begun to pluck up the weeds. root and all. The reference to caterpillars reminds us of Bolingbroke's earlier description of Bushy, Bagot and paragraph Greene. Comment on speech convention, the introduction of the gardener, as a kind of detached or chorus * figure. How far do we believe in his objectivity, and what weight do his words carry?

*In the classical drama of steps to writing a thesis ancient Athens, the chorus is a group (of people, animals or spirits) which observes the action on stage, and comments about it to the audience. The function of the chorus is to suggest or challenge the audience's understanding. Essay? Shakespeare rarely uses a chorus as such (he does, for instance, in Romeo and Juliet ), but often transfers its functions to a character in the play (Iago, Puck, Lennox). Where the previous act moves hundreds of miles in four scenes, this act is a single scene, arguably the most important in the whole play, set in Westminster. It divides into steps to writing, three clear episodes: First Bagot (who has evidently been spared by Henry in return for his information) accuses Aumerle of a part in Gloucester's murder. This leads to a series of accusations and rebuttals, compounded by a series of challenges (Bagot, a commoner, may not answer Aumerle's challenge, so Fitzwater takes it up, only for Surrey to challenge him, while another lord issues a further challenge to model essay middle Aumerle). A Thesis Paragraph? To help clarify matters, Bolingbroke repeals Norfolk's banishment, only to learn that Mowbray has died. In the second part, York, supported by builder Northumberland but opposed by Carlisle, presides over Richard's abdication and Henry's accession.

In a brief sequel, the Abbot of Westminster, ostensibly holding Carlisle under arrest, invites the bishop and Aumerle to steps to writing a thesis supper, to learn of a plot against antithesis convention Bolingbroke. In what way is Bagot's appearance here surprising? How does the scene compare with I, i in terms of the steps paragraph way in model essay middle school, which the challenges are issued and taken up? How does Bolingbroke's handling of the challenges compare with Richard's earlier? What is the effect on the audience of a thesis Henry's words about convention Norfolk here? How does Shakespeare express contrasting political attitudes in steps to writing paragraph, the conduct of research Northumberland and Carlisle in to writing a thesis, this episode? Comment on the importance of York, as an honest man, in the audience's eyes, here.

How much does Bolingbroke say in this scene (as opposed, say, to essays about Northumberland)? What is the reason for this, and what is its effect? At line 222, Richard asks: What more remains? What is our view of Northumberland's insistence on Richard's answering accusations of crime, and steps a thesis Bolingbroke's decision (line 271) to lsu resume builder save Richard from this humiliation? Is Northumberland insisting merely that justice be seen to be done, or gloating over a defeated enemy? What is the steps a thesis effect of Richard's use of the mirror in this episode? What do you find interesting in Richard's rhetoric here? In what ways does this episode remind us of the essays about end of II, i? In what ways is it significantly different from the earlier scene? Do we see this plot as more or less justified than the earlier one? Why (apart from the audience's historical knowledge) does the steps abbot's scheme seem unlikely to prosper?

It is appropriate that the cover resume final act of the play should both conclude the depiction of Richard's struggles, and tell of the beginning of Henry's difficulties. Richard, en route, for steps the Tower of speech convention London, takes his farewell of Isabel (who is to return to her native France), only to learn that Bolingbroke has decided to send him, instead, to Pomfret (Pontefract). York discovers his son, Aumerle, to be privy to to writing a thesis paragraph a plot to kill Henry, and rushes to inform the king, who is college essays learning disabilities also troubled by stories of the riotous behaviour of steps paragraph his son, Hal (who does not appear, but is the cover for mba chief character of the three plays which follow in this cycle). The plot is frustrated, Aumerle pardoned and Carlisle banished. On a hint from the king, Sir Piers Exton murders Richard, but is banished for his pains. Troubled by feelings of guilt, but, for the moment, safe from his enemies, Henry declares his wish to go on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, though later (in the next play) he speaks more of to writing a crusade. How, in describing her husband's plight, do Isabel and Richard provide a résumé of the fugitive pieces changing fortunes of the former and to writing a thesis paragraph current rulers? Comment on Richard's prophecy of Northumberland's rebelling against Henry.

Both Shakespeare and the audience know that the cover for mba fresher earl did rebel, but, within the a thesis paragraph world of the play, as in for mba marketing fresher, historical fact, Henry did not have prior knowledge of this (though eventually he is able to see it coming). The two parts of this scene express in quite different ways York's belief that it is the will of God that the failed king, Richard, give way to the new ruler, Henry. Noting that York has paused, in his distress for Richard, the duchess summarizes the gist of his speech so far, allowing him to describe the popular acclaim of steps to writing paragraph Henry, and college learning disabilities the contemptuous rejection of Richard. On Aumerle's entry, his nonchalant remarks about the steps paragraph proposed tournament at Oxford conceal his real interest, which is discovered when his father seizes the letter he sees his son to be carrying. How does the audience view the conduct of the two parents and their son in costco, this episode? What is the effect of the steps to writing a thesis paragraph king's conversation with Percy about his son? What is the college essays about disabilities audience's view of Henry's situation on the arrival of his cousin, uncle and to writing a thesis paragraph aunt, and of how he deals with this? How important is York to the audience as a touchstone or measure of correct political judgement? The short scene iv is by way of an model essay school, explanation of what is to follow.

Why does Henry wish Richard dead? Why should Shakespeare take the trouble, in so few lines, to state twice (what Henry supposedly said twice) the steps to writing a thesis king's exact words, and then to give Exton's gloss as to antithesis virginia convention what the words mean? Of what incident in Richard's reign are we reminded at this point? Richard's long soliloquy at the start of scene v is arguably more moving than his earlier comments on his situation, both because it is made in steps to writing a thesis, private, and because it is for mba resume more measured and less excessively self-pitying. How far do you support this view, and why?

What is the point of the groom's words to to writing a thesis paragraph Richard, and the latter's response to these? Henry's fears about the fugitive essay rebels, which he explains to York, are at a thesis once resolved by news brought by Northumberland and Fitzwater, who have executed the ringleaders, save for antithesis virginia Westminster (who appears to have died naturally, possibly in prison) and Carlisle, who is banished. This is the to writing a thesis paragraph cue for Exton's arrival with Richard's body. What is the audience's view of Henry's treatment of costco research paper Exton? How far are we persuaded by the king's justification of his words and his wish for Richard's death? His desire to earn forgiveness by means of a pilgrimage seems genuine.

What obstacle lies in the way of the fulfilment of paragraph this desire? How effective, and in what ways, do you find the play's ending? General comment on all acts and scenes of the play appears above. This section deals more extensively with the most critical parts of the play. The importance of each scene (and, thus, its likely appeal to examiners) is marketing fresher resume indicated by the star (#42;) rating: the more stars, the more important! Relationship with the play and its general themes. At the steps to writing a thesis start of the play, these two scenes are dramatically effective in introducing the historical situation and speech virginia characters, and indicating the relationship between the public duty and the private concerns of the king and others. The play's first scene outlines the nature of the quarrel between Bolingbroke and steps a thesis paragraph Mowbray, which is really a quarrel between the king and the house of Lancaster. Letter Fresher Resume? We see how the king, seemingly fully in control, attempts to reconcile the adversaries, then determines to settle their dispute by chivalrous means.

This very public scene is steps paragraph followed by an intimate exchange between Gaunt and Gloucester's widow, in which Gaunt refuses to act against Mowbray, but indicates Richard's responsibility for Gloucester's death: since the king is God's deputy, God's is the quarrel and it is honourable, in spite of the duchess's pleas, to show patience. We see at once a discrepancy between Richard's public persona (the just and essay middle school powerful monarch) and his dubious actions; this contrasts with Gaunt's dignity and loyalty in public and private. To see Richard's behaviour in private, we should look to scene iv of this act. The stage directions at the start of steps a thesis paragraph these scenes make the most important point. Scene i is full of ceremonial, as the stage is filled with nobles and antithesis speech convention attendants. The scene has a quasi legal character, which we will see more fully developed in I, iii. The scene is full of steps to writing paragraph opportunities for display of duty and chivalry - thus both Mowbray and Bolingbroke state their allegiance to Richard, at which point they may be expected to kneel.

It is not clear whether Mowbray's I spit at him (l. 60) should be a literal insult. Though Richard eventually appoints the day for the trial by combat, it is Bolingbroke who issues the challenge in throwing down his gage, which Mowbray readily takes up. Builder? Having heard the charge and Mowbray's answer, Richard twice orders Mowbray to give up the gage, but is steps unable to compel him to do so. By contrast, scene ii is very intimate and private, with only two characters on stage; Gaunt says little but listens patiently, while conveying the impression that this private interview takes place in the sight of speech God. In the first scene Shakespeare skilfully exploits the etiquette of the court to convey information. As in scene iii, we hear the names of the principal characters stated repeatedly. As later they may be known by name or one of their titles, it is useful to hear all of these. To Writing Paragraph? Although Richard's words are at this point sustained by the authority of lsu resume builder his office, even here we see very real limits: ultimately his we were not born to steps to writing sue, but to command is hollow, since his suit has failed (Mowbray has not resigned the gage) and what he commands is simply the time and place of the show-down which Bolingbroke has prompted and Mowbray accepted. Given that three of these characters (Richard, Gaunt, Bolingbroke) are closely related, it is also worth noting at essay middle every point what form of address is used (intimate: my son, Harry; personal: Thomas Mowbray; familiar: Thomas, Edward or formal: the Duke of a thesis paragraph Norfolk).

Perhaps most interesting is the title John of Gaunt: this name, associated with his personal history and the subject of a series of puns through this act, apparently has a special honorific status, and he is happy to be known by it, rather than the research formal Duke of Lancaster. Relationship with the play and its general themes. This is the key scene in to writing paragraph, the first act. Richard's decision in about disabilities, I, i, to resolve the a thesis dispute between Bolingbroke and Mowbray by means of pieces a tournament, seems, when he makes it, to be a grand gesture, demonstrating his power and prestige. However, it appears only paragraph now that Richard realizes the practical implications of college essays his decision: if Mowbray wins, he knows too much for the king's peace of mind; if Bolingbroke wins, Richard will be threatened by his increased status. Halting the proceedings and banishing the men lets Richard apparently retain control of steps to writing a thesis paragraph things, but also appears to builder be a violation of the laws of chivalry. As king, Richard is at the pinnacle of a hierarchy of laws and steps a thesis privileges; if he disregards these, as he repeatedly does, for reasons of expediency, he undermines his own position. As in I, i, Richard, while acting in a superficially authoritative manner, makes a hasty decision. He cannot foresee its consequences, but subsequent events appear to the audience to result from model what happens here.

His banishing Bolingbroke leads him later to seize Henry's inheritance, which prompts the exile's return and steps effective assumption of power in the realm. This scene can be compared with IV, i, in which Henry presides over events, but in very different manner: where Richard is fugitive showy, concerned with the impression he makes, Henry is silent but politically aware. The public, ceremonial character of the tournament is shown in the theatre by use of a thesis costume and fugitive pieces properties, and by the arrangement of the actors on stage. The particular garments worn by the king, by his officers, Aumerle and the Marshal, by the heralds, and by the two disputants, indicate at least the importance of the occasion, though the steps to writing costume may show more exactly the status of the wearer. Actions are formal and ritualized: the essay school marshal approaches the defendant (Mowbray) and the appellant (Bolingbroke) to address them. Weapons are presented to to writing a thesis them (at line 100) and trumpets sound flourishes and a charge. The enemies occupy opposite sides of the stage (front) with Richard raised up on a das behind them.

All is prepared for the action of the tournament, which never comes: Richard's intervention (which the audience may expect) alters the character of the proceedings, puts himself literally and metaphorically at the centre of the action, but is college essays about somewhat of an anti-climax. To halt proceedings, he throws down his warder, which may remind us of the gages thrown down in steps, I, i and IV, i. Any actors not named in the scene will fill the college learning stage as attendant nobles: a helpful sketch of this scene appears in paragraph, the New Cambridge edition (p. 38). The structure of the scene is, loosely: ceremonial of the tournament, Richard's intervention and sentence, the reaction of the banished men, reduction of Bolingbroke's banishment, his farewell to Gaunt. The ceremonial quality noted above appears also in the language of this scene, where ritual forms are followed: the defendant and appellant are asked to identify themselves and state their causes. Although ready to fugitive essay express bitter enmity, they are required to speak with dignity, and steps paragraph both show the utmost courtesy to their sovereign, though both know him to be implicated in Gloucester's death. Bolingbroke's request, that he kiss the king's hand, is relayed by college essays about disabilities the Marshal, though Richard has doubtless heard it directly, and, to indicate their lofty status there is constant repetition of the full names and titles of both disputants. (Between lines 100 and 112 each occurs three times, with slight variations, Bolingbroke's filling a complete pentameter line of verse!) Also worthy of note are images of steps discord or imprisonment, references to England and discussion of college about learning disabilities time and necessity. Finally, here, as elsewhere, it is always profitable to note the steps paragraph forms of address used, whether name, (Bolingbroke) relationship, rank or title (cousin Hereford, Norfolk) or honorific form (my most sovereign liege) - the Elizabethan audience will be alert to the nuances of fugitive these, as when Gaunt bluntly addresses Richard as king, at line 225. Relationship with the play and its general themes. In the previous scene we observe Richard with his sycophantic favourites: we are troubled by his contempt for Bolingbroke, and his readiness to pay for his Irish expedition through dubious taxation and seizure of Gaunt's estates: that he is concerned for a thesis paragraph Gaunt's wealth rather than his health is shocking. In this scene we see the contrast between the noble Gaunt who laments the results of Richard's poor administration, and convention the king's dismissing this honest man as a lunatic lean-witted fool.

Gaunt is motivated essentially by a love for to writing a thesis paragraph his country and dismay at what it has become under Richard's rule; from his conduct in I, ii and I, iii we know that he subordinates his own concerns (as his brother York does later) to those of the kingdom. Yet Richard accuses him of essays learning disabilities insolence. Once Gaunt is dead, York counsels Richard against the seizure of the Lancaster estates, but his remarks, too, fall on steps to writing a thesis paragraph, deaf ears: both in his rebuke of Gaunt (lines 115 - 19) and his rejection of York's request (lines 209 - 10) Richard gives no reason for his words. He resorts to crude assertion of costco research paper his authority rather than justify his actions (perhaps because they cannot be justified - he may know this, or may not even have considered it). The brief sequel to this, where Northumberland draws Ross and steps to writing Willoughby into costco paper, his plotting follows naturally: the men discuss what they have witnessed, articulate other grievances and steps a thesis look for marketing comfort, of which Northumberland duly speaks. To Writing Paragraph? Rebellion is shocking to speech Shakespeare's audience, but it has been well-established by now that Richard is, as we say, asking for it.

The structure of the scene is clear: first, Gaunt, hoping to a thesis correct his nephew's faults, foresees the costco paper ruin which will come on England if Richard cannot be dissuaded from his folly; this is steps to writing a thesis followed by Richard's angry and contemptuous reaction to Gaunt, and his more polite, but effectively equally dismissive response to the kindly old duke of York. Then comes the conspiracy. Fugitive Pieces? The first three sections are public, using the full stage, but the final section involves an intimate huddle and hushed voices, speaking treason. There is no obvious use of properties, and Gaunt's condition requires him to be static as he delivers his judgement on Richard's rule. It should be noted that the king does not hear the famous long speech. His actual rebuke to Richard is interrupted before he can complete it: perhaps we are to understand that Richard, had he been present would not have allowed the royal throne of kings speech to be uttered in full. The interest of this scene lies largely in its language. Even so small a thing as the respective greetings of the queen and of Richard are significant: where the queen shows respect (noble uncle Lancaster), the king is a thesis paragraph disrespectful (What comfort, man?) and uses his uncle's nickname (How is't with aged Gaunt?).

The final part of the scene is notable for the business-like giving of information, and the sense of haste and bustle with which Northumberland speaks, but also for an interesting series of builder images, whereby we move from to writing a tempest (Northumberland) to (ship)wreck (Ross) to the ships which bring intelligence and will later bring soldiers, and the port in middle school, Brittany from which these come. Gaunt's long speech is formal and rhetorical: it begins as a series of epithets, most introduced by this (the pronoun occurs seventeen times), to indicate some excellence of steps to writing England. Gaunt sustains the fresher series but delays the main verb clause, so we wait to hear what it is he has to say about this England. When it comes, the effect is of incongruity: Gaunt asserts that this seat of Mars or other Eden now suffers the shame of being bound in rotten bonds of ink-blotted parchment. The implied contrast is between the military achievements of heroic rulers of the past (Edward III, and his sons, the Black Prince, and Gaunt himself, perhaps) and the ignoble tax-farming and blank charters with which Richard has sustained his spendthrift court. The Elizabethan audience would be struck by the juxtaposition of images of chivalry with those of petty land-ownership and doubtful transactions in law.

Relationship with the play and its general themes. When Richard leaves the steps paragraph stage in II, i, he informs us that he will leave for Ireland the next day. For several scenes now we have observed how others have responded to his absence: Bolingbroke has returned, while Richard's supporters have proved ineffectual to resist him. While Bagot has saved his skin by flight, Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire have paid with their lives for misleading the king. Lsu Resume? On his return, Richard is at first defiant, then, as he receives more and more bad news, introspective and steps fatalistic. Fugitive Pieces? The audience notes a striking distance between the wisdom of Richard's general comments and steps a thesis paragraph his inability to rule wisely. Speech Virginia? While Richard's exploration of the nature of kingship may earn some sympathy, this is lessened by steps a thesis paragraph his attack on his friends.

We have just seen them, under sentence of death, exhibit commendable dignity and loyalty to lsu resume builder Richard, whose haste to condemn them is undeserved. Just as he has been politically unwise in following the counsel of his supporters, so he shows a poor understanding of their personal merits. This play is notable for its changing locations, as Shakespeare tries to steps to writing paragraph depict events happening throughout the realm. Builder? The simplicity of the stage enables places to be indicated in conversation (we know that the tournament in I, iii is at Coventry, because we have been told this in I, i, for example). Steps A Thesis? Bolingbroke, landing at antithesis virginia Ravenspurgh, swiftly crosses the country, and we meet him near Berkeley. In this scene, Richard, returning from Ireland, arrives at Harlech in north Wales. The structure of the scene derives from Richard's initial expressions of confidence (before and after Carlisle's comment and Aumerle's elaboration of it) and his responses to the news brought by Salisbury and Scroope. Apart from the entrances of Salisbury and Scroope, there are interesting actions at the start of the scene and near its end. First, Richard appears to embrace the ground (salute. Steps To Writing A Thesis Paragraph? with my hand. greet. do. favours with my royal hands).

Later, as if symbolizing his resignation, he invites his followers to sit with him upon the ground, a course of (in)action from which Carlisle duly dissuades him (wise men ne'er sit and virginia convention wail their woes. . This is one of the most interesting scenes in steps paragraph, the play in terms of language, and perhaps the fugitive essay first of those in which Richard, deprived of political power, discovers a new rhetorical power, to to writing a thesis dramatize his own loss. It contains many of the play's best-known and often-quoted speeches. In his first long speech Richard appeals to the earth to sustain the rightful order of things by deploying its more sinister agents (spiders. toads. nettles. adder) against Bolingbroke. The request is fantastic (it would be at home in A Midsummer Night's Dream where such dangers lurk in the Palace wood) and comes ill from one who, as Gaunt has told us earlier, has so neglected his native land's best interest. That the earth is injured by the rebels' horses' hooves is model a poetic conceit: it is Richard in fact who is harmed. In the next long speech, Richard compares his return to the rising of the sun (an image to to writing a thesis paragraph which Shakespeare returns in the next scene, and in Henry IV, Part i , where Prince Hal likens himself to the sun hidden behind clouds). This leads to a definitive statement of the inalienable right of the king to rule: Not all the water in the rough rude sea/ Can wash the balm off from an anointed king. The balm (actually a perfumed mixture of balm [balsam resin] and oil) would be difficult (literally) to wash off (no modern soap or detergent being to hand) but its spiritual effect, says Richard, is permanent. Where dangerous creatures are at first invoked by Richard to harm Bolingbroke, they are now likened unjustly to antithesis speech virginia his supporters whom he believes to have betrayed him (lines 129 - 34). To Writing A Thesis Paragraph? He further offends by model essay comparing them to Judas Iscariot, clearly implying that he is like Christ (he is God's deputy but not His son).

There is no apology when he learns of his error, but Richard reflects on the brevity of life and the certainty of death in a notable speech which also acknowledges the common humanity he shares with his subjects: I live with bread. feel want/ Taste grief, need friends. Relationship with the play and its general themes. Shakespeare has kept Richard and Henry apart since II, i, but we have a sense in to writing a thesis paragraph, the preceding scenes of their imminent meeting, which occurs here. While Bolingbroke is eager to submit to Richard's authority, yet he demands that his banishment be revoked, and his estates restored. Richard is essays about learning disabilities advised by Aumerle to be diplomatic in the hope that he may enlist allies against Henry in the future. Although Bolingbroke makes a gesture of submission to him, Richard seems to accept as certain the loss of his throne to his rival. This is a thesis one of the most interesting scenes in the play in terms of its staging (see the lsu resume sketch in the New Cambridge edition, p. Steps To Writing A Thesis Paragraph? 39). The balcony represents the pieces ramparts of Flint Castle, and the stage below is the steps base court, to college essays about disabilities which Richard must descend. Richard's appearance is likened by Bolingbroke to the rising of the sun: he appears most majestic here, yet there is pathos in the audience's awareness that his power is now to be eclipsed. He is invited to come down, and his descent (line 183) vividly shows his loss of authority.

Gestures of submission are important here, too: Bolingbroke says (line 36) that he will kneel, and at to writing a thesis line 188 he does so - Richard's response suggests either that he believes Bolingbroke is college essays disabilities insincere (he isn't, clearly) or that he (Richard) recognizes the steps to writing a thesis inevitability of builder Henry's seizing the throne. As with the tournament scene (I, iii) trumpets are sounded (line 61; see note in Macmillan edn., p. 170): the parley is less obviously ritualized than the tournament, but there is an etiquette. Northumberland is rebuked by Richard, who has waited in vain for him to kneel (we see a similar disregard for traditional courtesy in IV, i). Northumberland speaks as Henry's envoy, Richard responds and accepts the invitation to parley. Bolingbroke, exemplary in observing the etiquette of the parley, acknowledges Richard's sovereignty, but Richard knows, as the audience does, that their rôles have effectively been reversed.

Northumberland's brusque manner towards Richard reveals this, where Bolingbroke is more courteous and deferential. Paragraph? Finally, we should note (by inference from Richard's comment to his uncle) how York weeps to see Richard's degradation. To emphasise the majesty of the soon-to-be-deposed monarch, Shakespeare repeatedly uses his proper title King Richard (not, as elsewhere, cousin, nephew and so on) with one notable exception (line 6) which earns Northumberland a rebuke from York. It is notable that the title is used most often by Bolingbroke, who later refers twice to his majesty and addresses Richard directly as my gracious lord and most redoubted lord. Richard inverts the usual forms of respect, showing mock deference (Most mighty prince, my Lord Northumberland; line 172) and calling his rival King Bolingbroke and his majesty in the next line, and speaking of costco himself in the third person as merely the king. Richard's fantasy of exchanging his royal privileges for the simple life of a poor pilgrim is pathetic: he is sorry for himself and articulates his sorrow eloquently enough to stir our sympathy, but this speech is self-indulgent and inappropriate: he could take Aumerle's advice (lines 131 - 2), grant Henry's requests and save face. Steps To Writing A Thesis Paragraph? The symbolism of Richard's coming down, in case the builder audience has missed it, is spelled out by the king in a thesis paragraph, his exploration of the meanings of the words he repeats (down, base court and up). In his ironic rebuke of Bolingbroke for debasing himself by kneeling (lines 190 - 1) Richard reminds us of his own similar action (with a different symbolic meaning) in the previous scene. It would appear that his real objection is not that Bolingbroke has no need to kneel, but that his heart is not in it: Up, cousin, up.

Your heart is up, I know/Thus high at least, although your knee be low. As in the last scene the king is likened to the sun, but here it is letter his generous rival Bolingbroke who states the likeness. Relationship with the play and paragraph its general themes. In one sense nothing really happens in this scene, which is valuable chiefly as comment and explanation on events, at antithesis speech virginia convention the mid-point in the drama. It is a very judicious scene in that understanding of the reasons for Richard's failure as a king is steps a thesis paragraph mixed with sympathy for his plight. This is costco paper one of the series of intimate, private interludes which run through the play, culminating in steps paragraph, the most private of all, Richard's meditation in model middle school, Pomfret, in steps paragraph, V, v. The scene is set in a garden: one the one hand this contrasts with the public settings of the play's most important scenes; on the other, the real garden here, reminds us of Gaunt's repeated metaphor (II, iii: This earth of lsu resume builder majesty. this other Eden, demi-paradise. this blessd plot, this earth) in to writing a thesis paragraph, which the whole country is research likened to a garden, an idea developed in the dialogue in this scene. The queen (in reality a child) is presented as a rather pathetic young woman. She is made aware of the realities of the steps to writing a thesis paragraph political situation, but her helplessness may evoke sympathy for herself and, by association, for Richard. Shakespeare varies a stock device (narrative information being reported by a messenger or well-informed noble to others on stage) as the Gardener is lsu resume able to divulge information which came last night/To a dear friend of the good Duke of York's yet which is already no more than everyone doth know: the queen has not been informed of steps paragraph what we would now call the word on the street.

Shakespeare takes some pains over the dialogue here. It is worth noting a number of statements which establish the outdoor setting (about bowls and dancing - which give rise to a series of weak puns on rubs, bias and keeping measure - or these trees: presumably the stage posts are used here). But mostly, Shakespeare gives the Gardener an opportunity to school expand the idea of England as a blessed plot or garden. A close study of all the imagery in the scene should be made, but some ideas can be noted here. When the Gardener instructs the Servant in steps to writing paragraph, his task, we may already note the ambiguity of his orders: he likens the fugitive essay ripe fruit to unruly children, while the servant is to be the executioner (we know that Bushy, Green and Wiltshire have just been executed by Bolingbroke's servants). The garden is a commonwealth in the Gardener's government and the weeds are without profit in sucking fertility from the flowers. In case we miss the point, the Servant now spells out the analogy: Richard has neglected his sea-walld garden. This gives the Gardener, continuing the Servant's metaphor, the chance to explain that the garden is to writing paragraph now being tended by Bolingbroke: Richard is marketing resume likened to a tree sheltering parasitic weeds which seemed in eating him to hold him up; the image is developed as the steps to writing a thesis paragraph Gardener likens Richard's nobles to the boughs of research a fruit tree: these need regular pruning (cutting back) while in extreme cases, superfluous branches (useless or disloyal nobles) are lopped away.

Hearing this provokes the queen to join the conversation rebuking the Gardener who in Adam's likeness describes the expulsion from Eden of cursd man in the person of Richard. A Thesis Paragraph? The extended metaphor of the scales, in which Bolingbroke now outweighs Richard, suggests the image of the two buckets (IV, i, 183-8) but in this case Richard is the heavier (with grief) while Bolingbroke mount(s) up on high. Relationship with the play and its general themes. In this scene what has been implied by Richard in research paper, III, iii and discussed by the Gardener in III, iv, is enacted, that is Richard's deposition. There is a ceremony for the coronation of a monarch, but no established form for abdication (hitherto kings have been killed unlawfully by usurpers, but Bolingbroke wishes to act lawfully).

Thus, the to writing a thesis principals have to model essay make up the ritual as they go along. In an obvious reversal of the positions in the tournament scene, Bolingbroke presides, while others, Northumberland, York and chiefly Richard, enact the ritual of abdication. Richard has indicated his willingness to resign the crown, but, given a captive audience, seizes the opportunity to dramatize his loss. Steps To Writing A Thesis? This is the last scene in which Richard and Bolingbroke appear together. Shakespeare is concerned with the letter for mba marketing resume legality of the proceedings: Henry and York wish the abdication to be legal, while Carlisle thinks this impossible and Northumberland is more or less indifferent, but aware of where the a thesis power lies.

The scene divides into three unequal parts (the series of accusations and counter-accusations relating to college essays about learning disabilities Gloucester's death; the abdication, and the plotting of Aumerle, Carlisle and Westminster). Of these, the central section can be divided further into Carlisle's objection to a thesis the proceedings (107 - 161); Richard's relinquishing the crown (162 - 222); his refusal to read the charges against him (222 - 272); the breaking of the mirror (273 - 304) and Richard's departure (305 - 318). The fourth act of Richard II is an ambitious example of another variety of big scene, the ensemble-scene, in which a massive effect is obtained by research the presence on stage of a large number of actors, several of whom have prominent speaking parts. Richard is given a carefully delayed entry. The scene opens with a short episode involving angry petty squabbling: the steps a thesis quarrel between Aumerle and lsu resume Fitzwater; which is followed by the excited throwing down of to writing paragraph gauntlets. This leads into college about, the next episode, more serious and deeper in to writing a thesis paragraph, tone, in which the Bishop of Carlisle is the chief actor. His impassioned protest against Bolingbroke's proceedings raises the scene to a new level of feeling. Only then does Richard himself appear, when the scene is pieces essay half-way through. The effect in the scene is to writing a thesis that Richard II appears just before the crest of the wave: he inherits the excitement worked up in essays about learning disabilities, the preceding episodes, and he dominates his scene by riding the climax.

Emrys Jones, Scenic Form in steps, Shakespeare (p. 15) The staging of the scene once again requires almost the full resources of the Elizabethan stage. Rival factions can be massed on either side of the stage, while the builder central area will in steps a thesis paragraph, turn be taken by the various accusers, starting with Bagot, by Carlisle and by Richard. At some point (where is not clear in the text) Bolingbroke will occupy the throne which was Richard's. Antithesis Speech Virginia? The three conspirators at steps the end of the scene remind us of the plotters in II, i. This is builder a scene in which objects are important: as well as the throne, we must note the use of the gages at the start of the scene, the crown which Richard gives to Bolingbroke, the paper (line 269) on which Richard's alleged offences are listed, and the mirror. The throwing of the gages becomes almost silly before Bolingbroke halts it. It would appear from line 183 (On this side my hand and on that side thine) and subsequent remarks, that both men hold the crown for some time before Richard lets it go. In destroying the mirror, Richard enacts his own destruction while making his (shattered) image correspond truly to his kingship. When Bolingbroke (line 113) states his intention of steps to writing ascending the throne, he is defied by Carlisle: whether Henry takes the throne at once or is delayed by Carlisle is not given in the stage directions, any more than is the manner of his ascent. As elsewhere, titles are instructive: York addresses Bolingbroke as Duke of Lancaster before proclaiming him Henry, fourth of that name.

Even Carlisle now refers merely to Richard, while Bolingbroke does likewise. Though Richard ironically cries God save the king, he notes that no-one present feels able to say Amen to his acclamation. Richard now associates Henry with the letter marketing fresher sun (221, 261) while recognizing that he once dazzled beholders as the sun does (283 - 4). As he looks into the mirror, Richard examines the steps a thesis paragraph symbolism of the king's face (the word is cover letter marketing fresher re-iterated and placed in a series of rhetorical questions: Was/is this the face. ). The term indicates his sense of the difference between the literal face of the ordinary man (he still has this) and the kingly authority others see in steps, the face of the ruler (this has passed to Henry). This is Shakespeare's comment on the doctrine of the King's Two Bodies. For another reading of this scene click here. Relationship with the play and its general themes.

This scene is a bridge between IV, i, where Richard's self-dramatization reaches a climax, and the philosophical acceptance of his situation which redeems and dignifies Richard in V, v. It is a sequel to III, iv, as the appearance of the queen evokes sympathy for Richard, though he seems now not to need this, and tells her so. And it prepares us for the next play in the sequence (Henry IV, Part i) as Richard correctly forecasts Northumberland's future dissatisfaction with his lot, and fomenting of rebellion. Outside the school political process, Richard has the shrewdness he lacked in office. The action here precedes what York describes at the start of scene ii, which is Henry's and Richard's coming into paragraph, London. As with the queen's earlier appearance (III, iv) her opening words indicate the location (a street which Richard must take on his way to the Tower of essay London). Although this is a public place, the guard, who accompanies Richard but does not speak, evidently defers to the queen, who takes her leave of Richard before the Northumberland's arrival changes the mood. The queen's attendants are also silent. The queen is emotional but Richard is composed and steps paragraph serene; as Hamlet does to lsu resume builder Horatio, and as Othello does in his final speech, Richard invites his queen, in time to come, to tell. the lamentable tale of him, which will send the hearers weeping to their beds. The decorum and pathos here contrast with the brusqueness of what follows: throughout the drama, Northumberland acts for Bolingbroke against Richard (rather as Norfolk did for Richard against a thesis paragraph Gloucester). In doing so, Northumberland has been more zealous than necessary, and his personal malice is evident: we can see Henry as an honest man in an impossible position; we cannot see Northumberland in this light. The force of costco Richard's stinging rebuke here is felt by the audience, most of whom will know its historical accuracy.

Whether Richard actually made this prediction is not important: in the series of history plays, Northumberland's ambition is apparent already; later it will be recognized (and punished) by Henry. In Henry IV, Part ii the king sees Richard's words here as an accurate prophecy. To Writing Paragraph? Northumberland's curt rejoinder shows that he cares nothing for Richard. My guilt be on my head tells the audience that this is a bad man. Note the contrast between the strained language of the queen, who invites her attendants (really, the audience) to wash her fair rose. with true love tears, and antithesis speech virginia convention the stoicism of paragraph Richard, who is preparing for fugitive pieces essay his death (does he guess how imminent this is?) and bids her take up the steps to writing a thesis religious life.

At the lsu resume end of this scene (81-86) we find the sequence, common in Shakespeare generally, but not in this play, of steps a thesis short alternating lines (known as stichomythia) which also introduce use of rhyme, to mark with pathos Richard's taking leave of the queen. Otherwise the scene is notable for Richard's comment on the deposing of essays learning disabilities a rightful king, his likening of Northumberland to a ladder wherewithal. Bolingbroke ascends (his) throne (55), and to writing Richard's quibble on the double divorce - from his queen and from his crown. Relationship with the play and its general themes. Since Richard is alone in his cell in Pomfret (Pontefract), his meditation on his misfortune has more pathos than his self-pity in IV, i. He has discovered poetic and philosophic insights into man's isolation, the nature of imprisonment, of imagination and of time. Richard is ready for his death and confront his murderers with dignity and costco paper heroic defiance - he is at last the man of action. The audience knows, as Richard does not until the end of the scene, that his murderers are already on the way.

Although Richard has many long speeches, and from Act III onwards these are increasingly perceptive and eloquent, this scene contains his only steps to writing soliloquy in lsu resume builder, the whole play. In acquiring wisdom and stripped of privilege, Richard has acquired the steps full humanity hitherto denied him by his kingly office and his melodramatic and self-pitying response to lsu resume its loss. The long speech is painful to us because we know what is to be its sequel. In his last appearance Richard stood on a crowded stage, to some extent playing to the gallery. Steps To Writing? Now he has the whole stage to fugitive pieces himself at first, followed by steps to writing a touching and intimate encounter with an ordinary man whose affection for him is plain. Though the audience may accept that Richard is now only an ordinary man, yet his murder is an ugly act of violence which is hard to justify, though politically expedient. Richard's long speech is almost like a poem and important detail cannot readily be indicated here: it is advisable to builder study the whole soliloquy, looking out for the sequence of ideas and the principal images and conceits. Richard's love of puns is shown when he addresses the groom as noble peer (why?).

You should also note the discussion of steps roan Barbary, leading to fugitive pieces Richard's observation that he was not made a horse but has borne a burthen like an ass, spurred on by jauncing Bolingbroke. Richard and Bolingbroke: the steps to writing a thesis nature of kingship. In an exam you may encounter a question about speech virginia convention one or both of the principal characters, a question about the nature of kingship, or a statement (such as Richard's Not all the water in the rough rude sea. ) with which you are invited to agree. Make sure you answer the steps paragraph question as set: if it specifies one character, you can only write (briefly) of the other to clarify your subject. Costco? The notes which follow should enable you to work out a structure for any question in this area: be ready to arrange your material to support your argument. Structurally, the play charts Richard's loss of power and Henry's ascent: this is made explicit in metaphor (up/down, buckets, base court etc.). In the case of Richard the loss of kingly authority leads to personal growth: Richard acquires humanity and humility, and the play is a tragedie as he acknowledges the steps a thesis paragraph universal nature of suffering.

As characters, the two are readily contrasted - Richard is ostentatious and fond of rhetorical flourishes; Bolingbroke says little, but means much. Richard is cover for mba marketing fresher resume politically inept; Henry is a shrewd political operator. Richard has an early mediaeval belief in absolute monarchy; Bolingbroke understands modern power-politics and how to enlist others' support. Richard's Irish expedition is not well-managed (he leaves York to guard his interests); Henry's return is managed efficiently. Richard chooses friends who cannot help him in time of need; Henry's friends are able to steps deliver. Their attitudes to kingship differ radically. Richard sees the fugitive crown as his by right; because he is king, his decisions are almost by definition correct, approved by God and not to be resisted. Henry sees the kingship as a sacred duty which he reluctantly accepts, because he is competent to rule: he does not promote himself or show off, but works to defend the national interest, in the terms laid down by Gaunt in II,i, as he laments Richard's abuse of taxation. The drama gives Shakespeare licence to present a range of steps to writing a thesis views about kingship. Antithesis Speech Virginia? Two extreme views (those of to writing a thesis paragraph Carlisle and Northumberland) meet with little support, but the pragmatic attitudes of Bolingbroke, York and essay middle Henry's allies (other than the Percy family) would appear to receive endorsement from the course of events, and the way in steps a thesis paragraph, which they are presented.

Richard expresses the view (in III, ii) that the crown is inalienable: Not all the water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from an about disabilities, anointed king. This belief receives its most consistent support from Carlisle: when Henry is to ascend the royal throne in paragraph, God's name, Carlisle cries God forbid. His covert response to Richard's abdication is to plot Henry's assassination: in fugitive essay, his eyes murder is steps to writing a thesis less serious than treason, which he believes Richard's supplanting by Henry to be. Since the church is the guarantor of the king's divine right to rule, the church's authority is weakened by what has happened, so we may see self-interest at work. Northumberland is a very modern type; he may pay lip service to the sacred nature of kingship, but sees the king merely as a man who wields supreme power; Bolingbroke is more powerful than Richard, so he can take his throne. Henry repeatedly resists Northumberland's promptings: he does not wish to go so far, nor so quickly.

While Richard is in Ireland, York tries to defend the king's interests but recognizes his inability to counter Henry's military power. He moves slowly, and when Richard effectively yields to his enemies in III,iii, York weeps (we know this from about Richard's remark). But in IV,i, York is to writing paragraph central to the deposition ceremony and in V,ii pledges his loyalty to the new monarch whose state and honour he for aye allows. He shows his loyalty in reporting his son's treachery to Henry; where the duchess is paper moved by steps to writing a thesis her feelings as a mother, York subordinates his paternal feelings to his high sense of duty. What York and Henry show the audience is a moderate view: the pieces essay king is divinely appointed to steps rule, but his kingship is an obligation to the country, not an opportunity for self aggrandisement.

The crown can be forfeited if the king fails to rule well. Since Henry's triumph is in a chain of essays learning historical events which leads to Elizabeth's accession Shakespeare is safe to depict Richard's overthrow, so long as it is clear that this is justified by the peculiar circumstances of the time, and by the fact that Richard freely abdicates. To Writing A Thesis? Exton's murder is the middle school killing of a good man, but not regicide (murder of a king). Shakespeare's history plays (especially Henry IV, Part i, the sequel to steps to writing paragraph Richard II ) are quite explicit in condemning treason. Any discussion of these two characters may lead to consideration of recurrent images. The sun and day represent kingly rule; in the first half of the essay middle school play the steps to writing sun image is cover letter for mba marketing fresher claimed by Richard (III,ii and III,iii) but at Harlech Castle (III,ii), Richard speaks of Bolingbroke's fair day, as the crown is to pass to his rival. In the central part of the play (especially III,iii and steps to writing a thesis IV,i) images of ascent and descent recur. We use these metaphorically in essay school, a loose everyday sense to steps a thesis paragraph express ideas of lsu resume status (high and low; going up, coming down) but they are dramatized in III,iii by Richard's action in coming down from the battlements of Flint Castle, to which his words draw our attention (references to the base-court, kneeling and steps a thesis paragraph so on). Finally, as Henry kneels, Richard questions his fealty: Up, cousin, up, your heart is up, I know. Later (IV,i) he will compare himself and Henry to two buckets: as one goes down (full of tears) the other (Bolingbroke) rises.

In any scene, it is instructive to note the middle school forms of address characters use to steps one another. Belief in Richard's continuing title to the throne can be discerned in these. Northumberland is the first to refer to Richard merely by his Christian name; York rebukes him, but Bolingbroke suggests that it is a slip of the lsu resume builder tongue: this may be charitable to Northumberland. A Thesis? After Henry accedes to the throne, characters may or may not refer to college about him as the King; be alert to this. This play is principally about Richard and in the middle and latter parts of the play, he becomes more prominent in the drama.

In Act III he seems by turns pathetic and defiant; his appeal to steps a thesis nature in III,ii is bizarre, his self-pity in this scene and III,iii may appear unattractive. Essays About Learning Disabilities? In IV,i, as he loses the reality of power, Richard seeks to dominate the proceedings. Noting that his throne can be taken away, but not his grief, he performs a series of actions which dramatize his situation. Steps To Writing? These culminate in the smashing of the mirror, an action which suggests a lack of self-control. But in Act V, having taken leave of his wife, Richard gains in dignity. College Essays Learning Disabilities? He is reconciled to his fate, sees the steps a thesis universal character of suffering and meets his death with courage and fortitude. Richard is never a good king, but he becomes a very good man. The king's two bodies and the royal we This should not confuse you too much. The king is believed to cover for mba marketing be two people in one: the ordinary man, and the king's majesty (God's deputy on earth). As these two are embodied in one person, the king refers to himself using the first person plural pronouns we/us to refer to the king and his majesty.

When he is addressed (as king) it is the majesty to whom people speak. This is one of Shakespeare's plays in which theatrical language is not merely the narrative medium, but is paragraph also a subject of the drama: the play is about language. You should be aware that any essay in which you contrast the characters and fortunes of Richard and Bolingbroke will involve comparison of their language, among other things. Briefly, Henry is capable of eloquence, as in his accusation of Mowbray in builder, I, i, in his speeches before the tournament in to writing, I, iii, and especially in his praise of Richard's sun-like majesty in III, iii. But he can be silent, as in his response to essay Northumberland's flattery in II, iii. His speech is business-like where it needs to be, and he has no time for ostentation: as he becomes more powerful, to simplify greatly, so he becomes more sparing of his words.

Richard, by contrast, loves the sound of to writing his own voice. When he has effective power, as at the start of the play, he has a liking for unnecessary display (I, i and I, iii) but is more ready to issue absolute commands than to give reasons (as in II, i). Before he gains power, Henry always tries to justify his actions; when he has power, he tries to present his actions as reasonable, which, mostly, they are. As his power wanes, Richard becomes eloquent in his introspection, engaging our sympathy but indulging in self-pity and jumping to rash conclusions (as in lsu resume, his condemnation of his friends in III, ii). His abdication is blatantly theatrical, but he achieves a more complete humanity and peace with himself in steps to writing paragraph, the play's last act. Richard, as ruler, fails to cover letter resume grasp that the display of authority needs to be backed up with the to writing reality of power . This may mean cultivating his own popularity, as Bolingbroke is said to do (V, i, 7 - 21) but more importantly establishing a broad power base among the nobility and commons, rather than indulging a clique of sycophants while excluding many of the most powerful in the land. From the start of the lsu resume builder play, Shakespeare establishes a sense of utterances forceful in manner, but not backed up by real power. Richard believes in his majesty, a sacred, quasi-magical quality which comes from God and is inalienable (Not all the water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from an anointed king; III, ii, 54 - 55) and so do others, Carlisle wholly and Henry to a point. Steps A Thesis? But the moment powerful people cease to believe in pieces, this (as Northumberland has) the game is up.

There is a calculating quality in Bolingbroke's speech by contrast: he never threatens what he cannot deliver. In II, i, Richard rants at the dying Gaunt, speaking of punishment only forestalled by his uncle's age and sickness, then sets in train the seizure of his estates, wrongly supposing that he can do this without risk. A Thesis? But in III, i, Henry actually executes three of Richard's counsellors, one of them (Wiltshire) a noble, knowing that his action is sanctioned by his and Northumberland's soldiers. Discussion of the play's language can also be thought of in terms of the costco variety of poetic forms and of imagery , especially related groups of images (images of nature, the four elements, the sun) recurring throughout the drama. Space does not permit full discussion of these here, and you are directed for a more extensive treatment to Brodie's Notes , pp. 86 - 91 ( Style: Variety, Word-play, Rhyme, Imagery ) and the section headed Language (pp. 31 - 34) in the introduction to the New Cambridge edition of the play. Steps Paragraph? You should have a clear sense of the different headings or categories under which you would organize comment on the play's language, and be aware that examiners might invite this comment in builder, general or specific terms. It is quite likely, for example, that you might be asked about the to writing paragraph theatrical effectiveness of the play's language - that is, how it works in conveying narrative, giving insight into college, character or attitudes, and engaging the to writing sympathy or revulsion of the audience. Antithesis Speech? The comment below is the outline of a lecture given at steps to writing a thesis paragraph a study day for A level students.

notes from pieces a lecture by Dr. Paul Hammond at Leeds University. Language is not just a medium of the play, but one of its subjects. To Writing Paragraph? Language is used as an instrument of political control and manipulation. We are shown how power operates through language. Antithesis Speech? Political uses of to writing paragraph language can be considered under these headings: The rhetoric of command: Richard uses this early in the play, but not much hereafter. Builder? We were not born to sue, but to command. At the end of this statement Richard admits he is already losing power.

The rhetoric of persuasion: Richard tries to patch up the differences of Bolingbroke and steps to writing Mowbray. This, too, fails. The rhetoric of authentication: Richard and others appeal to the source of their authority. Costco? Richard appeals to God. In doing this he reminds others of the source of his power. Bolingbroke does so: In God's name I'll ascend the regal throne and to writing paragraph Carlisle retorts in antithesis convention, like manner: Marry, God forbid. The rhetoric of display: The power of the steps monarchy is displayed through verbal imagery (compare also the visual stage imagery of pageantry, costume and theatrical display - use of throne, crown and so on: Richard is aware of both kinds of imagery). All these kinds of rhetoric gradually cease to work for Richard. The implication is politically dangerous: that rulers have no power if their subjects refuse to be manipulated. The play is research very concerned with the use of language.

The audience lived in steps to writing a thesis, a society dependent on the spoken word. Lsu Resume Builder? Those who were illiterate would be used to hearing long sermons and stories. Those who were literate were trained at school in to writing paragraph, the arts of using language rhetorically to persuade. Having learned to argue effectively they would be well able to judge others' rhetorical skills. Act I, scene i alerts us to the fact that this play is to be about language. Richard begins with the rhetoric of control and power.

He has a monopoly of command here: he is to be the arbiter of the dispute. In I, iii, the tournament is a ritual with a set order and forms of expression (the closest modern equivalent would be a law court). The ritual here is ancient and traditional and has little to do with Richard's power as king. Paper? He chooses to use his temporal power to break the ritual of divine justice on which the tournament is based (God decides in the trial by combat). Richard halts the contest, asserts his own power and dispenses with the steps paragraph divine justice. He replaces the ritual language with his own personal language, and his words are no longer effective, only decorative. The (musical) flourish at line 122 matches the rhetorical flourish with which his judgement is delivered. The power of Richard's utterances appears as he easily remits four years of Bolingbroke's exile, but its limits are noted by Gaunt (226) who observes that Richard is powerless to extend his life. Though Richard's word is law in this scene, it will not be so for essay long.

From this point in the play we note the contrast between Richard's and Bolingbroke's speech. Steps To Writing A Thesis Paragraph? On his return from exile, Bolingbroke is plain, direct and forceful. In II, iii, line 70 he insist that Berkeley address him by his proper title - Lancaster. When York accuses him of treason in college essays about learning, returning before his exile has expired, he justifies himself by a quibble, taking refuge in a legal nicety. Bolingbroke's actions appear honest for a while, as he metes out justice to Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire, and his simple and effective words and actions are very different from Richard's flourishes and self-glorification. Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire have razed out his imprese, the heraldic sign which declares his identity of Lancaster. However, the audience may be troubled in wondering by to writing a thesis what authority Bolingbroke executes these men. On his return from Ireland (III, ii) Richard greets the lsu resume earth using a familiar image of mother and to writing a thesis child, yet reverses the usual rôles, as he tries to own the earth and direct it to act as an effective agent of harm to his enemies.

This demonstrates Richard's compulsive tendency to retreat into a fantastic world of excess and disproportion. As he invokes spiders and fugitive pieces essay toads to be his soldiers, we are aware that he lacks real forces (he is about to find this out). His language is grotesque and bizarre, not the steps rhetoric of realistic command or persuasion. In this scene, discussion of language becomes explicit: Salisbury, bringing bad news, says: Discomfort guides my tongue while Scroope refers to his own care-tuned tongue. Richard urges morbid conversation: Of comfort no man speak as he wants to sit upon the ground and lsu resume builder tell sad stories. Steps To Writing A Thesis? While Aumerle's brief interruptions are all practical, Richard wants only to talk and write. His musings lead him (151) to question his and convention others' identity. His language isolates him from his supporters; it is no longer functional but self-consolatory. In III, iii, at to writing a thesis line 144, Richard turns the power game into a language game: first he asks a series of questions and proceeds, in lsu resume, self-dramatizing fashion, to answer them (Must he submit?/ The King shall do it. ) Then he changes from he to I, indicating a problem of identity. Steps To Writing Paragraph? He can no longer use language to essay middle school display power, so uses it to display his spirituality, imagining himself as a humble hermit, but the language disturbs by its extravagance.

From line 161 on, the language becomes even more grotesque: Richard shows no interest in to writing a thesis paragraph, confronting Bolingbroke's army, but rather in using his and Aumerle's tears to cause foul weather and middle school dearth or to make a pair of graves. He has retreated into image-making, but communication has broken down. In IV, i, Richard, on his entry, tries to invent a new ritual of uncrowning and to invent the language for this. While Bolingbroke presides over to writing a thesis paragraph the ceremony it is essays about largely Richard who enacts it, and uses the steps a thesis objects of ritual: he transfers the crown, refuses Northumberland's paper, but improvises his own confession, and introduces the letter for mba final ritual object in the mirror, giving a commentary on the destruction of himself which he enacts. In V, v, the solitary Richard recognizes how hard it is to conceive of images, as he tries to invent an imaginary world to people his cell. Steps To Writing A Thesis? He can now see the gap between his ideas and language and the real world; his isolation is about learning disabilities explicit, and he is paragraph aware of it. He now has no audience. At the start of the play everyone is costco paper obliged to acquiesce in Richard's language game. He now has no power, only language, which is decorative and consolatory. We have moved from a world in which images authenticate (real) power, through a struggle to sustain this, to language itself, which is all Richard has left.

Act IV, scene i (the deposition scene); summary of a lecture by David Lindley at Leeds University. Two questions to consider are: Why is the main action preceded by the sections in which Aumerle and Carlisle figure prominently? Why does the scene continue beyond Richard's renunciation of the crown, which is its natural climax? The scene begins the a thesis paragraph second half of the middle play. It recollects the steps a thesis opening of the whole play and school points a parallel between Bolingbroke and steps to writing a thesis Richard. It emphasises the clash of aristocratic pride with law and kingly power. It looks back to costco research events before the play's opening, showing how present events are determined by the past, and steps to writing a thesis paragraph the continuity of history.

It reminds us that the events of the play are historical. Cover Letter Marketing Fresher Resume? Henry IV faces difficulties similar to those of Richard, but he deals with them differently. By way of contrast, Carlisle sets forth a view of the king as above judgement. He foretells future events (in this play, other than prompting Exton's murder of Richard, Henry has avoided bloodshed, but it will come later in his reign). We see the events which cause the to writing a thesis paragraph future. When Richard enters the scene a number of lsu resume people are under suspicion or arrest: Aumerle and a thesis paragraph his supporters, Carlisle, Richard himself. Shakespeare added and speech virginia invented this part of the scene.

There is no historical basis for it. Steps To Writing A Thesis Paragraph? There is no suspense involved in this scene, for its outcome is already known (Richard has earlier given up the crown). The focus is builder not on what is to happen, but how it will happen. It is steps to writing paragraph a struggle for essays disabilities theatrical, not political dominance. Richard tries to gain the audience's attention: note how he swamps Northumberland with words.

This is a play which seems deliberately not to indulge in action. There is suspension or paralysis of action whenever it threatens. How then is our interest sustained? The focus of the to writing scene is on fugitive pieces, objects rather than actions , to each of a thesis paragraph which objects Richard has a different attitude. He resigns the crown , the symbol of fresher resume power. Steps To Writing A Thesis? He refuses to read the convention paper listing his crimes, the symbol of real actions. He smashes the mirror , symbol of vanity and self-knowledge, and steps to writing shadow of his face. It is a dramatic moment when Richard's wish to turn everything into images collapses. This prepares us for the prison scene (V, v). Coping with tasks in A level exams. In preparing for the exam you should be aware of the different kinds of question you will have to answer.

In studying the text closely you should simply realise that the material studied can be approached in different ways in the exam. Tasks based on a passage from the play. In theory any scene in the play could be chosen; in practice the number of suitable scenes is essay more limited, but of course the extract chosen will only be a brief part of a much longer scene. Because of the part of the question (usually) which refers to the themes of the play (not necessarily in so many words) and which implies consideration of steps a thesis paragraph before and after, scenes from the middle of the text are more likely to be chosen. What the examiners do NOT want is a gloss (prose paraphrase) of the extract given. This might make you feel secure, but you won't be.

What (usually) is required is as follows: Consideration of the scene's treatment of the college essays disabilities play's general themes - the extract and its place in relation to the rest of the play. Matters of staging and theatrical presentation as implied in the text: use of objects; movements; relationships on stage (to whom are speeches addressed?) and the scene's structure (in episodes). Questions about theatrical presentation are NOT questions about character and the content of speeches. How a character (or characters) is (are) revealed in the dialogue.

Again, this is not a question which invites paraphrase, but discussion of rhetoric. Usually, the examiners will give you an outline of how you should answer the question. You must organize your answer in these terms. Once again, remember not merely to paraphrase or give a loose running commentary. Tasks based on themes and characters. The examiners want to see lots of material but without irrelevance or sacrifice of depth and thoroughness. In general, essays produced in paragraph, trial examinations have shown too much narrowness of approach.

It is essential to lsu resume plan your essay to ensure that sufficient range of comment appears. This plan need not be beautiful, nor take more than a few minutes, but should be comprehensive. Embody the to writing plan in your opening sentence(s), e.g. In Richard II Shakespeare presents the audience with a range of ideas about the nature of kingship: to Carlisle the right to rule is God-given and inalienable, while for Northumberland the throne is available to the candidate who wields most effective power; between these extremes we see how York, Bolingbroke and, above all, Richard, come gradually to modify their ideas. The example questions below come from past Advanced level papers: #147;It is the cynical and devious who prosper in Richard II .#148; Do you agree? How does Shakespeare present Richard and Bolingbroke as contrasting personalities and kings in Richard II ? By what means and with what success does Shakespeare attempt to secure our sympathy for Richard? In what ways do the minor characters serve to heighten the tragic effect of the play Richard II ? You should deal particularly with two or three characters (other than Richard and lsu resume Bolingbroke). The examiners will play fair and certainly won't set an essay on the Second Herald or the paragraph Welsh Captain. Essays explicitly about fresher a single character are comparatively rare at 'A' level (as they invite the prepared essay). Essays may well be about relationships and the theatrical presentation of characters.

In this play, questions about Richard and Bolingbroke must be expected. Questions about York, Aumerle and Northumberland are also possible. The queen, the caterpillars, Carlisle and Gaunt also contribute to how we see Richard, but are not in enough of the play to sustain essays on their own. Questions on themes look harder but aren't, usually. And they inhibit the retelling-with-comment method you should avoid. The central theme of this play is the nature of kingship. Questions about kingship may appear as questions (or statements to which you respond) about order/disorder, anarchy, rule or government . For example, you may need to discuss the idea of the King's two bodies or whether the play supports the steps to writing a thesis view that not all the letter fresher water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from a thesis th'anointed king.

You may be asked in what sense the play is a history play (how does Shakespeare interpret history to present a debate on ideas of kingship) or how Shakespeare addresses political issues. Letter For Mba Marketing Resume? Any order/disorder question is really a question about the to writing paragraph contrasting approaches and fortunes of Richard and lsu resume builder Henry, which is qualified by the views (on the sources and nature of kingship) of these two, and of others, among them Carlisle, Bagot, Fitzwater, Aumerle, Northumberland, Gaunt and York, as well as the Gardener. If you are given a statement to respond to, do not suppose you must agree or disagree wholly. Steps To Writing A Thesis? Usually, the statement will be more or less fair but will invite some qualification. Wholly wrong comments are never used. Often the accuracy of a statement may depend upon the interpretation given to the text in performance.

Questions about the play as theatre. A third kind of question will allow you to examine the play in explicitly theatrical terms (note that discussion of dramatic qualities is college about learning perfectly in order in the other types of question). Subjects on which you should be ready to steps to writing a thesis paragraph answer would include some of the things discussed in a context-based question, but seen in the perspective of the whole play (structure, actions, properties and language). Other subjects would include the unity (or lack of it) of the play (organic coherence, consistency of tone - see, for example, A. Lsu Resume Builder? P. Rossiter's essay, Uncomformity in Richard II , in to writing a thesis paragraph, the Casebook guide, pp. 214-229) and Shakespeare's use of oppositions or contrasting elements: Richard and fugitive pieces essay Henry; public (formal, ceremonial) and steps paragraph private (informal) scenes; action and inaction; Northumberland's power politics and Carlisle's divine right of kings, and so on: these things are not to be examined simply in their own right, but in terms of learning disabilities their effect on the play as a work of theatre.

As language is to writing a thesis paragraph of such importance here, this is middle discussed more fully in a separate section of this guide. A very basic outline for revision. Use this very basic outline to learn the structure of the play. Adapt or customize it to steps suit your preferred methods of college about learning study. Bolingbroke challenges Mowbray (Norfolk) for killing his uncle (Gloucester). Richard declares a tournament at Coventry. Gaunt rejects Duchess's (Gloucesters's widow's) plea for revenge: God's is the quarrel. Coventry - the a thesis paragraph lists - no result but Mowbray and model essay middle school Bolingbroke (Henry, Hereford, Lancaster, King) banished. Richard plans to take Gaunt's estates. Gaunt makes mega-patriotic speech and dies. Richard is rude and seizes his goods; Northumberland is unimpressed and tells of a very tasty plot (lots of names) France - heading for Ravenspurgh.

Bushy, Bagot and the queen - surely the least memorable scene in the play; Bagot goes to Ireland; the other two (Greene, Bushy) don't. York is worried. Bolingbroke near Berkeley - meets pals and York. Salisbury and to writing paragraph a Welsh captain tell us Richard has lost his army - rumoured to be dead. Caterpillars - Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire get the chop (why not Bagot? See above). Harlech - king gets lots of bad news but makes some ace speeches: Spiders. toads,Not all the water in the rough rude sea. and For God's sake let us sit upon letter for mba marketing, the ground. . Flint Castle - Richard like the sun on the ramparts but comes down into the base court and says Up, cousin, up. Steps To Writing Paragraph? . The Queen and builder the Gardener - cue a load of metaphors. Very easy - it's all one scene; note its structure and the use of objects (the gages, the throne, the crown and steps to writing a thesis the mirror etc. etc.) Richard abdicates and Henry becomes king (How? When?) Plot at the end like in II, i, but this time its Carlisle, Westminster and Aumerle against model essay middle Henry. (No chance of to writing a thesis this one succeeding). First of (too) many scenes: Richard bids dignified farewell to builder his queen, and is diverted from the to writing a thesis paragraph Tower of London to Pomfret (sounds like pommes frtes) Castle.

York is sorry for Richard but supports Henry now, and essays learning proves it by reporting his son's plotting. Henry is worried about his unthrifty son (Hal, later Henry V) an advert for the next play in steps to writing, the series. Cue for some slapstick as Aumerle rushes in, asks Henry to lock the door, then York turns up, then the Duchess. Marketing? Henry graciously spares Aumerle but demotes him to Rutland. Exton thinks he should kill Richard. (v) Richard in prison; he is philosophical and resolute; he learns from the groom of his horse's disloyalty and is duly murdered. To Writing A Thesis Paragraph? Northumberland and Fitzwater have sorted out the would-be rebels. Westminster has died (naturally) but Carlisle is banished. Exton is also banished and Henry decides to go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land to make up for what he's done. But he never goes (Why not?) Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the URL of lsu resume any pages you use, and/or include the copyright symbol. Suggestions for improvement are welcome.

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A New Information System for Prism Glass Essay. The consulting team should strongly advise the CEO that postponing standards and steps to writing a thesis paragraph, controls is not advisable. Rather than save time and essay, money, the company will probably lose time in the future when unanticipated problems and weaknesses arise due to the lack of standards and controls. The following are reasons why performance standards and control procedures should be established before the steps to writing a thesis paragraph, system becomes operational: Information System Briefing Essay. go-live mode, the antithesis speech virginia convention, new system maintenance begins. This consists of the IT team making any necessary changes, fixing any glitches or kinks, and installing required updates to the system. In addition, nearly 80% of the allotted budget goes toward the cost for the maintenance of to writing information systems (Wager, Wickham Lee, Glaser, 2009) . Goals Toward the Selection An organizations goal drives the selection of an information system by directly identifying problems with the builder, system currently in place process into a more meaningful customer information. Systems on the other hand are coupled or connected group of parts or element working together to achieve a particular goal. Steps A Thesis Paragraph! For example, the human body, it a system composed of model essay middle school different parts that are coupled together and they work together to keep the human body functioning.

With these two definitions in place we can clearly define what Information systems are. According to (Stahl, 2008) information system is a field of inquiry which is concerned Information System Briefing Essay. To Writing! office on the other may only focus on antithesis virginia an IT system that supports electronic health records. Steps To Writing! ( The MITRE Corporation, 2006) Stakeholders roles In a pharmacy setting the Pharmacist, Pharmacist technician and lsu resume, patients would represent the stakeholders. Each group will have a specific duty in the implementation of a new IT system. In a privately owned pharmacy the Pharmacist is responsible for training the Pharmacy technician in the proper usage of the new system. To Writing A Thesis Paragraph! He is also responsible for following up Information Technology and System Essay. Aside from fugitive pieces essay identifying user needs and relating those needs to information resources, new methods of computing and personal information systems are growing out of the paragraph, web and offer two major advantages: high information bandwidth, and wide acceptance by the community. Another important aspect is fugitive that society is adopting the WWW as a vantage point that allows them to access information, thus taking them into new areas of communication and technology. These virtual libraries have been key to the Essay on Accounting Information Systems. are only tools used for accounting information systems. Accounting information systems is a collection of parts such as documents, linked together to achieve a common goal such as collecting and steps paragraph, reporting information needed by decision makers in the organization. Majority of accounting information systems are formed of five general parts.

These parts are inputs, processes, outputs, storage, and internal controls. The inputs of an accounting information system will be the source documents or raw Business Information Systems Essay. the criteria for making predictions. Several Environmental Monitoring Information Systems (EMIS) have been developed worldwide for assisting environmentalists in their tasks. Costco Paper! These systems vary from platforms for to writing a thesis, integrating heterogeneous data sources, to real-time monitoring systems. For example, the New Zealand Distributed Information System (NZDIS) is an agentbased architecture for lsu resume, integrating environmental information systems (Purvis et al. 2003). Similarly, the InfoSleuth project used agents for Information System and Technology Essay. stocking control of BPM is largely depend on steps to writing paragraph management directors’ experience not the statistic analysis from information systems, which may bring risks to model essay middle school the business. According to the problems above, most problems are caused by the lack of using information systems and technologies but not the external environment. BPM is supposed to set up a new information system and use suitable information technologies in order to enhance competitiveness over the fast-growing digital music industry and promote Midterm for Information System Essay.

B) networked environment. Steps To Writing! C) IT infrastructure. D) information system. Answer: C 21) From a business perspective, raw data is transformed systematically during various stages, transforming it into antithesis convention, valuable information, in a process called A) the information value chain. B) the to writing, IT value chain.

C) information processing. D) feedback. Answer: A 22) The costs for firms operating on a global scale have been drastically reduced by A) networking technology. B) Management Information System Essay. in the twenty-first century. Businesses must adapt to this new world of digitization or stand to lose thousands of builder customers and millions of dollars. Technology, to a large extent, has driven organizations to paragraph change the way they operate and that includes the way they manage. We’re going to take an in-depth look at how organizations work and how they’ve been transformed by technology. What’s New in Management Information Systems? It seems that changes in technology are never-ending.

The Essay on Information System Briefing. Pieces Essay! The selection of a new healthcare information system (HIS) has been known to be overwhelming process for most clinicians. If the company can prevent any past mistakes of other companies that have tried but failed that will be of lessons learned. What’s to keep in mind is number of steps a thesis collaborators involved in electronic healthcare interventions. It’s identified and classified by five categories: data management, data creation, data sharing, modules management and data presentation. When reading

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construct resume job Exact circle division by steps a thesis five #151; how to draw the school, perfect five point star. What Natural (whole) numbers divide a circle exactly? Meet the perfect all-star families. Construct the real and the virtual shapes #151; and take them to 3D.

Give me a ring and I will make it sing G eometric construction of the pentagram, pentacle, pentagon, and the five pointed star #151; and spice it up here and steps paragraph, there with three kinds of pieces essay, ten pointed stars. H ow to sketch a five pointed star on a clock template, for kids [yes, pick a better shade of a thesis, pink]. Tilt and rotate and double them. draw stars of lsu resume builder, pentagrams and pentagons using a compass and straightedge (two geometric methods) construct a pentacle directly inside your own circle or with your own sides length (point-to-point dimension).

What you pick #151; large or small #151; will be a rational and therefore an exact measure. tell the diff between a pentacle and a pentagram and why there are several pentacles. determine the inside and outside angles of to writing a thesis, a pentagram. find the costco paper, golden proportions that are inherent in a penta. star and grow them, too.

make a five-point star indirectly via pentagon tiling #151; and vice versa. create fancy five pointed stars plus a ten pointed hyperstar from a half-square rectangle (in a new tab) get the only harmonious ten pointed star of a thesis, a decagram by always skipping 6 points. design 5 point stars as art forms #151; inherit the energies if you stick to nature. combine the up and down pointing pentacles into a brand new hyperstar. On five circles. Letter Fresher! You'll be in the micro but this is paragraph huge. W hat does it mean if a pentagram is encircled once or twice #151; a star is on a single circle or in-between of two concentric circles. built from interlocking rings.

S ymmetry in a five pointed star #151; there are several kinds of model essay school, symmetry and steps a thesis, .. .. A perfect three pointed star can be had on a circle or semicircle #151; and it's doubled for a regular six-point star or a hexagon already. You could divide a circle by 3 exactly but a general 3-way division applicable to universe building and traveling can also be had. Hexagon and hexagram stars are behind viruses. A perfect square is a four pointed star.

A n eight pointed star and a twelve pointed star share the same construction. B oth stars are perfect and both take you beyond counting as well. 16 and antithesis, 24 pointed stars also share the same construction. Just as the eight and paragraph, 12 pointed stars, they are in the 3:2 musical ratio and because the letter, growth of paragraph, stars in this ratio is pieces unbounded we have a separate page on to writing paragraph that (in a new tab) H ow many perfect stars can you make with geometry?

With arithmetic? Number 36 is (abundantly) divisible by 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 #150; yet, you cannot make a perfect 36 pointed star. Geometry vs. Arithmetic is lsu resume a very old topic, very unresolved, and very relevant; and. Numbers are not just symbols. Steps To Writing A Thesis! In a circle they make 1 ) stars on paper and 2 ) atoms in space. A comment on a seven pointed star (heptagon). Hit a snag in a circle, but .. P entagon Pyramid . Fusion of numbers in three dimensions is good but it is not about averaging. T he four sided Great Pyramid construction is via the golden proportion and has its own page (in a new tab) A five pointed star just for kids.

If you can tell time you can sketch this and other stars by hand. Research! Oh, use the free template below at steps to writing a thesis first. I'm the author of the illustration above but this one is freed from copyright. (With the Chrome browser you can drag-and-drop this illustration onto your desktop as the .gif file.) Have a look at some pics from the stone circle at costco research paper Avebury in Wiltshire, UK. Draw a star, any perfect star.

Can you see how you could lay out and sketch several stars using but one construct from the clock's minutes? You probably haven't heard the word 'a construct,' but a template is usually just for tracing and copying. Can you join the points by skipping some? Odd and even number of points makes a big difference. Here are the from-the-ground-up geometric constructions of eight and a thesis paragraph, 16 point stars of research paper, a compass rose. [ Now, can you imagine making ALL perfect polygons and stars in the above 60 pt construct? If each point were to glow differently for each star, would you get a cool and unique pattern I could lock on to half way across the galaxy? Oh, you make it glow by having each point a semiconductor junction, similar to steps paragraph an LED.

For the school, junction you need an a thesis paragraph, amorphous substrate and college about disabilities, a crystaline piece of a rock. Steps To Writing A Thesis! Because you want to power up the whole circle, your power source is costco research a bit more than just a single lay line. Except, how would you stop the paragraph, primitives on the planet from messing with the stones? Yeah, it is all sacred feminine kind of stuff. If that doesn't work, cover the whole thing with soil a call it an ancient sacred burial mound.] Historically, geometric drawing of a pentagram star was considered a secret. Lsu Resume Builder! One can appreciate keeping the steps to writing a thesis, formula and directions secret because the essays about, construction of a five-point star is not obvious even if you worked in steps, geometry for some time. Yet, if you could draw the perfect star only through geometry, the secrecy takes on extra dimensions. Cover Letter Marketing Fresher Resume! To draw a (regular) pentagon, the segment must be exactly one fifth going around the circle. Stars are pretty and circles are everywhere, yet there is but slowly growing understanding of stars and circles. (This is not the steps, case in China, for the Taoist movement and Taoist philosophy can be said to paper issue from a circle.) A circle gap exists not because we've lost our compass or a desire to admire crop circles, but it is because a circle is frowned upon by the Catholic Church and steps a thesis paragraph, because the reductionists of the 20th Century lost the link to the source of a 0D point. College Essays Disabilities! With it, we also lost great things that the paragraph, dimension zero brings to the table.

So there is a book coming out letter for mba marketing, late 2013 resurrecting a circle as well as the steps a thesis, stars that are the dimension zero's first application. Model Essay School! Oh, 99% of all moving energy in the universe is in spin and orbits. Not only that. If you want to build something that doesn't just fly away, you have to do it in a circle (you cannot build an atom or a planetary system as a static entity). Going through external edits, the working title of the book is ' Stars and Rings .' No whole number can divide a circle exactly arithmetically but some whole numbers can divide a circle exactly geometrically. This is the to writing a thesis, first differentiator between geometry and arithmetic.

When it comes to dividing a circle's circumference (or area) with a straightedge and compass, we always strive for the exact division. The perfection is not about some quirky obsessions of ancient Greeks and today's teachers, however. If we finish our assignment in a finite number of steps and achieve an for mba marketing fresher resume, exact division, we would then claim executability and creation of such structures could be implemented in nature. Computer's arithmetic gives us precise #151; but not exact #151; answers when working with incommensurable (irrational and to writing a thesis paragraph, transcendental) numbers, but the geometric way can be exact and have much utility just because of fugitive pieces, that. We will apply the division of a circle in the atomic construction below. Yes, the a thesis, exact construction is fugitive pieces about the (exact) conservation of energy. If the length of a circle's straight segment (cord) is steps to writing paragraph exact, then the segment's length is unambiguous and can be expressed as a finite number. A finite number is virginia convention also a rational number. If the cord's length were an irrational number then such number's sub-unity portion (mantissa) is infinite and we could not agree on to writing its exact length #151; but we could agree on lsu resume the exact distance between the two end points because the two end points can be constructed exactly geometrically. Irrational numbers are executable (or expressible) geometrically but not arithmetically.

This is the second differentiator between geometry and arithmetic. You might skip on the diff between length and distance right now #151; later you may avail to steps to writing paragraph the explanation and construction of the incommensurable numbers (irrationals and transcendentals). Instructions on pieces geometric division of a circle into five equal and exact parts #151; in five steps: If you want to construct the penta. with a circle radius of your choice , point A is one unit distance (one-half of the a thesis, radius) away from origin O . When you divide a circle into exact fifths along the periphery you now have the template and research paper, : Finish the pentagon by connecting every neighboring point and to writing, erase the circle. Inscribe it counterclockwise if you want to be disharmonious (ratio 9:5), clockwise if harmonious (6:5). (Cw and ccw makes a big difference #151; think enhanced modulo math.

Ccw is letter marketing resume acw for the Brits.) Make the pentacle by steps to writing a thesis connecting every other (second) point. Model Middle! If you do it counter-clockwise, you will be doing it in the 8:5 ratio, which is harmonious, and steps a thesis, you should not have a problem with that once you understand that the underlying pattern mechanics are clockwise #151; it's on model middle the Venus page. Pentacle is the a thesis paragraph, easiest and the simplest to do because it does not require erasing. Research Paper! Does it mean it is the most fundamental? Complete the steps to writing, pentagram from pentacle by erasing the circle. Make the five pointed star from lsu resume pentagram by erasing the inside (smaller, upside down) pentagon. Also see pentagon tiling, further on. The unit distance u is the shortest distance used in construction of a particular star. All other parameters (radius/radii, cord) are then calculated in terms of to writing paragraph, u . Antithesis Virginia! This is new . All formulas for stars should be computed from the unit distance and not from, say, a radius because there are star constructions that use several circles. In our example, the equation for the length of the cord c in the above construction comes from two Pythagorean relations and is quite involved:

In either case, you can now substitute any distance for u and get the measures of the rest of steps paragraph, star's parameters. There is more to this. Geometrically, the paper, square root of five, for example, can be of any length and this length issues from the paragraph, unit distance used in the construction of the SQRT(5). When working the pyramid you first have to find the unit distance before making sense of the rest of the (micro and/or macro) proportions. Polygons and stars.

gon identifies the point connections that go straight from one point to the nearest next point on a single circle #151; poly gon in general. When you say regular polygon you are emphasizing that all segments span the same distance and lsu resume, all points are on one circle. Stars do not have to take a straight path from to writing paragraph one point to the next and do not all have to be on but one circle. The star's points could be connected by a curve or a kink line or the college essays about learning disabilities, connections just skip one or more points. As you go around the center from one point to the next, you might keep turning in but one direction and then the star is said to steps to writing a thesis be convex. Regular polygons are always convex. Sometimes the points move inbound and out, particularly with multiple circles holding the points, and model, you keep turning left and right when moving from steps a thesis paragraph point to point. In such case the star is paper said to be concave. This is how things stood until our hyperstar, which has groups of three points lined up straight (and there are no turns).

The hyperstar is discussed in the right column. The hyperstar is not regular. All points of all regular stars and polygons are on a circle and to writing a thesis paragraph, are equally -- that is evenly, and exactly spaced going around the circle. The best way of college essays learning disabilities, seeing it is that they have the exact fraction of a circle between them. However, only some stars are constructible exactly #151; see Perfect Families.

As to the actual angles between points #151; see below, for steps a thesis paragraph these angles could be irrational numbers. (For now, ask yourself if a protractor can give you any irrational angle.) Having said all that about polygons and stars, don't get hung up on technicalities. A star is such a pretty word (and polygon such an ugly one), that using a star for both is just fine. Some say 'twelve sided' when talking about a polygon and 'twelve pointed' when talking about a star. If there is lsu resume a section of a circle with a start and a stop, such as when speaking of the Signs of the Zodiac, 'twelve sided' makes more sense. If you read other things about a thesis, geometric stars, don't get derailed by mainstream math classification of stars. Scientists do not take into account the cw or ccw star creation, likely because the mainstream does not know the applications difference between the two. Speech Virginia! (Harmony-disharmony enters here but there is more to it besides cw or ccw.) Also, math guys presently keep one point fixed and the other point advancing cw in a circle by a certain number of steps to make the next point of to writing a thesis paragraph, a star. But of course, mainstream scientists are in the Dark Ages thinking there is a fixed reference point.

The Quantum Pythagoreans book gives all planets orbiting frequencies from which the essay school, stars are made and, gee, the Earth is orbiting while the cw or ccw point-to-point trace arises mathematically from that. To Writing A Thesis Paragraph! Mainstream math guys' definition of a star is that you can see all parts of a star from marketing fresher its center. To Writing A Thesis Paragraph! This is a great example of a definition of arm chair convenience because the Venus-Earth interplay makes a cool curlicue between points of a five pointed pentacle star and this does not match the scientists' definition of a star #151; so here is ours. Why should a circle division be made of equal (evenly distanced) segments? There is pieces essay nothing wrong with unequal lengths if that's your fancy and there could be a really good reason with a heptagon (see below).

However, an to writing a thesis, electron's wavelength is proportional to the electron's energy and if several wavelengths of one electron were to fit (were to close) around the nucleus then they have to do so in whole multiples of the same distance. It's about the numbers (in a circle). There are many geometric ways of constructing pentagon or pentagram patterns and symbols. The construction presented here has the length of the side of the model essay school, pentagon c the incommensurable (irrational) distance #151; that is, the measure of the side's distance is composed of an infinite number of digits (that do not repeat individually or as a group). Paragraph! Other constructions make the virginia convention, side c a rational distance, which is better suited for the Great Pyramid's purposes. Steps! In the pyramid, one half of the side of the base is (must be) a rational unit of measure, for such measure is executable and can become. (For transcendentals you may have to put a kink in that.) The connection between the fugitive essay, five sided pentagon/pentagram and the four sided Great Pyramid is through the to writing paragraph, golden proportion , a subject that lets you understand how to draw and construct the Great Pyramid, and include the essays disabilities, pinch on its side. Angles in to writing paragraph, a five p ointed star and how they relate to essays learning the golden proportion. Determination of pentagram's angles is easy #151; on the interior or the exterior. Steps To Writing! First, if (any) two angles have their arms intersecting at 90 degrees then the costco, two angles are the steps to writing a thesis, same. The central (Egyptian) star below has 360/5=72 degrees between its arms. Learning Disabilities! Because the arms (rays, spikes) of this star are at a thesis right angles to other angles then such angles are also 72 degrees.

You will get to paper 108? angle inside the pentagon with the subtraction of the 72? angle from 180? (from a straight line). Steps! You will note two special triangles on the pentagram when making design extensions to the sides (below). One has the interior angles of 72, 72, and 36 degrees while the second one's angles are 36, 36, and 108 degrees. Both of model essay middle school, these triangles are golden because their sides are in the golden proportion. There are many other golden proportions on to writing the pentagram but these two kinds of triangles are important in the micro (atomic) domain, particularly as related to orbital jumps. In multiples of one tenth of a circle. All angles internal and lsu resume builder, external to the pentagram or the steps to writing paragraph, five pointed star are in multiples of 1/10 of a circle: from 36? on to 72?, 108?, 144?, 180? . 324?, 360?. A circle can be divided by fresher 10 exactly and so all angles in and around a pentagram are exact and perfect. A pentagram, aka pentalpha, is steps a prominent symbol of the Pythagoreans. It is marketing fresher resume said the pentagram is steps to writing paragraph good for one's health, and there could be something to it considering the golden proportions that are all over the star.

I think it is also likely the pentagram's prominence is paper due to having an abundance of the steps to writing a thesis paragraph, number 10 while adding a circular aspect to the many number 10 aspects of the Pythagorean Tetractys. College Essays Learning Disabilities! The number 10 is also fundamental in designs of obelisks, including the Washington Monument. Self-test:-) If you think an obelisk is a phallic symbol then you've just begun. The angle of 144? seems obscure (it's on the outside of the star) but it's the only angle you'll need if you want to to writing paragraph draw a pentagram with a computer program the likes of 'Turtle,' 'Scratch,' or 'Logo.' The program would run like this (in pseudocode): Move 100 pixels [forward] If these computer instructions do not mean much to model middle you, you are doing well. First you want to to writing a thesis paragraph create the letter for mba fresher, geometric foundation #151; yes, in your mind, before resorting to a computer. The golden proportion consists of to writing a thesis paragraph, two numbers that at times relate through a ratio, in which case we speak of the essay, golden ratio.

The two golden numbers consist of a thesis, one irrational number a that is ( 1 + SQRT(5) ) and one rational number b that is 2 and, because these two numbers may relate to each other through multiplication or division or addition or subtraction or. they should not be reduced into a single number. Reduction into a single number severely limits the application of the golden proportion and that is one reason scientists like to reduce it as the Phi [scientists have reductionist tendencies #150; perhaps not a disease but it could be a handicap]. Reduction into builder, one number hides other relationships the two golden numbers might have. The golden spiral. Golden spiraling happens naturally in 2D or 3D as you observe the golden proportions and figure out how you could grow them. Fancy math will give you a smooth spiral but if you stick to the golden proportion you will be going in discrete steps. Steps To Writing A Thesis Paragraph! (You'll need to understand why staying with the golden steps is superior to smooth fancy math. It has nothing to do with efficient packing of seeds/objects, and you just might see the quantum effects on the macro scale.) Once you start putting the golden proportions in the circular format, mathematically you'll be working the point/radial symmetry while entering a new area of endeavor. Also known in general as tessellations, doing it in 5-fold rotational symmetry is favorite of Dürer, Kepler, Penrose.. .. All pieces that make up sets for the five-fold 2D tiling have their angles in multiples of 1/10 of a circle . The multiples of 1/10 of letter for mba resume, a circle construct the a thesis paragraph, shapes of diamonds, pentagons, ships, kites, darts, or double-decagons. A fancy Ninja star design on left also has all of its angles in tenths of a circle.

The hyperstar goes even further using an exact division of a circle while providing constructs for orbital jumps. There is yet another (and last) golden triangle and that one does not appear on a pentagram. It has a right angle and its hypotenuse with the shortest side are also in the golden proportion. This triangle is one-half of the antithesis convention, Great Pyramid going across the mid face and into to writing a thesis, the center of the base. You can see it below on lsu resume builder our Golden Eye design. Pentagon Dimension Priority : Diameter Dim or Point-to-point Length Dim. There is a dual approach to a geometric pentagon star construction. You can either specify the diameter of a circle that will place all points, or the length of a pentagon's side that specifies the distance between points. Steps To Writing! In either case you start the construction with the shortest unit length of 1 . On this page we show two constructions with Diameter dimension priority and in letter for mba, both examples the diameter ends up 4 units long (radius of 2).

This means you can construct a star with a circle diameter of your choice because there is the exact 1:4 relationship (scale) between the unit length you started with and the diameter of the pentagon's circle. In the paragraph, case of a point-to-point Length dimension priority, or side Length priority, you start the golden proportion construction with the unit length of 1 . When finished, the antithesis, pentagon will scale to the side length of 2 . Steps To Writing A Thesis! Pentagon construction with side Length priority has the exact side of lsu resume builder, your choice and is on steps the golden proportion page. A circle has many positive connotations. What would be the learning disabilities, idea of dividing it? Once you know what numbers can divide a circle, you can then build a circle. Not [yet] from real things such as wood or metal but from waves. It turns out a thesis, that the waves must have a particular wavelength count (a particular multiple of particular energies) before these waves are able to close in a circle -- and thus be symmetrical about a point. You need to know what numbers can divide a circle before you can construct the circle from waves. You might think this is something witches do, and you would be right, but an essays about learning disabilities, electron is a wave that wraps around the nucleus, too. There is (always) a bit more to this.

When a circle's periphery is cut and has a small gap, funny things happen as forces arise. One could call this a circle corruption and in a way it is. Yet the forces that arise are not corrupting, for steps a thesis paragraph they attempt to close the circle and .. (think free energy). The making of a circle is also about taking a step from 1D to essay 2D. There, you will find the a thesis paragraph, friendly transcendental number Pi. To round it off, you may want to essay school learn more about the squaring of a circle, for it is about the straight and curving geometries. Steps Paragraph! We did not forget the ancient Egyptians and use the example of the virginia, five pointed star as one of the steps in working the circle and the square.

The golden proportion and paragraph, Pi get very close to each other. The five pointed star is made from the golden proportion and then the marketing fresher resume, squaring of a circle and the five pointed star are closely related. Not everybody likes geometry. In case you don't, you can blame your teacher or _______, but in to writing, the not-so-final analysis it is about you. Geometry is about movement and placement in space, from an atom in your body to your ship as a whole.

Lots of geometry is in a plane and you have a good argument if you say your head is not flat. So let me cut to antithesis speech the chase. Steps Paragraph! The intelligence is in 3D and your head is just fine for that provided you are able to intercept it. Lots of free energy is in 2D and it can be harnessed there once you figure out essay, how to relate 3D to 2D. Oh, to relate 1D to 2D you'll get into the squaring of a circle, which is something you want to do if you'd like to steps a thesis paragraph make atoms. (Light is in 1D and energy of an atomic electron cannot be in 1D #151; it would leave the atom.) The linear movement is in 1D while the atom and essays learning disabilities, gravitation need 0D for spin. Your challenge, desire, need, or necessity is to understand and work the Pythagorean tetra(ctys) of 0D through 3D because that is how the universe is built and you want to to writing a thesis paragraph continue to be a nifty and smart participant in it. Symmetry in a five pointed star. Symmetry has appeal. Builder! It makes things look nice but it could be difficult to move beyond that. There are similarities with reflections in a mirror #151; or refractions through a focus of steps to writing paragraph, a lens. Fugitive! You might love crystals but it is tough to explain what symmetry brings to the table.

Aristotle could not apply numbers beyond counting and it was then easier for him to stick to generalities ('nature abhors a vacuum,' 'prime mover') and even poke fun at Pythagoreans. There are two kinds of symmetries : even and odd. The even symmetry duplicates things about the (usually vertical) axis while the odd symmetry duplicates things by half-circle rotation about a point at the origin, which is the steps to writing a thesis paragraph, center of the circle used to make the star. Symmetries issue from geometry (and geometry issues from numbers). The even (or axial) symmetry is unique to energy and includes intelligence.

Esoterically it is the head of the Sphinx while the empty space between the research paper, Sphinx' front paws is the (virtual) line of the axis of the to writing, even symmetry. The odd (or point) symmetry is unique to charge and matter. The even symmetry is speech inclusive while the odd symmetry is exclusive. Self-test:-) If you think erecting a physical object between the Sphinx front paws is corruptive, you are doing well. A five pointed star, point up or down, has even symmetry but no odd symmetry. You could also have heard of 'rotational' symmetry. When a five pointed star rotates one fifth of a circle, it overlaps exactly with the original star. You want to differentiate the rotational symmetry from the even and odd symmetries. To Writing! Rotational symmetry is applicable in the rotationally-moving context and indeed there are plenty of situations for that.

I like to call the even and odd symmetries the placement symmetries while the rotational symmetry is one of the movement symmetries. Placement is for building things (this includes the atom) while the movement is not only for research paper physical movement but also for transformations. Mainstream physicists use the term 'symmetry breaking' when dealing with the ocurrence of different symmetries. They (the scientists) assume everything should be in 3D and anything else is a form of deviation (breaking) from that. This is very stupid. Steps A Thesis Paragraph! The fundamental thing to look for speech virginia is computability. If the a thesis paragraph, system is computable, it will happen. The system will then exist in letter resume, several and in any and all symmetries, as long as it is computable. But of course, the computability conditions are spelled out and explained in the Quantum Pythagoreans book. This talk about symmetries becomes introductory once you begin to appreciate that the (law of the) conservation of to writing a thesis, energy is based on the conservation of symmetries. The conservation of geometric symmetries is then a more fundamental law.

There is a bit on this in the Quantum Pythagoreans book but then it is extended even more in the upcoming Stars and Rings book. Essays About Learning Disabilities! What? Who needs cables? Five pointed star in a circle. There are three sources #150; and steps a thesis paragraph, therefore more than one meaning #150; of the five pointed star. College Essays About Learning! One meaning has its origin in the exact (geometric) division of a circle and is discussed on this page. Steps! It is a fairly complex though rewarding topic that leads to college essays about learning disabilities the symbolism of a star issuing from a single circle. To Writing A Thesis Paragraph! Another root comes from two orbits (hence two concentric circles/rings) of Venus and Earth, and is discussed and traced there . (Venus, while most prominent through the five pointed star, is also associated with the model essay school, number eight and the meaning of the diagonal.) The third source of the to writing paragraph, five pointed star calls on non-concentric yet interlocking rings . The separation of the fugitive pieces essay, circles is in the golden proportion and this new five pointed and unique hyperstar construction has its own bookmark on the golden proportion page. This brings us to the diff between the sign/drawing of steps to writing, a pentagram and a pentacle . A pentagram is a five pointed star drawn with five straight and unbroken lines, aka the Pythagorean pentalpha. A penta cle has a cir cle (s) around the virginia, star. Yet, these are but technical differences.

There are three separate origins associated with a pentagram and you may want to show a pentacle to point out the root. In other words, a pentagram always issues from orbits/orbitals/circles/rings/rotation and there are three separate ways to do so, as follows: 1 ) A single circle around the star makes it the classical or atomic pentacle that comes from to writing atomic construction, and a single circle shows the standing wave around the nucleus -- the orbitals. Pagan-wise the model essay, classical pentacle stands for earth and steps paragraph, if you think of it as 'materia' (from Latin), it's a close match to 'atomic.' 2 ) Two concentric circles around the star make it the cosmic or planetary pentacle and the two circles are the orbits of Venus and Earth (can be computed via modulo math from the clockwise 8:5 orbit ratio and in the illustration on model essay left the orbits are to scale). Points are between and close to the midpoint of the two orbits and the pentagram rotates (why that is so is on the Venus page). For Pagans, the double circle around the steps to writing a thesis, star is about 'drawing down the Goddess,' and the circle diameters are calculated along with point sequencing on the Venus page. If you speak of or draw a planetary pentagram , then you are substituting the costco research paper, two concentric circles with Venus and Earth symbols because you know there are several pentagram sources. 3 ) Separated but interlocked circles (rings) with centers at the hips of the steps to writing a thesis, pentagram show two separate atoms joined in a molecule, which I call the hyperstar pentacle . This is new and I don't presently know of anybody applying the fugitive pieces, hyperstar pentacle.

Although I think the steps a thesis paragraph, hyperstar explains the atomic separation in a molecule, there are many, many meanings and applications. My feel is associating the college essays learning, hyperstar with friendship, marriage and angels. I like using it in Tai Chi and here is an example. A classical pentacle can be rotated/turned about the circle's center if someone wants to to writing paragraph do an upside down 5 point star. With the hyperstar, however, I flip the antithesis, pentacle about the hips and then a completely new 10 point hyperstar happens -- a star with nothing but the golden triangles.

See below. [Flipping something about an a thesis paragraph, axis is antithesis virginia a feminine operation.] The abundance of the golden proportions associated with all penta. constructions deserves an a thesis paragraph, analysis of its own. Whether it leads to harmonizing your environment and having good luck, building a pyramid, or even growing it into nature based religions the likes of Wicca or Shinto, the golden proportions are indeed linked to space borne intelligent energies. Once the circular geometries are engaged you'll end up with the pentagram. It is then okay to draw just the pentagram but you want to draw the various pentacles if you want to show where the pentagram is coming from. For example, ancient Egyptians call the pentagon 'The Womb' and if you retain the circles on the hyperstar you just might see it. Okay guys, another story has Isis looking for Osiris' parts. She found all except the phallus, which was eaten by virginia convention a fish. Strange story. Well, if you retain the circles you just might see a fish doing its thing. [So, is the hyperstar a lost ancient Egyptian star or is it THE Star, the most secret one?

I haven't seen it in their art but their stories sure seem to point at steps a thesis such possibilities. Self-test:) If you take the fish story personally and say ouch, for example, you are missing the alchemical dimension.] Pythagorean pentagram/pentacle symbolism is a bit different and possibly more sophisticated if you think in the square-a-circle context. The pentagram is research encircled once and steps to writing a thesis, then a second ring is added as a piece of jewelry. The second ring is then at the right angle to the first. (The illustration is from Secret Teaching by Manly Hall.) Regarding the Satanic or (d)evil or demon side of the upside down (inverted) pentagram or pentacle, consider it a feeble attempt at corruption by the self-proclaimed sign-of-the-beast creator and almost-priest Levi. You want to know where corruption comes from and essay, then you are in position to overcome it. In this case the upside down pentagram could issue from natural rotation of the Earth-Venus cosmic/planetary pentacle in the solar plane -- with the sun in the center -- and then the to writing, satanic notion loses its meaning once you appreciate that the cosmic pentacle's rotation does not stop and essays, there is no 'up' and 'down' of the solar plane to paragraph begin with, just as you cannot tell if the whole coin on the right having odd (point, sun) symmetry is up or down. (Under odd symmetry every point has a second point on the other side of the center of essay, rotation.) If you want to unambiguously show the star's point-up or point-down placement on a coin, you have to steps a thesis place the star next to a non-symmetrical reference such as an animal (or introduce the even/mirror symmetry, which is the case in nature). Antithesis Convention! The coin's design is odd-symmetrical, but if the lower half is erased then odd symmetry is gone.

It is then easy to see that the star placement becomes point-up because 'Republic' now provides up-down reference. So you can appreciate that up side down is not a given under odd symmetry alone because when your reference is but a point (such as the Sun in the center), you could see the star one way looking from the paragraph, center and college essays learning, the opposite to writing way looking into the center. Moreover, cw and ccw rotation can be differentiated -- think mirror symmetry and angular momentum in 3D, which also means that 'above' aka heads and 'below' aka tails can be diffed absolutely under rotation. Geometric stars' origin is from orbits (macro) or orbitals (micro). College Learning Disabilities! Micro includes both the atomic and/or molecular (valence) orbitals. This means that the stars issue from odd [masculine] symmetry.

Yet, to get unambiguous and stable solutions, both the odd and even [feminine] symmetries are needed. Ancient Egyptians include a horizontal bar with their oval cartouche just for steps to writing paragraph that reason, and the bar -- which is the axis of the even symmetry [it is not the horizon] -- is very explicitly tied to the oval. Now, I am extending it past the Pharaohs' cartouche, and there are more practical and antithesis speech, new examples in the 5 and 10 point hyperstars below and, of a thesis paragraph, course, the speech convention, Golden Eye. When it comes to the androgynous nature of the beast (Levi's beast has feminine and masculine attributes as well as a point-down pentacle on its forehead), consider that masculine-feminine cannot be merged because they each issue from different and unique symmetries. Masculine-feminine is about the duality that cannot be unified by merging but needs to be, and can be, balanced or married. To Writing A Thesis Paragraph! (Achieving such balance is not trivial but there is more than one solution.) In essence, the evil side arises from conflicts that ignore nature's duality, and one of the gateways to model essay its understanding is to ask, 'Why and steps to writing paragraph, how is the human brain separated and joined at the corpus callosum?' Focusing on construction of the visible universe, the gateway to balancing is through Quantum Mechanics. Oh, if you don't like the status quo get into vortex and free energy. Overlaying two opposing hyperstar pentacles , the fugitive essay, up-and-down points from the two pentacles make a ten-pointed hyperstar, which is not a decagon nor a hexagon, either regular or not -- yep, not concave and not convex -- and steps a thesis, definitely not for the Wiki trivia chasers. This hyperstar (on right) has a north-south axis with very unusual properties.

The axis can become absolute under spin and then the star symbolically acquires a touch of middle school, Tartaros (or Tartarus) -- but, as a Pythagorean you know what the to writing, axial post/pole is about. I like seeing the hyperstar as 'the seed of the thunderbolt,' but that's shade romantic. Did you notice all triangles on the hyperstar are golden? In the antithesis speech virginia, case of the classical pentacle, the upside down notion also has no meaning because the five-fold atomic orbital is symmetrical about the atomic core and is free to rotate without appreciable symbolism. (However, there do exist harmonious and disharmonious stars and in the book Quantum Pythagoreans you will learn which is a thesis which and why.) A human body has a close resemblance to a five pointed star. Indeed, Tai Chi makes a mere resemblance into a remarkable art, including the fugitive pieces essay, Martial art. The upside down star is steps paragraph not conventional (not normal) once you link a human body to the five pointed star. There is essay then a human mental aspect to an inverted star and the Venus page has a bookmark on that. However, if you place energy importance first (and you should) then the upside down aspect is a thesis about energy while the upside down body is a mental and cover letter fresher, positive construct in steps to writing a thesis, the service and manipulation of energy. How do you make your own pentacle or pentagram?

Buy or make is okay but to paper have your own you have to have it in your mind. And add a cw pentagon, too. To Writing! [Feeling better?] Here is also a secret for fugitive the 21st century: You must know how to steps to writing make the star geometrically and then -- by making the same body movements -- you will also attract beneficial (golden proportion) energies in builder, the circular geometry that will stay with you. Oh, if you start doing Tai Chi, you'll see the geometric components very soon. If you wish to superimpose/overlay/map a human body onto a five pointed star , the paragraph, five points of the inside pentagon are the major reference points. The top two points are at the shoulder-neck transitions, just as you'd guess. The lower two side points are the hips while the lowest point is the crotch. If you do Tai Chi/Yoga exercises just a little, you will feel the importance of these points. Speech! As much as I find occult interesting, the occult human body-onto-star overlay seems forced and this leads me to suspect the paragraph, occultists do not exercise much. As you get more into mind-body-circle-star- energy interlocks, you'll jump or sail right into antithesis speech virginia convention, alchemy . You cannot power into alchemy but you can turn alchemy (Tai Chi or ancient Egyptian versions) into personal power, both logical and physical. There is the Buddhist view, too. Ever seen an angel?

The book you will thoroughly enjoy. Harmony is talked about steps paragraph, ever since antiquity but it is this book that actually allows you to predict whether any two tones will be harmonious. Yes, the resume, clockwise or counterclocwise rotation can be determined and that is the one (of the two) harmony components that was hidden until now. It is about the perfection of geometric stars and the waves that go with it. The radius measure of 2 (diameter of 4) in our pentagonal construction on the left is the outcome of using the steps, shortest applied distance as the unit 1 . This is not because you couldn't divide by two (you can -- and work with ? as the distance OA , for example), but if you construct other structures such as the the Great Pyramid with the lsu resume builder, shortest distance as the unit 1 , you will always be in sync with your numbers from one structure to the next. If you want to look at it metaphysically, each number has its own personality and you want to keep track. If you want to have more fun, think of the unit distance OA as an irrational number. Even Euclid did not think of the steps to writing a thesis, number 1 as just a counting number. On the political side, particularly in college essays about learning, the association with Communist power , you want to be cognizant that the five pointed star issues from orbits and the star is always a 2D entity made from 1D constructs. Making the steps paragraph, star into cover fresher resume, a 3D star (the likes of the Kremlin) points to the lack of understanding on the root of the star's creation.

The purpose and utility of the to writing paragraph, five pointed star could also be said to pieces be misunderstood by the Communists, not unlike the swastika adoption by to writing a thesis paragraph the Nazis. [If the Nazi technology was as advanced in pieces, the flying saucer technology as is rumored then the swastika would not be far off.] For the time being I'm not doing full 2D (area) or 3D red stars until the bloody aspects dissipate -- oh, about a hundred years, considering China. These stars are fancies anyway. Actually, Darwin started the paragraph, whole mess with his 'strongest survive' evolution simplification, and lsu resume builder, it was the opportunism of to writing a thesis, Communists and Fascists who took in lsu resume, the reduction and used it literally. (There were alternatives available at Darwin's time but Mendel was pushed aside for the critical 15 years and at Mendel's rediscovery the industrial revolution was in full swing. Book review: The Monk in The Garden .) What to look for. People bent on power will promote and support the following: 1. Steps A Thesis! Nature is on our side. Best represented by Dawkins' The Selfish Gene , the idea is that being loaded with money is natural (you guessed it, it's Gates' favorite). A virus is selfish, a gene is not.

In the UK the Oxford U nicely masks its ignorance with arrogance. In the US the Harvard U is big on this kind of spin [they put out the best crap]. Essay School! You will recall the dinosaurs and the dino eats dino times [I don't think they died out without a fight]. 2. Running out of energy. Usually about steps paragraph, (peak) oil, this mentality replaced Running out of food from the last century. Builder! This allows wars to go on, as it conjures up there is not enough for both of us. This is but one example of reductionism. [If you don't see God, there are plenty of bosses to work under #150; here and on the other side.] The beauty of free energy is that it is really about paragraph, smarts and without a large up front investment. Once you do a bit of reading, you will be LOL at the experts, but you'll also have to do the letter for mba marketing, free energy yourself. If you complain that the govt does not release free energy, you are not getting it. 3. Socialized medicine.

The mind job here is to convince you that you need the institutions of state and selected private hospitals and clinics for you to stay healthy but there is an steps paragraph, obligation to pay extra premiums. Lsu Resume Builder! It ends up that the healthier you are the more you pay and this becomes a tax on your health. Because you are smart and stay healthy by steps paying attention to your body's needs, you are pressured to pay for the ones who are not, and the power chasers are a sick lot. You may have to move to another state and/or become politically active (for example, AMA should not have a monopoly). You really begin to understand this when you start looking forward to stopping the school, payments of your premiums. To Writing! You may find out it is the best thing for actually being healthy. Pieces Essay! There are three components : understand fear, pick up specialized exercise, and keep up with alternate immunity discoveries (such as Dr.

Jan Raa's) as well as the revival of Raymond Rife technology. Once you understand the fear component, talk openly about the health alternatives should you meet an AMA doctor, for the tables might have turned. 4. Culture or religion-embedded values of guilt, fear, and intolerance. Once embedded they can be invoked without explanation (prejudice will not be seen for steps to writing a thesis paragraph what it is). This is usually about Bible and Koran waiving and antithesis speech, could be difficult to deal with outside the US.

In some cases the fear and/or weakness and/or ignorance justifies betrayal [needs to be watched, even self-watched]. Betrayal is also a component of power, and power has its own category (power is reversed in steps a thesis paragraph, the virtual domain and there it is not based on specific might but on infinity). In the Pythagorean and Buddhist traditions the friendship works well. I also like Ronald Reagan's attitude because he 'liked all and feared none.' You might get hurt but you will have the last word. So you think you know your numbers and letter marketing resume, might think it's okay to reduce them to your liking.

But if you construct the steps a thesis, Great Pyramid with the golden numbers and use the shortest distance as the unit 1 , you will arrive at the pyramid's base as having the side length of 4 . Antithesis Speech Virginia! The base of the Great Pyramid is then 4 times of some unit of measure. So now the pyramid's base periphery (4+4+4+4) and base area (4x4) carry the same square number 16 . You see, if you reduce the numbers and think of the steps paragraph, pyramid's base as having the unit length of, say, two, the model essay middle, base periphery would have eight units of a thesis paragraph, length but the base area would be but four (square) units. Marketing Resume! If you do not reduce the to writing a thesis paragraph, numbers you can think of the research paper, number 16 in the context of acceleration (unit of measure per time squared) and derive the unit of length that is most appropriate for this planet [yeah, it's a foot]. Rational numbers are commensurable numbers -- that is, they all have finite or repeating sub-unity part of a number (mantissa) and all can be expressed as a ratio of two integers. Rational numbers can also be called the exact, finite, or absolute numbers because we can write them down and agree on their value. To Writing Paragraph! At times, rational numbers are called real numbers because all real things have a finite measure. Rational numbers happen when we ratio two integers. All mainstream mathematicians define the rational number as the ratio of any two integers. So, a mainstream math guy would say, Of course the cover for mba marketing resume, rational number is a ratio of two integers -- it is defined that way. Yet, you really do not want to be mainstream and acquire but an steps, encyclopedia knowledge of the world.

You do not want to think of somebody's definition as complete or adequate knowledge. You know that a rational number is a finite number (has a finite or repeating mantissa) and once it is finite it can be expressed as a fraction of two integers. As a smart person, moreover, you know that if another operation produces a naturally finite number then such operation also creates a rational number. The circumference of a circle is a transcendental number. Many of circle's round segments (arches) are transcendental numbers and their straight cord could be an irrational number -- and both of antithesis, these numbers have an infinite mantissa (infinite precision). The question now is: If you divide (ratio) some particular circular segment by steps to writing a thesis paragraph its corresponding cord, will you get a finite (rational) number as a result? Some Pythagoreans view the cover letter marketing, number two as a problem number because it divides the unity. Pythagoreans discourage division of the unit 1 until you understand the context of steps paragraph, each degree of freedom -- but in any case the number 2 is essay not the culprit. A Thesis! (The number 2 is in the denominator of the golden ratio and there it should stay as the number 2.) As you get familiar with this site the sub-unity will become applicable to costco research paper atomic orbitals and hence the steps a thesis paragraph, number 1 is the Great Divide between the macro-cosmic and micro-atomic. [My guess is that macro concepts are taught before the micro in the Pythagorean School.] Tetractys of Pythagoras deals with the organization of matter, among other things.

What makes you a Pythagorean? Short of visiting the Pythagorean page, you are interested in the actual construction of the visible universe. As a Pythagorean you want to know why some stars are constructible exactly and muse at the people who draw stars without regard to their actualization. Drawing stars just for antithesis speech fun is okay but to a Pythagorean that's in an entertainment category. The. compilations about stars are trivia, which quickly become distracting as well. Working the five pointed star is a wonderful start, for this star is geometrically, that is exactly, constructible. Constructing the paragraph, real universe is, moreover, the greatest show there is. Builder! Construction and deconstruction of to writing, atoms are similar endeavors -- and you have no need for a hammer to construct or deconstruct something. The forces therein can add up in controlled fashion, too. There are dozens of philosophers and antithesis, gurus talking about the omniscient nonlocal instant infinity of the conscious universe, but to a Pythagorean this is but one half of the show : You still have to put all that knowledge to work.

Yes, we have pictures. The upside down star has no negative meaning in the micro domain. There are in fact several stars nested inside the larger stars because there are many orbit jump opportunities with each pair of orbitals. Steps To Writing! Yes again, ALL triangles are golden. Oftentimes we think of star patterns only when tiling in 2D or building the Platonic solids (in 3D). But the patterns we encounter in research paper, the micro are usually made with overlapping stars and steps to writing a thesis, that makes nifty art shapes as well. Fugitive Pieces! The overlap comes from the inclusiveness of waves. On July 17, 1991 at Barbury Castle there appeared a crop circle named the Tetrahedron (a triangular pyramid). For its 20th anniversary we have a summary-update. Here is a poster for a Graphics show I had in Prague (where I teach now) in steps to writing a thesis paragraph, February 2013.

Large-print format is college essays disabilities becoming affordable. With a careful equipment selection, one can avail to a high quality original poster that is not only less than the price of a reproduction, but is steps to writing a thesis paragraph good for your health as well. Just about ready (second picture). Consider the cover fresher, existence of the even and odd symmetries as the steps a thesis paragraph, point of departure between the Pythagorean and Aristotelian physics. Pythagoreans continue basing new concepts on model school numbers and then the even aka twofold symmetry issues from and relates to the number two (and the feminine). A Thesis Paragraph! Aristotle refers to the Pythagoreans and flatly claims in Metaphysics that 'two' and 'twofold' are not the same and that 'twofold does not subsist in the two.' (Of course) the two and twofold are not the same but the number two spawns the essays about learning, even symmetry as two-points-make-axis construct and a thesis paragraph, then the number two is not just a counting number. If Aristotle rejects the essays about learning disabilities, Pythagorean 'number two is behind even symmetry,' does he propose something better or different?

It does not seem so, and steps to writing paragraph, this could be a nice example of ancient Greek debunking. Aristotle does not like it, and that's okay, but without offering his own reasons for the existence of symmetries he will not be able to advance it. Sure enough, we don't hear from Aristotle on symmetries. Some star constructions speak of fixed length sticks, which at first glance can construct any size polygons. Here is where the executability of angles comes up. In space, the irrational angle is constructible only college essays about learning approximately and only some angles will be actualized #150; think snowflake formation.

Also, we can calculate the points of a polygon along a circle but using sticks that have finite (rational) and equal lengths for the cords will not always fit in such points. In fact, a not-so-difficult case can be made that geometry takes precedence (has priority) over arithmetic. [If you are a scientist, you may think of Emmy Noether who ignored the nature's beauty of snowflakes and made simplifying assumptions about space that proved the 'ignorance is bliss' postulate #150; for in her world everything is steps to writing a thesis reduced and snowflakes and crystals don't exist.] You can calculate the area of any polygon by taking the area of the triangle and research paper, multiplying by the number of sides. When working the steps to writing paragraph, area of a circle or a polygon, the center point is (becomes) excluded . (If you are metaphysically inclined, think Isis looking for all parts.) In your Pythagorean mind, you need to link the area to its physics application. For example, a physical property that is proportional to radius squared is then also proportional to the area, which gives merit to area calculations. This is bigger than it seems. Builder! You are not just sweating your teacher's assignments -- you are actually working the physics entities if you know what they are. This one comes from to writing a thesis Yosifusa Hirano of 19th Century Japan. It is elegant and also constructs the pentagon or pentacle on radius 2. All pentagram angles are a rithmetically divisible by nine. So, what's the big deal if the middle, number 360 (degrees in a circle) is no big deal?

If you line up all angles from the pentagram : 36, 72, 108, 144, etc. and sum their individual digits you will always get 9. That may seem like magic, but once you appreciate that the number 360 is arbitrary, you don't need to ooh and ahh about it. If the steps, number of degrees in a circle were 320 or 260 or 364 the summing magic would not happen for research 9. The circumference of steps a thesis paragraph, a circle is pieces 2Pi and putting in a number to stand for degrees is purely a practical consideration. In the case of 360, this number is 4x9x10 and now, because the angles of a pentagram are in tenths of steps a thesis, a circle, the number that is left is a multiple of 9 (and 4) and so it will be always divisible by 9 (or 4). All numbers divisible by 9 have their digits sum up to 9 (modulo 9 #151; thank you, Gauss ). So, always work with fractions of a circle (or fractions of 2Pi) even if the numerical sub-unity pushes your right brain into infinities. There is plenty of real magic left in this subject, particularly if you get into the squaring of a circle. We have a collection of antithesis speech virginia, cool and hot designs inspired by steps to writing a thesis the five-point star. View select designs -- or visit our store at Zazzle ( . For Mba Marketing! com/Mike_Geo) and see how well you could look in a tee, hoodie, long sleeve shirt, or a polo. If you have new ideas you want to explore designs from the constructs of nature. All our designs come from steps to writing nature and center on costco research paper the golden proportion. Design on right is called the Adventure of The Red Sun. A pentagon and the Great Pyramid are related, but it hadn't been easy to show both of them relating through the to writing a thesis paragraph, golden proportion.

I construct them together using the costco, new Golden Eye method in steps, the Quantum Pythagoreans book and now the construction is available in color for your shirt or Tshirt as well -- in the Golden Eye design. The golden proportion is between the pyramid side and the half-base. Middle School! The Great Pyramid is shown in a vertical cut through the mid-face. Much detail is on the golden numbers page. The five pointed stars attract energies on account of the golden proportions. Because under rotation the five fold symmetry can be either harmonious or disharmonious, you want to know which is which (ccw is harmonious on a pentagram, cw is harmonious on a pentagon) because you really cannot hide under a rock and hope for the best. Some people rely on to writing paragraph intuition and some want to understand things a bit first.

Either way, I wish this site and the book will do it for you. Two pentagons make a decagon, a regular ten pointed star. A regular pentagon made with the Hirano method can be used to easily make a regular decagon #151; an exact ten-point star. A pentagon that is made by the exact division of a single circle can be duplicated 180 degrees out-of-phase (upside down) and decagon results from two pentagons. One pentagon is thus rotated about the center of the circle or, if you prefer, rotated/flipped about the horizontal axis. However, a regular ten pointed star that is a regular decagon is essay not a hyperstar. (Hyperstar is discussed in the right column.) While both stars are created from two regular five pointed stars, a decagon is always convex.

A hyperstar has some straight segments spanning three points. A decagon has its points on a single circle. A hyperstar has 8 of its 10 points on two identical circles separated by the golden ratio parameters. [I think the mathematical discoveries of construction ratios is what Plato refers to as 'Logistics,' which is thought to be a lost Pythagorean knowledge. In the steps to writing, case of a pentagon Diameter priority the ratio is with square numbers (1:4) because we go from 1D (unit length) to 2D (circle). The same ratio of college essays about learning disabilities, 1:4 holds for the pyramidal construction because one unit of length ends up as four area units of a pyramid base. For a pentagon point-to-point Length priority, however, the ratio is steps to writing 1:2 because one length becomes another length (1D to 1D) but the lsu resume, construction now must include rotation . In general, there is a rotational aspect in the Pythagorean Theorem even though the arithmetic of the Theorem does not capture it (it uses squares). Logically, any line (any 1D distance) inherently contains a direction and when staying in 1D a change in steps to writing, direction amounts to rotation. Squares (area, 2D) do not contain a static direction but they have something else.] Every time you double something #150; think octave. Every time you halve something #150; think node (or fit) for standing waves.

Every time you rotate by 45 degrees #150; think transformation. Every time you rotate by a right angle #150; think.. The funny thing is this works for Tai Chi when your body, your arms, and your legs are doing the movements. About Disabilities! Geometry and movement is about your health too. Harmonious ten pointed star. The star below, if drawn counterclockwise, is classified as a (10+ 7 )/10 star using my method that is (x+y)/x in steps to writing a thesis, general y is between 1 and fugitive, x #151; that is, xy=1 . The decagram star looks nice #151; it is unicursal, is regular during construction (advances by the same angle), has parallel sides and is harmonious. To Writing! This star skips every six points and is the cover letter for mba marketing resume, only harmonious ten pointed star in the macro. (Decagon and all other ten-point stars are not harmonious, cw or ccw.) The Pythagorean style rationing (really proportioning) method (x+y)/x as well as the corresponding musical harmony or disharmony is explained in steps to writing paragraph, the book, and you'll know why the proportioning approach presented here is much more useful than what the mainstream puts out. You noted x and research, y are integers but if x and y are the golden numbers then (x+y) : x is the golden proportion #151; and enter both the steps paragraph, micro and cover letter for mba fresher resume, the macro. (Rationing is not commutative because A/B is not B/A. Proportioning, however, is commutative because A : B is the same as B : A, and playing two musical notes has the same effect whether you analyze at it as A : B or B : A. Steps A Thesis Paragraph! Sometimes I think mainstream math is pathetic, for ignoring waves is the model essay, norm.) There exists symmetry about steps to writing a thesis, one point called the point symmetry (or odd or radial or rotational symmetry) [masculine]. Builder! There also exists symmetry about two points called the even symmetry (or axial or twofold or mirror line symmetry) [feminine] #151; the two points making an axis by which the original image rotates.

These two kinds of symmetries are all-pervasive in atomic construction where they are called the odd and even wavefunctions. Yes, everything is coming up numbers. Now, how would you marry these two symmetries? You might have noticed that in the five-fold division of a circle the three points made by to writing a compass' pin are at the corners of a right angle triangle having sides 1 and 2 . Model Essay Middle! (A pin of a compass centers the radial symmetry [masculine].) It is no coincidence that the Great Pyramid's Grand Gallery has the vertical height (rise) of 1 and the horizontal length of 2 while the Trough is the steps to writing, hypotenuse spanning the antithesis convention, distance of steps to writing a thesis paragraph, SQRT (5) . (This also establishes the unit length 1 of this pyramid.) Is it a coincidence that to define Pi we need distances 1 and 2 ? Is it a coincidence that to convention construct the golden numbers we start with a right angle triangle with sides 1 and 2 ? There is more to 5. It is very easy to get excited about the a thesis paragraph, number 5 and begin to associate each of the antithesis, five points with other things. This is to writing a Pythagorean site and speech virginia convention, we love the number five but Pythagoreans also know that using numbers for counting is introductory to the power of numbers while correspondences are about the elemental #151; that is differentiating, power of numbers. The five discrete elements in Wicca and Tao are fine, yet the steps to writing paragraph, visual-geometric imagery based on the Penta. is about the infinity (irrationality) of the golden proportions stemming from the square root of five . With the golden numbers you construct many shapes that extend the Penta. beyond counting.

The images are also more than pretty pictures, for the waves in space readily interact with such shapes in a computing relationship and things happen. You do not need to get esoteric to appreciate that energies have preferences for geometric shapes and the golden proportions have a unique predisposition to the operation of the reciprocal . Lsu Resume Builder! (Yes, energies make things grow but also think about the steps, nature's way of actually capturing the waves' energies.) So it is antithesis nice to to writing a thesis paragraph recognize the golden shapes around you even though neither the star or the number five jump out at you. The meaning could be shifted by cover resume another application but now it is not hidden. [There are also large corrupting influences in place just to keep you astray.] What if the Queen's Chamber in the Great Pyramid has its spatial distances in the golden proportion? What if the spiral on a thesis paragraph the Eye of Horus were made through the golden rectangle or a golden triangle? How can you visualize the golden ratio in financial terms? Throughout the Hyperflight site I like to make fun of mainstream science.

These folks lower our understanding and appreciation of nature and lsu resume, their favorite first step is that 'this or that cannot be done or found out.' The best modern example is Einstein and I don't know of steps, any of his concepts that are correct: This includes the special and general relativity theories (stemming from his inability to determine absolute motion/rest); photonic work function (a photon puts no pressure on a mirror); Brownian motion (molecules vibrate in place); and energy-matter mechanics (not reversible, i.e., nova or supernova). Errors of essay school, omission and commission are also applied to steps to writing a thesis corrupt the reality around us. The basic difficulty is that science popularizers use the right math but apply it to wrong concepts. It may take a while to get to the bottom of this and what really helps is learning that equations cannot make wrong concepts right, and therefore are suspect. On this page I said that 'up' and 'down' cannot be distinguished in the solar system under odd symmetry alone. Everything works and continues to grow, evolve, and can also be created whole in a particular context. It is then the context that needs to be understood in steps a thesis, addition to any some such conclusion. The 'up' and letter for mba marketing fresher, 'down' manner of a thesis paragraph, speaking is relevant when the context has a line : things above the line are 'up' (above) and below the line are 'down' (below).

However, orbits and marketing fresher, orbitals and spin in general have a point as its construct of rotational/spinning existence and it is then appropriate to say that when dealing with point symmetry there is no fixed 'up' or 'down' because there intrinsically is no (fixed) line. The point is that if you understand the context you will understand whether someone's pronouncements are true, not true, or corruptive. For example, ignoring 0D (a point) as the fourth dimension of freedom -- which provides a movement construct just as 1D, 2D, and to writing paragraph, 3D do -- is corruptive because it does not recognize the for mba fresher resume, spin/orbit that accounts for steps to writing a thesis 99% of the moving energy found in the universe. There are several ways of getting to the truth, too. Geometry is lsu resume builder one. Tarot works nicely and in to writing, this case it's The Wheel of lsu resume, Fortune card.

Tarot has four suits, which stand for .. (your brainwork). You will then be in position to either speak out to writing a thesis paragraph, and/or just do what you know is better : Free energy, Martial arts, spiritual medicine, telepathy/RV, superluminal travel, atom/matter creation -- all, not coincidentally, based on ether scientists deny. Speaking out means that you have enough info based on merit and then your statements become less political. For example, I'd get a Tarot card deck without the Hebrew letters, for antithesis speech these lack symmetries and steps a thesis, could be disruptive. (If you know the college essays learning, Hebrew letters were added to Tarot later on, you'll also know it is steps to writing a thesis paragraph about corruption.) As you learn how things really work the misconceptions will release and you become healthier. After reading a book on the history of the Chinese philosophy that weaves through the Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist pursuits over 2300 years there, it seems the Chinese never got to antithesis convention the understanding, and then the to writing paragraph, differentiation, of the symmetries.

Yet I would not relax too much after this. There are the philosophical and religious versions of Taoism and if you stay with the essays about learning disabilities, academia's version of philosophy you'll learn next to nothing. Once you get to a thesis paragraph the religious side you will read a lot about circles and spirits and demons, about essay middle, keeping centered (weighed) in a point and having light crystallized -- but all this is pure alchemy and it takes some dedication for steps to writing a thesis the ideas to work their way through (just as you would do with the ancient Egyptians). While the Chinese did not push the three philosophies/religions into the objective realm we call science, the Chinese pursuit in the improvement of the individual's mind-body yielded Tai Chi with most significant implications -- and leaving a formidable gap for speech virginia convention the West. Wang Fuzhi (b. 1619) gets very close, giving Chi (Qi, Ether) the female-male aspects of Yin-Yang (ancient Egyptian Tefnut-Shu) and then nicely extends this to steps to writing coexisting energy-matter duality along with a dynamic balance of the two. Wang Fuzhi is describing a free electron all right but then its detection and use happens in essay school, a body (yes, yours) rather than in an external and objective instrument. To Writing Paragraph! (Damn the self-serving Emperor/one-party systems and invest in yourself, literally?) Wang Fuzhi, or anyone after him, does not advance Li (order/construct/distance/1D) to geometry or symmetries, and this also means the Pythagorean tradition did not make it to China (until recently perhaps).

We can then also say that the Taoist five pointed star of the elements is indigenous to China (could've been discovered in model school, more than one place) and testifies to the universal power and utility of the five fold division of a circle. Steps Paragraph! The Chinese elements correspond roughly to those of pieces, Wicca except that 'spirit' is taken as 'wood.' This seems strange but think of wood as the circles of steps to writing a thesis, tree rings, too. Fugitive! This also gives you an idea how hidden Chinese alchemy is. (Note the prominent spiritual link to the trees in the Druid tradition and a very explicit tree related experience of Joan of steps a thesis paragraph, Arc.) The Taoist movement starts with Lao-tzu's Te-Tao Ching of 500 BCE (or so) and Te translates as Virtue. I am happy to have named the largest chapter in the Quantum Pythagoreans book the Virtual Domain (and before reading Te-Tao). The virtual domain is about infinities and there is costco much to explore there -- yes, this is an understatement. (One can also destabilize in John Nash fashion. If you don't figure out you are among infinities while using real/rational methods, you may stay there forever.) If I were to talk in Lao-tzu's puzzling way, the virtual domain Te holds nothing because it has everything (and now you'd have to figure out the virtual domain Te has everything in the form of knowledge).

At times Te translates as Power (and knowledge is a close relative of power). Lao-tzu described Tao in the most general way. It was only later that the paragraph, Tao symbol arose from that and along with the cover marketing, religious side of Taoism. To Writing A Thesis! But of course, the Tao symbol is but the Chinese version of what the infinite Tao is or could be used for, including the essay, label of 'Tao.' The virtual domain deals with knowledge that is linked by steps to writing paragraph associations. The Western alchemy's condensed virtual language could speak of the philosopher/sorcerer entering the stone only to discover there is no stone. Bewildered, the philosopher breaks out of the stone and model middle school, finds the stone the same as before. He cannot break into the stone and to writing, yet he does not have to lsu resume builder break up the the stone to steps to writing a thesis reenter it. The philosopher's stone can be had -- but not physically. Yikes! Here is s'more on stability via organization.

So you think you know your numbers metaphysically and costco research, feel comfy about the steps paragraph, masculine-feminine stuff. You might be dividing by 2 and lsu resume builder, think it feminine. Not so. Real cutting is masculine : it makes two halves of an apple, severs an interconnection of a relationship, or spatially reduces a spread out electron (QM). However, when you observe a biological cell division, don't rush to call it masculine, for it is feminine.

You'll have to get into symmetries to understand this. Steps To Writing A Thesis! Meanwhile, don't make the silly mistake of equating masculine with a man and feminine with a woman -- unless you want to give up on one half of your brain. Oh, and think about The One. Analytically attacking all three major pyramids at Giza as one layout can earn you a label or two, but on learning disabilities this site Jiri starts with a square and then looks for the golden proportion #150; and gets very, very close to the actual measurements. Steps To Writing! Ready to bury the Pharaohs someplace else? Some basic geometry.

From a square angle to school a square. There does not appear much we can do with a square. A square is pretty, has a lot of symmetries, but that's about it. A Thesis! But as we go on, things are going to get interesting once we start to make cubes. Also, as a plain square, two circles can be fitted and defined by a square: an outer circle and an inner circle. Marketing! The illustration on left is taken from steps to writing paragraph our ether page and it actually results in lsu resume builder, geometrically determining the speed of a thesis, light. A square and a circle have been engaged from before Pythagoras (Thales) and builder, there are several pages on this site (here and there and here too) on circle squaring. Pythagoreans love square numbers. In the present day vernacular, moving energy is proportional to to writing a thesis paragraph velocity square d. Any square can be made into any number of rectangles and any rectangle can be made into an exactly same-area square via the geometric mean. Geometric mean works with all distances, including irrational distances (but you need rotation).

And so any and essay school, all velocities resulting from, say, gravitational acceleration or collisions or explosions, have corresponding and exact energy values. Any square (any amount of energy) can be divided into as many squares as you want #151; and so the energy of one moving object is conserved exactly even if the to writing, object is cover for mba resume broken up into many other objects. Here is a simple yet powerful construction that. 1) Divides any distance exactly in half; 2) Erects the perfect right and square angle (making the Cartesian Coordinates); and. 3) Makes a true square using any circle centered at O (at the intercept of horizontal and vertical axes that are the coordinates). A square is also a four pointed star. Only straightedge and compass are needed. (Straightedge is an unmarked ruler.) Both arcs (arches) have the same radius. Distance AB can be either rational or irrational, for there are no limitations on spatial distance between two (zero-dimensional) points A and B. Drawing a line between two points is about direction (1D) and yields a perfect line, too.

If you want to know the minimum separation between points before a line could become the real line, take a look at Absolute Minimum Length (it's about the a thesis, infinitesimal). If distance AB is irrational, should it be dashed? If so, why? You will note that all geometric constructions start with the lsu resume builder, creation of the Cartesian Coordinates. Once you have them, you can make any square using a compass (a circle) and then make any star from the perfect star family. A square, then, is inherent in all star constructions. A square is feminine and a thesis paragraph, a circle is masculine. Some people get into spirituality and claim a circle is virginia feminine because it is steps a thesis rounded. That is how you can tell a beginner.

Symmetries are the key here because they have very high priority -- on par with energy conservation. Ancient Egyptians, Native Americans, and college learning disabilities, Chinese have no problem here. Pythagoreans and Plato are technically fine because of symmetrical 3D solids. Aristotle would not get into symmetries at all (and his historical contribution ends [should've stayed and die in Baghdad]). The Western applications of symmetries are generally weak, although, the Western alchemy is okay and at steps times superior (3 vs.

4). Three pointed star. Construct the perfect triangle on a circle and another triangle on lsu resume builder a semicircle #150; in steps a thesis, three steps. Triangle as a logical and pieces, mathematical construct. Because three-pointed and six-pointed stars are geometrically perfect they can be used, circled, as a symbol for steps 3 or 6 wavelengths wrapping around the nucleus.

However, a hexagon and hexagram reduce into a triangle under modulo math for harmonious ratios and do not manifest in orbits (macro) #151; that is, showing a six-pointed star with two circles does not reflect nature. A hexagon is also prominent in free energy work. Hexagon is full of different symmetries and, for antithesis virginia better or for worse, enables rapid transformations or projections. A six sided star of hexagon could be of some interest regarding energy accumulation in the micro and we included it in the numerology section on to writing a thesis paragraph the Pythagorean page. Without a circle, a triangle symbolizes 3-state systemic (complete and never-ending) systems, each state being in one corner. Such three pointed arrangement has no metric as it is a logical, say clockwise, process. Model Essay! (Some systemic processes call for steps to writing a thesis quaternaries #151; think ancient Egyptians.) For Pythagoreans a triangle provides bounds for builder the ten dots of Tetractys (a triangular numeral 10), which also becomes one facet of a tetrahedron (projection from the steps paragraph, apex [or from your eye]). The right angle triangle does have metric of the Pythagorean Theorem, which relates 1D to 2D via (ir)rational numbers (but does not solve for transcendentals).

There is a very special place for the golden triangles. Two kinds of triangles apply here, depending on college learning disabilities whether the steps to writing paragraph, shorter or longer distance is used for research paper the triangle's base. Golden triangles facilitate a perfect relationship between particular two circle's circumferences and a straight distance. Yes, this is the fundamental reason for the existence of particular atomic orbitals, which is driven by steps to writing the exchange in the electron's 2D and photon's 1D energy . This is not strictly about the squaring of a circle but it is close (it's about the difference in 2D energies). Differentiate by 3. Finally, there is an antithesis speech, aspect to the number 3 as the fundamental qualitative differentiator of nature. We are mostly familiar with the dualities such as the to writing a thesis paragraph, real-virtual (Yang-Yin) or odd-even or ordered-creative but there is also a lesser known differentiator by three. Yes, we say animal, mineral, vegetable and think it special, but here we are very fundamental.

Pre-atomic, I'd say. So much so the crop circles are worth studying just for that. [I would not go inside a crop circle for more than a few seconds when the circle is less than a day old #151; it is about the college essays about learning, 3D energies.] Alchemy's sulphur, salt, and mercury gets into that as well but without geometry it's an arduous road. The Quantum Pythagoreans book explains what is at each corner of the Tetractys and that's what it's about. When you see a triangle with some symbol in the center (a dot, an eye, dragon), take such symbol into 3D of the apex of a tetrahedron to paragraph see if it means something to you. Instructions: Draw horizontal and vertical lines. The intersect is the origin O. Draw a semicircle of radius r around O . This makes point V.

Draw a circle around V of radius r. Now that we divided a circle into costco research paper, exact thirds, you can make a three pointed (Mercedes) star or a three sided star of a perfect triangle. In the to writing a thesis paragraph, illustration the larger triangle divides the circle with three exact cords of length c for a perfect three pointed star. The smaller (red) triangle divides the circle with six exact cords of length r resulting in a perfect hexagon or hexagram. You can verify (using the Pythagorean Theorem) that the relation between the cord c and speech virginia convention, cord (radius) r is: What physical entity is proportional to r 2 ? If you know what that is, consider that the square of the cord c is three times that. A puzzle of a bad souffle: Given a square, construct a new square that is exactly one third of the original square. You can be fairly certain that the steps to writing a thesis, person will try to partition the square in some way but the solution is to erect a triangle on the square's side and then obtain the radius for the circle that covers the lsu resume builder, triangle. Radius r is the side of the new square. To Writing Paragraph! [In our case the bad souffle does not cave in but runs over the rim.]

It is not possible to reverse engineer a souffle without stepping back and essay, understanding the relationships between the steps to writing, ingredients and their proportions #150; as well as the irreversible nature of the baking process. Can you apply the construction of the geometric mean in the solution of this puzzle? Could you use the middle, geometric mean to generalize this puzzle for all possible ratios of square areas? If so, you would then be able to steps to writing a thesis divide a square into any number of squares, including squares with irrational sides. The geometric mean equates the perimeter (or area) of any rectangle to lsu resume the side (or area) of a particular square.

Could squares with irrational sides be included in the general division of a square into any and all other squares? If so, does it mean that geometry does one up on arithmetic once again because arithmetic cannot give you the exact irrational number for steps a thesis the square's side? Finally, if energy of a moving body is proportional to its velocity square(d) , can you divide such energy square into fugitive pieces essay, as many smaller square energy components as you wish? (Via a collision, gravitational attraction, or some other action-at-distance?) A six sided star, a hexagon, is steps prominent in essay middle, virus structures. Hexagons are partioned into a six-triangle grid, which serves -- through a geometric relation -- to identify almost all viruses. This is to writing a thesis a complex topic. For example, a virus' hexagon is rendered benign with a pentagon [my own thing]. The overall structure in 90+% of viruses is icosahedron . Although labeled 'an esthetically most pleasing shape' by some -- with 5-fold, 3-fold, and costco research, 2-fold symmetries -- all mainstream scientists ignore the morphing nature of the virus first brought forth by Rife (bio) [virus approaches under a friendly flag and steps, morphs].

Because the current work on viruses discloses but the stained (i.e. dead) viruses, the mainstream is letter marketing fresher resume still way behind Rife. If you understand the corrupting mechanisms in the present day medicine, you will know why you do not have to to writing join a walk for or against this or that disease. You don't have to follow, or agree with, generally published explanations but spend your money and time your way -- and a better way at that. There are several recent breakthroughs in virus' geometric construction. The geometric steps in virus' formation are : diagonal projection of a cube resulting in a hexagon; slicing-and-projecting a cube grid resulting in a hexagram (aka the Star of essay middle school, David); and rotating-and-zooming (as shown above, [which is the final projection onto the material plane]). I see some of these elements in the crop circles and, short of taking sides, I'd like the steps a thesis paragraph, virus construction viewpoint represented in crop circle analysis. We are dealing with a very advanced technology but it is very advanced only because the mainstream science coming from the universities is primitive and corrupt. In practical terms the virginia, twelve pointed construction is about the design of a clock's face.

In astrology the twelve Signs of the Zodiac is about the twelve sided division of the Solar ecliptic. There is an even more interesting side : There are twelve computable states along the to writing, periphery at the third level of the Great (Golden) Pyramid. College Essays About Disabilities! In the infinite superposition of the virtual variables (aka wavefunctions), there are geometrically enabled states inside the pyramid that allow a computable state to form. Yes, infinities can be worked and to writing paragraph, the Quantum Pythagoreans book gets into that and at all levels of the pyramid. Our construction for middle the twelve fold division of a circle also divides a circle into eight exact segments, or angles, because the 45 degree diag onals are available for free from our twelve point construction if you make full circles (and don't stop at the intersects with the central circle). This is also true the other way: When constructing the eight point division that is a regular octagon, the a thesis, twelve fold division happens as well if the central circle is drawn in full (and you don't just mark the intersects with the cardinals). So here you have the combined 8 12 point star construction.

After a short Internet search I did not find an fugitive pieces essay, 8 12 point star common construction . I found one logical assembly having the Chinese Zodiac on the outside circle and eight binary Paqua states on the inside circle. (This tells me divination is steps paragraph intended but, because of our inherent construction feature, I'd turn it around the other way : 12 sides on the inside circle and 8 points on the outside circle. This is counter-intuitive but there could be [is] a form of Tai Chi in college learning disabilities, this.) The common construction of the eight and 12 pointed stars starts with the combined two and three pointed stars. To Writing Paragraph! As you double the count the ratio stays the same : 3 to college essays about learning 2. Steps To Writing A Thesis! (As you double the research paper, points you go up by an octave.) This is steps a thesis paragraph a musical ratio and a harmonious one at that. What planets subscribe to this ratio? It is not Venus-Earth but it is on the Venus page. The eight pointed star is full of symbolism associated with Venus and the transformations via the diagonals.

The ccw octagon is harmonious and made by Earth-Mars interplay, too. So enjoy the essay middle school, eight-point star construction here via the cardinal and to writing a thesis, semi-cardinal directions but the Venus page has a lot more on the eight fold division of a circle, including the Hunab Ku symbol. These watch face designs are inspired by the Mesoamerican Hunab Ku symbol. Instructions for drawing a 12-pointed/12-sided star: 1. Draw a horizontal line and lsu resume, erect the vertical line. The intersect is the steps, origin O. 2. Draw a full circle of antithesis speech, radius R around O . This will be the clock face. 3. At each of the horizontal and vertical intercepts draw additional circles of the same radius R. 4. The intercepts of the central circle with the cardinals and with the other circles yield the to writing a thesis paragraph, twelve points exactly distanced around the central circle.

Can you see how you could make a 24 point star using the diagonals? Almost every month we offer quick topics of about learning, general interest. Steps To Writing Paragraph! In May 2011 a single construction shows how to make both the 24-point and 16-point stars in just one construction. Perfect star families. It is lsu resume easy to steps draw stars using geometry's tools, a straightedge and compass. College About Disabilities! By now we want to make stars geometrically, not just for perfection, but also because only the perfect stars manifest in nature. To Writing A Thesis Paragraph! A circle can be divided exactly into builder, 2 , 3 , 5, 15 , and 17 equal segments, technically called constructible polygons. (Some exclude the 2-segment division because it yields but a virtual line of a circle's diameter #151; but I include it.) You may call this the 'fundamental' or 'primary' or direct sequence of to writing a thesis, perfect stars. Cover Letter For Mba Fresher! Since any and all segments can be also exactly (evenly) divided by 2, you can find all stars that have their points exactly spatially distanced by geometric means. You can also say that the doubling expansion forms a perfect star family. For example, you can make an steps to writing paragraph, eight point star or a 64 point star from fugitive pieces a two point star through simple halving of distances. From a three point star (above) you can make the exact hexagon and from there the twelve point star of the Zodiac or do a layout of a twenty four point star for Feng Shui.

Starting with a 2 point star #151; the only direct even star #151; you can construct 4, 8, 16, etc. stars you could also label the steps to writing paragraph, 'evenly even' sequence of model school, stars. This is the original Pythagoreans' terminology, which presently would be called the 'binary' sequence of stars. To Writing A Thesis Paragraph! From the 3 point star you can continue to halve each side to make the 6, 12, 24, etc. point stars. From the speech convention, five-point star you can make the 10, 20, or 40 point stars. Every perfect star with the even number of points will have symmetry about an axis and about a point. Steps A Thesis! If you think there is no such thing as a two point star, it is on the Venus page and it is formed by the combined Neptune-Pluto 3:2 orbit.

The stars that are left out from direct and cover for mba fresher, doubling constructions cannot be constructed exactly. For example, you cannot make a nine point star directly #151; or indirectly from a thesis paragraph a three point star. The seven, eleven, and thirteen pointed stars are also not constructible. Numbers that divide a circle exactly could have a name of their own. A good fit is 'circumpositional,' for these numbers compose in a circle exactly and will be [are] prominent in atomic constructions. Carl Gauss recently added the 17 sided polygon as the perfect star.

The 15 sided polygon is in Euclid 's Elements , Book 4, Proposition 16, and is made by a combo of a three and a five pointed star (a 5-point star is evenly rotated three times around the circle). One interesting property of the perfect star families is fugitive pieces that they do not intersect directly. A sequence growing from each of the direct perfect star number does not match (overlap) with another sequence. That is, from 2 we get 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024 , 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, etc. from 3 we get 6, 12 , 24 , 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1536, 3072, 6144, 12288, 24576.. from 5 we get 10 , 20, 40, 80 , 160, 320 , 640, 1280, 2560, 5120, 10240, 20480.. from 15 we get 30, 60 , 120, 240, 480, 960, 1920 , 3840, 7680, 15360, 30720.. from 17 we get 34, 68, 136, 272, 544, 1088, 2176, 4352, 8704, 17408, 34816.. Each member of the perfect all-star family has but one origin.

Once a number becomes even it stays even. 3, 5, 15, and 17 make the only exact odd stars. A circle is a zero pointed star having an infinite number of points. A Thesis Paragraph! On a circle there are no inbound-outbound changes and, therefore, no points. Topologically, however, a circle is composed of infinitely many geometric points.

This is essay a technical play on words. However, a single geometric point, a 0D point, has an infinity built within it [yeah, takes work]. 360 does not divide a circle exactly. 260 does not divide a circle exactly (Mayan Tzoltek calendar). The end of the Tzoltek calendar is not (cannot be) synchronized with a rotational parameter such as the paragraph, precession. It is conceivable the Mayans had difficulties reconciling the rotational parameters (based on transcendental numbers) with some linear time-measuring parameters. The numbers' unexact nature would lead to disaster conclusions. Well, yes, it could have been their own square-a-circle problem. 320 does divide a circle exactly and the 1/320 (reciprocal) is called ro by the ancient Egyptians. While a circle can be divided exactly by hours (24) or minutes (60), a circle cannot be divided by paper hours and minutes (24x60=1440). 60 does divide a circle exactly and to writing, the sexagesimal (60-base) system is first used by lsu resume the Sumerians (2000+ BCE).

Although all mainstream math books claim we use 60 minutes and 60 seconds as a result of Sumerian and Babylonian cultures, none of these math references mention that while 60 does divide a circle exactly, a circle cannot be divided exactly by steps minutes and seconds (by 3600). But of course, mainstream math is cluless on what the school, exact geometric circle division brings to a thesis paragraph the table. While a circle is divisible by 10 exactly, a circle is not divisible exactly by a hundred or a thousand or any higher decimal multiple. The decimal fraction format aka the decimal fraction notation is not suitable for the circular geometry beyond the first decimal point. Is it strange the Mayans #151; while having the positional notation of base 20 #151; had no sub-unity base-20 fractions? Perhaps not. Just as in the decimal and sexagesimal systems, the essay middle school, base 20 (vigesimal) system is useless past the first vigesimal point in circular geometry. One star inside another star.

Among the applications are spatial designs that combine perfect stars. In watch design, for steps a thesis paragraph example, the circle being divided by twelve looks fine and is harmonious. In addition, it is harmonious to overlay the 12 point layout with triangular, square, or pentagonal designs. You would not want to put a seven point star with a triangle together in model, the same (concentric) circle, for example, unless you want to invoke disharmony. Six gets tricky because it is disharmonious with larger numbers but is steps to writing a thesis harmonious with five, making a pentagon (not a pentacle). There is middle also a disharmonious ccw pentagon and a thesis, that one does not include six.

When using but a single star you choose one from the perfect star families. When combining stars, however, you also must deal with harmony. A doubled star is always harmonious with its parent star -- they differ by an octave, but not all star combinations are harmonious. We are talking about harmony in letter for mba resume, point symmetry, which is applicable to a thesis paragraph both the micro and the macro. See the book. If a musical tone x is harmonious with tone y and y is costco harmonious with z , is steps to writing z harmonious with x ? Not always.

The book explains harmony's geometric foundation and then the star drawings bring harmony into the visual range. Quantum Pythagoreans provides the formula for harmonious musical notes and you will also know why some stars just do not feel right. Harmony is not just extended to the macro. Harmony is fundamental to fugitive both the micro and macro constructions and, therefore, to stability in general. Thanks to Paganism, a five-pointed pentacle star is presently classified as harmonious (opening) or disharmonious (banishing). In the book you'll learn how ANY and to writing a thesis paragraph, all stars can be classified as harmonious or disharmonious. In the beginning was the fugitive, number #150; and the power of numbers begins ..

The perfect star families of numbers introduce some changes to our perception of universe building and how everyday reality happens to to writing come about. Mathematicians can make all kinds of star constructions, in 2D and 3D #150; but only the perfect star families can begin to bridge the straight line energies, such as photonic energy, with circular orbits and orbital energies. Because the vast majority of the real energy in the universe is in the form of research, spinning or orbital energy #150; that is, energy having angular momentum, the perfect star families of numbers take the front seat. Scientists can draw all kinds of curves but these are usually fancies. Mathematicians in particular insist their work has no bounds, yet in their hearts they know their discoveries should have some practical application.

Starting with 24 hours per steps to writing a thesis day and having 80 minutes in an hour, every minute of every day (24x80= 1920 ) would divide a circle exactly. Such is lsu resume builder not the case today. After that, a binary number 1024 would stand for to writing paragraph seconds and costco research, continue to divide the day's circle exactly. One of the new seconds would then be the exact 1,966,080th part of a day. To Writing A Thesis! The new second would be somewhat faster than one twentieth of the present second (0.05). While adequate for almost all sports without further division, additional circle-exact divisions are always available #150; something that is not possible to do today. (Once you lose the model essay school, exact circle division it cannot be recovered.) The sweep of the seconds hand would be 1/3 faster than the present sweep to make one full revolution in 1/80th of an hour.

At all numerical markings in the illustration on steps right #150; the hours, minutes, and seconds #150; would not be fractions. For example, the sweep of the seconds hand spanning one half of the quadrant adds up to 128 seconds . One half quadrant, then, is 128 seconds or 10 minutes or 3 hours. Model Essay Middle! The new minute count of 80 per hour divides a circle exactly and using 80 points around the circle can make the perfect 4, 5, 8, 10, 16, 20, 40, and 80 pointed stars. From the 24 hour clock face one would make the perfect 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and steps to writing paragraph, 24 pointed stars. A pentagram star is harmonious (opening in Wicca speak) if drawn counter-clockwise and disharmonious (banishing) if drawn clockwise. Once you understand the harmony/disharmony, you will be able to extend it to other stars besides pentagram.

Some counter-clockwise 8 and 10 pointed stars are harmonious but these stars are disharmonious if drawn clockwise. Lsu Resume Builder! This does not mean the clock's hands rotation should reverse. Steps Paragraph! See the for mba marketing fresher resume, Venus page. Now, could you come up with another sequence that always makes an exact circle division, both locally (by itself) and overall (with respect to the starting circle)? Yes. Start with 20 hours per steps a thesis day and divide each hour by 192 minutes. Both 20 and 192 divide a circle exactly but, in addition, 20 times 192 is 3840, which also divides a circle exactly. College About Learning Disabilities! Is there more to this than making new and different watches? You bet. Tiling of pentagons and stars.

Tiling does not involve direct construction but only to writing a thesis paragraph translation and/or rotation in two dimensions. Translations are linear (straight) motions. The line provides symmetry about a (such) line [feminine] while rotations are always symmetrical about a point [masculine]. This does not seem like a big deal but the property that allows (in this case pentagon's) translation or rotation to lsu resume get to an identical solution is exceptionally important in universe building (and in the group theory, too) . Tiling of steps to writing a thesis paragraph, five pentagons to make a cool five pointed star was (first?) published by Kepler in Harmonic es Mundi (1619) When the builder, ancients instructed us to use the to writing paragraph, straightedge and compass, they were not really talking about college, constraints because they were talking about geometry. Rotation about a point is about the use of the compass. Straight movement (translation) is about a symmetry about a line and perhaps you could see now that the line of symmetry is steps a thesis a virtual line #150; that is, the line of symmetry is an empty slit. (Would you go as far as to have Justice brandishing her sword with a slit down the middle of the builder, blade?) The virtual line has powerful geometric properties but you do not want to ask a woman about that. Not that you couldn't, it's just that the explanation is nonverbal. The pentagon template for the illustration on steps to writing the left was obtained with MS PowerPoint by selecting AutoShapes .. Basic Shapes. Pick the pentagon object. On the newer versions it is costco research Insert .. Shapes .. Basic Shapes.

If you tile five pentagons you get the five-point star in the center. Now, if you take five five-point stars and arrange them around with their points touching, do you get a pentagon in the center? You always want to steps to writing paragraph test for reversibility , even at the expense of appearing dyslexic. Relations are reversible only under certain conditions and you want to know what they are. If you assume relations are always reversible as they are in algebra, you will 1 ) understand but a limited subset of reality [if you are lucky] and/or 2 ) misinterpret relations that are not reversible.

For example, if there is a quantum mechanical explanation of gas pressure, there could be a way of making the antithesis speech virginia, phenomena reversible. Now, how would you reverse the to writing a thesis, rotation of a light mill? (Give it a thought and get the answer .) We readily apply force to get things moving. So, how would you reverse 'something' and have the force arise? A circle of stars, a pattern of stars: Testing for reversibility is crucial in the understanding of relationships. Dyslexia is a condition that is constantly reversing relationships in all modalities: verbal, tonal, geometric, written -- to see if the letter for mba fresher, reversal possibly acquires another meaning, or if the reversal carries no meaning. The Quantum Pythagoreans book treats the difficult topic of steps, relationships by novel exploration of dependent-independent properties of a relationship. You will then understand and normalize the virginia, difference between, for example, 'planning your work' and 'working your plan.' The tiling construction #151; that is, movement about steps to writing a thesis paragraph, a point and/or translation along a line, of letter, some objects may result in a thesis paragraph, the appearance of another object.

This is at times referred to as negative space. While it is true that the original object is real and in some respects positive, the convention, 'negative space' label is but an introductory way of looking at paragraph it (and a left-brain way at that). Essay Middle School! A good way is to see this as the act of creation of the virtual object . When working the Great Pyramid, you may want to think of the paragraph, chambers and passageways as virtual objects or empty-space objects. It really helps. Self test:-) Straighten up two adjacent fingers. Do you see a difference if you think of these fingers as two closely spaced pencils #150; or as an antithesis virginia convention, empty slit or space that is between the pencils?

Photons and steps to writing a thesis paragraph, electrons do, for they make very different patterns for a single bar, two bars, a single slit, or a dual slit. For brainwork: 1 ) How is it possible, and 2 ) What is the utility of the result that one pattern ends up in the left side of the brain while the other in the right side? Ancient Greek-speaking scholars debated geometry and arithmetic, and understood the complexities even without a PC. A circle is an angle (of 360 degrees) that is divisible by three exactly using geometric means. This result is significantly more interesting than the mainstream mathematicians' proof that an angle is not, in general, divisible by three. Costco Research Paper! If you think of a circle with the orbit (cosmic) and/or orbital (atomic) applications in mind, you will see there is lots of fun in figuring out to writing a thesis, what works[, rather than beefing up your resume with things that don't]. So, the ancient riddle about dividing the angle into thirds has more than one answer and no answer is the wrong answer. It is, however, a parting, or the Tau riddle that to some makes all the cover letter, difference. But again, no angle can be divided by steps to writing three exactly arithmetically. No angle can be arithmetically divided exactly by any rational number even if such angle was first obtained geometrically and exactly.

A circle cannot be divided by 7 or 9 equally and exactly. This fact may lead to some new discoveries but if your skills are mostly in costco research, arithmetic you'll likely think of steps to writing a thesis paragraph, it as a curiosity. That is the basis of reductionism, for a reductionist first makes a claim that arithmetic is just as good as geometry (brain grouping), and then happily ignores the lsu resume, advantages of geometry. Similarly, equating irrational and rational numbers is erroneous but the mainstream math guys think them equal and miss a lot (see incommensurables). Yet, the best example of the power of geometry is in the construction of the so-called geometric mean. Here, the semicircle and the Pythagorean Theorem produce a square root of any rational or irrational number. A Thesis Paragraph! Moreover, the geometric mean can multiply two irrational numbers together and produce an exact result, the infinite mantissa and all. No computer can do that.

The bottom line: Geometry always leads, arithmetic always follows. For example, I came up with a nice infinite series that relates the power (exponent) of the golden ratio to two terms of the numbers from the builder, Fibonacci series F n . What this relation shows is that any power n of the golden ratio a/b can be expressed as a multiple of a single golden ratio a/b . Initially I called this the steps to writing a thesis paragraph, IG series for cover letter fresher I nstant G old series. I liked the steps to writing a thesis paragraph, label 'instant' because Kepler got to the golden ratio a/b using the college about learning disabilities, infinite progression of the Fibonacci series F -- but here and now the Fibonacci is not taken to steps to writing a thesis the infinite limit to research get a/b . I also discovered that this equation, in a form a bit different from mine, already exists. After a while and once I figured out what is happening geometrically, I could not help but calling it the I vsin G old series [yes, thank you], simply because the geometric understanding opens up a whole new world of steps to writing paragraph, applications . The arithmetic equation by itself is okay but the applications just do not reveal themselves if you look at it algebraically. Builder! Try it yourself .. In another example, you know that 360 degrees in to writing paragraph, a circle is arbitrary. Very soon (just below) you'll see why a circle cannot have another number of degrees that would match the antithesis speech virginia convention, power of geometry. A circle becomes (is) a unitary entity of its own and arithmetic can deal with a circle only steps a thesis via an infinite series. Having said that, a circle would not be possible to turn into a square #151; but, by using the virtual numbers and understanding the infinite superposition .. .. A circle can be constructed or divided in finite time only geometrically. Moreover, a circle's manipulations must be exact if you want to essays about disabilities understand how an atom is or could be made.

It is now time to visit the angles of a circle. Can we map the angles in such a way as to to writing obtain correspondence between geometry and arithmetic? Arithmetic makes it strange. In a calculator, the lsu resume builder, angle of 360 degrees is divisible by 9 without a remainder, but this is but an to writing paragraph, arithmetic computation. In geometry, the circumference of a circle issues from Pi, which is a transcendental number and so you cannot be arbitrary about the length of the circle or the exactness of an angle inside a circle. Yes, the angle of builder, 40 degrees is not constructible exactly because a circle is steps a thesis not divisible by 9 exactly. But it does happen that a circle is divisible by 40 exactly and then an college disabilities, angle of 9 degrees can be had exactly. Steps To Writing Paragraph! Division of a circle into costco, an arbitrary integer quantity of equal and exact segments (or angles) is not possible. What then is the advantage in dividing the circle exactly by this or that number?

The atom holds together by having electrons wrapping around the steps to writing paragraph, nucleus. Because the electron's momentum is also a wave ( de Broglie ), the electron's wave must evenly, that is exactly, close upon itself to form a standing and a round wave that is symmetrical about builder, a point. To the Pythagoreans the numbers are everything and to writing a thesis, this is because numbers actually create things. The mainstream scientists' argument that computer's representation of an irrational number is close enough is, unfortunately, not relevant to atomic construction. Scientists just do not know how to interpret 'precise' and 'exact' in an applications setting. The scientist can divide the circle by fugitive essay nine to a very large number of steps a thesis, decimal places, but there will never be a wavelength that would fit nine times around the costco research paper, circle of the orbital. Incidentally, 'fit' is the original (superior?) word for a 'node' that was used by Newton in his description of standing waves. In today's terminology, we would say that a nine-wavelength, or 18-node, standing circular wave cannot and will not happen (will not fit).

Numbers 7, 9, 11, 13, 19, 21, 22, 23, 25 and others cannot divide a circle exactly. Most of these numbers are incomposite (prime) numbers. To Writing A Thesis! Number 9, though, is a composite number as well as a square number, but it cannot be used to divide a circle exactly. [Does this mean the Chinese Emperors could not sing? Having said that, they might have been good golf players.] Number 5 is incomposite but can be used to divide a circle exactly. What is needed, then, is a class of numbers that compose in about, a circle , instead of just being composite numbers (composed of products of other numbers). These numbers, called circumpositional numbers [by yours truly], are prominent in atomic construction.

Above, we introduced these numbers as the perfect all-star family of steps a thesis, numbers. If you don't mind additional complexity, or perhaps simplicity, a circle can be divided exactly only through geometric means. Another way of saying 'geometric means' is 'spatial distance means.' Yes, the circumference of a circle is a transcendental number and a division of any transcendental number by any real number remains transcendental (a real number is finite). The computer can use only real numbers and fugitive essay, the length of the circumference is then rounded off if it is to steps to writing paragraph be stored in a computer. Cover Letter For Mba Marketing Resume! What this also means is steps paragraph that a computer cannot give you a perfect star. What this really means is that you must have movement to create a perfect star. In other words, you cannot make a perfect star via placement or measurement (statically, topologically) with a ruler or a computer or a computer-calibrated protractor.

As a Pythagorean you might realize that you cannot construct a perfect star without a compass #150; that is, you need rotation to complete exact constructions. A compass is the only tool that allows you to enter 2D from 1D. In other words, a compass allows you to turn. A larger implication is virginia convention that there must be movement even at to writing a thesis the atomic core level #151; and under radial symmetry the movement is cover letter marketing fresher resume also about frequency. To Writing A Thesis Paragraph! (You might guess here is antithesis virginia one of the gateways to gravitation and yes, the philosopher's stone opens up to the alchemist.) The necessity of to writing a thesis paragraph, movement permeates everything. About! Even the ability to square a circle appears like basic stuff when developing (Tai) Chi in your body (think 3D). Arithmetic makes it practical. Pythagoreans had a category of numbers they called 'abundant.' Such numbers are evenly divisible (without a remainder) by many other numbers. Number 60 (minutes in an hour) is a good example as it is divisible by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30 and 60 -- which, not incidentally, are the number of points of stars one can make with minute watch face markings. Another convenient (abundant) number is 24 (hours in steps a thesis, a day), but we presently divide the marketing fresher resume, day only by 2 (am and pm) and by 3 (work part), and possibly by a thesis paragraph 12 (entertainment).

Facilitating easy workings in the geometry of a circle, however, calls for fugitive essay a more abundant number. If you were to to writing paragraph come up with a good working number for the total number of degrees in a circle, you may find 360 to lsu resume builder be a very accommodating number. Steps A Thesis! 360 degrees of a circle divide evenly into quarters (possibly the most important requirement right next to 365 days in a year). It divides evenly by 5, 10, and 20, too. You've already noted that the division by antithesis speech virginia 5 (and consequently by paragraph 10) is very practical because a circle division by five brings in the golden proportion. Virginia! The practicality of this number won the day even though 360 is also evenly divisible by 9 and a circle cannot be divided by paragraph 9 exactly. Cover! If you were a stickler for details such as this, you most definitely would insist on 2040 degrees in a circle.

2040 is evenly divisible by paragraph 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 15, and 17 -- all numbers that divide a circle exactly through geometric means. The good old 360 is pieces essay not evenly divisible by 17 and a thesis paragraph, that means that exact geometrically-obtained angles do not necessarily have a corresponding whole number of degrees if we stick to essay the present 360 quantity notation. Both 360 and 2040 are not evenly divisible by 7, 11, and 13 -- as it should be. Steps Paragraph! But 2040 is also not evenly divisible by 9, and we have even better correspondence between geometry and arithmetic. Model School! The year 2040 could be the steps, most harmonious year coming up. [But don't tell IRS. They'll put this number on a form and spoil it.] Now that all people are smart enough to essay school handle as huge number as 2040, is it time to steps a thesis make our circle geometry as sophisticated as it can be? Are you ready for the sum of internal angles in a triangle to equal 1020 degrees instead of 180? And the model, internal angle of an equilateral triangle would be 340 degrees instead of 60? Even if you could legislate the steps a thesis, change #150; and during the antithesis virginia convention, French Revolution they legislated 100 degrees in steps a thesis paragraph, a circle and 100 minutes in an hour -- the bottom line is that there is no perfect number for model middle school a quantity of degrees in a circle that would be a whole number or even a rational number. That is, there is no number that would be evenly divisible by those numbers that divide a circle exactly geometrically.

In the example of the 2040, this number is not evenly divisible by 16. Steps! [Some Masonic authors give Freemasons credit for leading the French Revolution. If so, they would certainly be quite ignorant on what to do in the aftermath #150; all their Gs notwithstanding.] Whole numbers and rational numbers are called real numbers #150; a good name. Builder! An incommensurable (transcendental or irrational) number can never become a real number unless it is transformed . The transformation is steps irreversible because we cannot save an irrational number such as SQRT(2) in a computer and retrieve it as (convert it back into) the original irrational number without first taking a nip off the costco, number #150; think Ouroboros and visit Circle and Pi . Reversing the transformation calls for addition of the virtual energy [think Isis and possibly Thoth if you are familiar with his eye restoration story]. If you want to steps get deeper into transformations of rational (real) and irrational numbers #150; think ancient Egyptian fractions [here, you will need to antithesis speech virginia appreciate three things: 1 ) Ancient Egyptian fractions are quite sophisticated; 2 ) Present day scientists are clueless as to the ancient Egyptian fraction applications or origin; and 3 ) Our present civilization is not necessarily advancing.] When dividing a circle with the straightedge and compass, the goal is to make the number to become , for the number's geometric construction creates something specific to a thesis that number. There is, then, more to numbers than philosophy, and you may want to visit the original number apps guys, Pythagoras and his fellow Pythagoreans . Essays Learning! There is a treatment there of real, virtual, and irrational numbers. Steps A Thesis! Irrationals and transcendentals are in the family of incommensurables but transcendentals are not constructible through the Pythagorean Theorem (from 2D of the curve to 1D of the hypotenuse), while additional differences between irrationals is based on applications. [There are good and bad numbers and some of essay, them have an infinite mantissa.]

What does a star in a circle represent? What is the meaning and symbolism of a star inside a single circle? The point count of the steps, star is about the wavelength multiples that curve and create the atom. Don't bother with scientists' point electron orbiting core pictures, for atomic electrons are really standing waves having point symmetries (symmetry about the core). As always, you will need to learn which stars are geometrically constructible and can be actualized, and which are just the arithmetic's (or computer's or religion's) fancy. Is the lsu resume builder, atomic core composed of standing waves? You bet.

Scientists have way too much invested in the solid and static core hypothesis and steps to writing a thesis paragraph, so it is safe to essay talk about the pulsing and standing waves of the core. Scientists are way off and, for example, they made up strong nuclear force because they do not understand the wave nature of the steps to writing a thesis, core. In a way this is okay, for you can make many advancements while the scientist remains clueless. For example, the core's shape is not necessarily spherical. With all their equations, scientists think highly of whatever it is essays they describe with them. Saying that the scientist will remain clueless is no idle talk, however. On our Circle Pi page we also highlight the to writing, inadequacy of algebra, for algebra's constructs cannot deal with the operation of equivalence. Algebra completely misses irreversibility, too. As a Pythagorean you want to figure out what entity will prevail in antithesis, the interaction with a standing-wave electron and with a standing-wave proton. Steps To Writing Paragraph! Why, could you then do a precision surgery on the atom? Seven pointed star.

A circle cannot be divided by seven exactly. Yes, we can say that seven people cannot share a round pizza equally, and leave it at that, except that the number seven is the first number with such property. When things are happening inside a circle #151; that is, when things are spinning and evolving, the wave folding encounters the number seven and college essays learning, consequent inability to fit around the circle (and make a perfect star). When you examine the Mesoamerican Hunab Ku symbol, there are two seven-sided areas (heptagons) and now the challenge is to explain that. The seven sides are not drawn equal in length and that gives the to writing, symbol some credibility. The heptagons pivot into 3D and now it gets really intriguing. If we don't take the Hunab Ku (some say Hanub Ku) as a product of coca leaf-chewing fancy, there are many interesting things happening around the number seven.

I'd be careful in using the seven pointed star. Adopting a regular heptagon or a regular seven pointed star shows you don't get it. So I'd draw the model middle school, star free hand or use an irregular heptagon. Mayans have a gap in their seven-segment Ouroboros too. The Goddess Seshat's symbol from to writing ancient Egypt is antithesis convention a contextualized seven-leafed plant (she is a scribe, which means she is a magician). The leaves spread out in a star configuration, but the resulting seven pointed star is not regular. [If you think the symbol is a cannabis plant then that's fine by me. A Thesis! However, geometry prevails (has priority) while cannabis also has 5 and 9 leaf varieties.]

The Statue of Liberty has a hair dress with seven rays. The symbolism of college essays about disabilities, her 7-point star is rich with 'seven seas' and 'seven liberal arts' interpretations, but I prefer to look at it geometrically and enjoy the fact the to writing, rays are not regular. The wonderful part of the letter marketing resume, circular geometry is that it needs to be treated separately and carefully. Euclid may have proved that no two Natural numbers (integers) when put in a ratio will result in steps to writing a thesis, an incommensurable (irrational) number. But some incommensurable numbers when put in fugitive essay, the ratio (or are proportioned) could result in steps to writing a thesis, a rational number. You may want to reflect on what it means.

As far as Euclid goes, not much. After all, Euclid talks about what does not happen. But what does it mean when transcendental -- that is curving -- and straight line (ir)rational geometries meet at certain points? Think transformations and visit the Proofs page that talks about the research paper, squaring of to writing, a circle. Understanding the angles in essay, a circle certainly takes you to another and very substantial pursuit of to writing a thesis, universe building. Looking back, is there some work that was done just in this area? But of letter, course, you'll have to step over the reductionists, yawn at the popularizers, and laugh at steps to writing a thesis paragraph people who allow to be called experts. [I'd bet 10:1 they will talk about running out of energy.] The ancient Egyptian fractions have the numerator expressed as an costco research paper, oval having the value of 1 . It is a symbol for a unitary entity that has symmetry about a point such as a circle or an steps a thesis paragraph, ellipse. And if you have two circles that you want to divide into cover marketing, sub-unity fractions, are we really talking about two atomic orbitals and the possible (energy) fractional values they can acquire during an to writing, electron jump? So now you have yet another quest to make. A road where you will also discard all the modern mathematicians musing at the awkwardness of the ancient Egyptian fractions. The Rhind papyrus has the 2/n expansion and now you know what the 2 is about.

Riemann sees a sphere with longitudinals that, with identical curvature, converge and meet at the poles at finite distance where they close upon themselves (think atomic orbitals in a closed 3D topology). Antithesis Virginia! Although Riemann, a math guy, did not have an atom in his mind, his geometry is 'parallel yet finite.' He discovered an unusual way of obtaining all incomposite (prime) numbers. We have three book reviews on this remarkable individual. Then there are the steps to writing paragraph, scales of the fish [yeah, the dumb fish]. The sweeps of the essay school, scales subtend a particular angle. Do you think a fish could fly or extract energy from the steps a thesis paragraph, swirling water around it by using the geometry of its scales? In reverse, could you work the straight-moving energy to close upon lsu resume builder itself and make an atomic orbital? Think pyramid geometry and Schauberger . Illuminati, Masons and New Order Guys. Pythagoreans, too. Symbolism is about associating something with something similar.

Pythagorean logic, for example, says that two points make an axis and then the number two is behind the mirror symmetry, aka the axial, even, or feminine symmetry. As a Pythagorean you have no problem with that, and paragraph, wouldn't use the term axis of evil because both the constructive and costco research paper, destructive energies exist about an steps to writing a thesis paragraph, axis (about 1D). You'd then apply one point of 0D as the source for rotation and consequent (odd, masculine) symmetry. But you are also smart enough to antithesis speech virginia convention figure out that after 3 points (of volume) you enter a different, virtual domain that is paragraph based on the number 4. Cover For Mba! Associations can go on and on and are thus unbounded, and in a fine distinction the associations become infinite relationships. So now you can relate and associate from here to eternity and each time you may get to a different conclusion.

You can now perhaps see the possibility of to writing, making something bad or evil out of something that is pedestrian or even boring. So you want to cover letter fresher ask if the result you reached is beneficial or not. To Writing! If you think accusing someone of antithesis, evil thoughts is beneficial to your religion then you are a part of a religion that is sustained by attempted oppression of others. In short, your religion is not based on truth. In fact, all possible thoughts and all knowledge exist in to writing, infinite superposition with each other and is to a greater or lesser degree available to you. You are never fully locked out from knowledge you seek, but its usefulness may not be obvious.

If you keep an open mind you will soon discover that working with infinities is no easy matter. Shutting down your mind (narrow one's mind) is a defensive reaction to builder an onslaught of information. A Thesis Paragraph! You may even figure out that all religions attempt to understand infinities and lsu resume, could well be defined just by that. So relax. Infinities can be worked but they need different methods. To Writing Paragraph! Things that don't add up simply won't happen.

[So what is my Pythagorean take on the 7-point irregular star? It is about the creation or release (liberation) of builder, energy. As with anything it could have a down side, but with superior assistance (God?) it can be managed and be useful. Oh, the steps to writing a thesis, thing about God is costco paper that you have to ask. It's not because God is busy, but because you get a specific answer to a specific question. Most importantly, you will never get an order or a command: only knowledge.

The action (or non-action) is yours and is based on your free will and your consequent responsibility for your actions.] Johann Balmer was the guy who opened wide the barn doors of quantum mechanics. Fifteen years before Planck , he came up with the relation that produces a sequence of numbers matching the wavelengths of light coming from hydrogen. These are not just any numbers #150; they are wavelengths corresponding to particular electron jumps and no other. Balmer did for quantum mechanics what Kepler did for gravitation: He came up with the math equation that matched known experimental data and made successful predictions of other new, yet undiscovered, wavelengths. But there is a bit more to it.

Balmer used integers and square numbers in his relation that were those of the Pythagorean Theorem. Well, good ol' Pythagoras was not only right all along but the breadth of his #150; some say HIS #150; teaching was also the foundation of quantum mechanics. Natural numbers and steps a thesis paragraph, his theorem are also the source of the quantum behavior of college essays about learning, atoms. This topic is expanded and has a page of its own. To reconcile the straight (1D) and the curving (2D or 3D), you will be dealing with the squaring of a circle.

Algebra works fine when things are straight or polynomial or exponential. Generally, however, when geometry picks up another dimension and steps to writing paragraph, lines start to be circular, the equations are not enough as the transcendentals come up. Builder! The relationship of the squaring of steps to writing a thesis, a circle to this page's perfect division of research, a circle is in steps, the possibility of speech virginia, linearizing the curved segments (arcs) of a circle and then making a tractable exchange between curving and straight topologies. So there is a continuation to 'how to draw a star' and it deals with energy. Can we say that geometry is about energy? Can we say that the exactness of a thesis paragraph, particular geometric solutions goes along with the exact conservation of essay, energy? Of course, Pythagorean methods are used to steps find new ways while mainstream science continues to be arm chair science by playing up one trivial answer as the only answer.

At times politicians pick up the 'square a circle' analogy and then you should know they are trying to find excuses and lsu resume, explain failures to their supposedly dumb constituents. Steps A Thesis! So, even though the squaring of a circle is not possible using real methods , the squaring of a circle is possible. The complexity of our environment is oftentimes worked through alchemy. There is a method behind the seemingly strange associations and we offer the interpretation of The Emerald Tablet on our Alchemy page. Summary, Cosmic (Macro) Pythagorean discovery of irrationals spawned the urgent pursuit of geometry lasting over 2400 years.

Kepler brought arithmetic to essays about learning the forefront by establishing the mathematical and arithmetic relations of heavenly orbits. In effect and in fact, Kepler introduced the parameter of time in the mathematical context, which made it possible to make planetary position forecasts #151; forecasting being Kepler's life long passion. Because any two gravitationally interacting bodies always have a solution, the parameter of steps to writing, time derived from letter such periodic solutions is also repeatable (periodic) and paragraph, time can be used to make forecasts. Even though time is always a derived (dependent) variable, the mathematical solution establishes reversibility and allows the time parameter derived from this system to be used. (The equal sign indicates reversibility but reversibility is by costco research no means a given.) Another way of seeing the mathematical solution and consequent time reversibility is that the steps a thesis, spatial distance (space) and time form an model essay school, overlay. In a chaotic system, or in a non-periodic system such as the free economy system, the paragraph, parameter of time cannot be used to make predictions.

Geometrically, you can take any square and construct another square that has exactly twice the costco paper, area of the paragraph, original square. A square can be increasing in infinitely small increments, including irrationals, while the doubled square follows that exactly (think conservation of energy of a moving object). This is something your computer cannot do. If you think this is no big deal and it is something for the ancients to contemplate #150; that's fine. Middle School! The gateway question that makes all the difference is: Can you construct infinity? Certainly the most enticing question is: Can you stop moving bodies at a distance? Light is understood as moving or standing linear -- that is, straight, waves following Newton's analysis of fringes (first observed as fringe rings). As light becomes closely associated with matter, Balmer kicks off the QM atomic pursuit with a Pythagorean relation. A wavefunction is understood as a probability distribution of an atomic particle #151; a great step forward by Heisenberg and von Neumann.

A moving particle has momentum but momentum can also be worked as a wave #151; a second great step, this time by de Broglie. A moving electron now gets to become a wave as well, but this wave must curve #150; that is, become circular , and close upon to writing a thesis paragraph itself in a symmetry about a point (about a core). The circular (or rounded) electron orbital and the straight path of light need to be energy-reconciled through the squaring of lsu resume builder, a circle #151; the first difficult hurdle. Ether is taken out of science's purview, which is the Great Reduction making the scientist that much poorer in the end. Scientists cannot make headway and talk about steps, impossibilities. They reduce everything until there is no intelligence in their design and essay middle school, take an early exit. (In their last hurrah the angry mob bashes and steps to writing, trashes cold fusion.) Scientists thus successfully reduced themselves into a group of believers in 'light-is-real-and-puts-pressure-on-mirror.' While much of today's physics rests on model essay it, the scientist has no guts and steps paragraph, no brains to perform the essay middle school, actual experiment measuring the presumed pressure light puts on a mirror.

Scientists are not able to face up to a thesis paragraph the truth that a light beam does not and cannot put pressure on a mirror and so they are stuck perpetuating, defending, and proselytizing their dogma. Meanwhile, geometry is receiving new impetus by reviving its superiority over arithmetic and algebra. The golden proportion, the infinite and instant wavefunction superposition, the understanding of irrational and transcendental numbers, linearizing particular segments of a circle, and the possibility of creating electron waves with harmonics-series energy components just might get the atomic understanding going again #150; perhaps in another country, perhaps by speech virginia another group of professionals. The cosmic (or planetary) pentagram and the five fold atomic orbital make the five pointed star a joining symbol for both the macro and the micro. While the atom's orbitals are symmetrical about a point (have radial symmetry), the valence orbitals in a molecule need to steps a thesis paragraph close around two points of symmetry (the cores of the cover letter fresher, atoms are some distance apart).

Yes, the Hyper s tar has an answer to that on steps a thesis paragraph our golden proportions page. Self-test:-) If you are not happy about the pentagon base and/or the pyramid being split up or broken up or separated, you are not getting the picture. You may want to think about the red part as being the convention, tangible component while the steps to writing a thesis paragraph, blue part is the intangible (knowledge, virtual) component. If that does not help, stay in 2D [earthbound?] where the pentagon is continuous. If you think Two rather than Four is feminine , you are very close. Costco! You will need to appreciate that the virtual variables are double-ended and have opposites. Then you'll need to center these variables to relate them in infinite superposition. ( Quantum Pythagoreans book helps in this area too.) The engagement of Three and Four is steps to writing paragraph just that: It can be supportive in some contexts and in others it could be conflicting, in which case rebalancing work is needed. So, the recommendation for The Pentagon is to modify one of the pentagons (or build a new inner one) to reflect the separate golden trapezoid and the golden triangle. The new construction slants upward toward a point. It does not need to fugitive pieces top off in a point as long as the edges are converging toward a point. (If it does top off, think about the straightness of the edges -- it ain't straightforward.)

This pentagonal pyramid is on Mars. The picture credit most likely goes to to writing a thesis paragraph NASA although I don't know the particulars of image enhancements processing -- none or too much. Model Essay Middle! Note the pentagonal aspect is not regular (a point-to-point straight line over a ridge and through the center can be made). There is one symbol that uses a circle framed by two vertical lines. These lines are at times shown as two (usually) identical posts or columns. At other times it is shown as a person holding two vertical sticks, candles, or wands. This symbolism, however, is steps to writing paragraph not about the college essays learning, 3 vs. 4. Rather, the two lines or sticks or columns are about the virtual line of the even symmetry that is relevant to the virtual domain and the energy therein. The upcoming book (late 2013) deals with the construction in the micro domain via the steps to writing paragraph, stars, the rings and the symmetries.

Yes, knowledge is organized energy. Three and Four must remain separate even though they are also joined. You can then see it as a five sided pyramid made from two pyramids that each have unique properties. The overall 3D structure has almost all numbers in it but the point is that the numbers must play together to their best advantage (rather than just being represented). Do you see the number zero? Or is it the infinity? Could it be both? Is the number zero combined with infinity the source of the essay school, Pythagorean fire? The root of the pyra-mid? The Central fire?

The hearth of Zeus? Archimedes' fulcrum of the heaven and the earth? Just a plain (free) electron? The convergence of the north and the south poles on decreasing Riemann sphere? A point of the zero dimensional (0D) geometric construct? 'The One' of alchemy? Something even smaller than the steps to writing, infinitesimal of Newton and Leibniz?

The dot in the semicircle on the AUM symbol? A computational construct for all of the above from college essays about disabilities all of the above? The top dot of Tetractys? My favorite : The eye Thoth sends to steps a thesis look for essays about learning disabilities Tefnut when she runs away to Nubia (yes, the a thesis paragraph, eye finds her). If you think this pyramid is about marriage, you are on the right track. Convention! The Three [male] and Four [female] are joined through the steps a thesis paragraph, point of the infinite.

This joining is applicable to the actual marriage where the joining is costco paper through God #150; all there is. Paragraph! The alchemical marriage would have the female part becoming more abstract although the lsu resume builder, four-sided pyramid geometry continues to steps to writing paragraph be needed for dealing with the infinite. Lsu Resume Builder! You are, perhaps surprisingly, also looking at the joining of matter at the atomic or micro level. The virtual component (in sky blue here; would be white for the ancient Egyptians) has the golden trapezoid for its base, for the longer to the shorter sides are in the golden proportion. The real component has one of the golden triangles for its base.

If you like alchemy, the triangular pyramid is the king (or sun, gold) while the four-sided pyramid is the queen (moon, silver). Yes, this is the 3 vs. 4. In the ancient Egyptian context, the crown of Egypt has two separate components: The white (upper, virtual) and the red (lower, real). The gap between the two is the to writing a thesis, ancient Egyptian blue crown and is invoked at war. (The gap is model essay white in our pentagonal pyramid.) Book by Mike Ivsin. Pythagoreans use the knowledge of numbers to arrive at to writing paragraph harmonious and stable systems. Numbers' properties under different symmetries yield specific solutions. Numbers create the duality while the engagement of the duality's components leads to college disabilities organization.

Quantum Pythagoreans applies the Tetractys construct and that results in all observable cosmic topologies. The book describes the nature's computational mechanism, especially as it applies to waves. What it takes to transform energies. Your body is a component and it is not the only one. The shapes inherent in the human body have certain geometric context that is revealed in the book and steps to writing, it is about your health, too. You will like and appreciate the simplicity and the power of costco research, numbers. The Pythagorean management of numbers takes you on the road to reality and to writing, invites you to drive it as well. Go or select another topic from the gold post. HyperFlight home Portal in new window. 2005 -- 2013 Backbone Consultants Inc.

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essays for childrens Marah Gubar, University of Pittsburgh. Used by permission of the Corporation of London, London Metropolitan Archives. Introduction A Nation of Children Calls for Reform Baby Steps The Innocent Ideal Consuming Childhood The Cult of the Child Strange Inconsistencies Recommended reading. Used by permission of the World Publishing Company.

Used by permission of Corbis Images for Education. In 1799, children’s author and educator Hannah More reacted against the revolutions that had recently taken place in America and France in terms that tell us a great deal about the child’s place in British society at that time. Denouncing Thomas Paine’s radical insistence that all men are created equal, More argued that recognizing the “rights of man” was an absurd idea. Next, she scoffed, reformers would begin to discuss the rights of women, and then (even more ridiculously) “our enlighteners [] will illuminate the world with grave descants on the rights of youth, the rights of children, the rights of babies” (Walvin 45). The idea that children have rights that the steps paragraph, state should protect may have seemed silly at dawn of the nineteenth century, but by the time Queen Victoria died in 1901, it had gained significant support. Builder. Beginning in the 1830s, the Victorians passed a variety of laws aimed at protecting the wellbeing of children at to writing work, at school, or in the home.

This activism was motivated in part by a growing acceptance of the builder, Romantic idea that children are innocent creatures who should be shielded from the to writing, adult world and allowed to enjoy their childhood. As the century wore on, writers and speech virginia artists began to produce increasingly sentimentalized images of a thesis children, emphasizing their angelic, adorable qualities. Yet despite such rhetoric, real reform did not come quickly. High infant mortality rates, inadequate schooling, and child labor persisted right to lsu resume builder the end of the to writing a thesis paragraph, century, suggesting that many Victorians remained unconvinced that childhood should be marked off as a protected period of dependence and development. A Nation of paper Children. Victoria’s England was a child-dominated society. Throughout her long reign, one out of every three of her subjects was under the age of steps fifteen. Costco Research. The population explosion that occurred during this period was accompanied by a tremendous amount of industrialization and urbanization; by the end of the century, a vast majority of children lived in towns rather than rural communities. Families tended to be large, although the birth rate declined a bit over the course of the century as more information on contraception became available. The rapid growth of towns quickly outstripped affordable housing, leading to overcrowding and shockingly poor sanitary conditions.

Coupled with infectious diseases and impure milk and food, these factors contributed to very high infant and child mortality rates. Poor children who survived infancy were often put to work at an early age. Steps Paragraph. In the 1830s and 40s, many children labored in textile mills and coal mines, where working conditions often proved deadly. Girls as young as five went into domestic service as nurses or maids to wealthy families. Rural children worked on farms or in model essay middle school, cottage industries, while thousands of urban children worked as street hawkers, selling matches or sweeping crossings (see figure 1). Child labor was not new, but as industrialization continued it became more visible, as masses of ragged, stunted children crowded the city streets. Calls for a thesis Reform. Philanthropists, religious leaders, doctors, journalists, and lsu resume artists all campaigned to improve the steps, lives of model essay middle poor children. In 1840, Lord Ashley (later the 7th Earl of steps a thesis Shaftesbury) helped set up the Children’s Employment Commission, which published parliamentary reports on conditions in mines and essays collieries.

The shocking testimony contained in these reports inspired Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s famous protest poem “The Cry of the Children” (1844). Shaftesbury went on to become president of to writing Ragged School Union, an model school, evangelical organization which established hundreds of schools for the poor. Famous child-savers like Mary Carpenter and Dr. To Writing A Thesis Paragraph. Thomas Barnardo taught in Ragged Schools before opening their own institutions for lsu resume destitute youths. Dr. Barnardo described some of his missionary efforts in steps a thesis, the Children’s Treasury (see figure 2), while investigative reporters like Henry Mayhew tirelessly documented the dire conditions endured by many working-class families. The novels of fugitive Charles Dickens, the most popular author of the Victorian era, also reveal an steps to writing a thesis, intense concern about the vulnerability of children.

When Dickens was twelve, his father was imprisoned for debt and he was sent to work in a blacking factory, an incident that haunted him his whole life. His novels are full of neglected, exploited, or abused children: the college essays disabilities, orphaned Oliver Twist, the crippled Tiny Tim, the paragraph, stunted Smike, and doomed tykes like Paul Dombey and Little Nell. Like Barrett Browning, Dickens was galvanized by revelations of model school real-life horrors facing the poor. Steps To Writing A Thesis. Oliver Twist (1837) was written in response to the draconian New Poor Law of 1834, which had been inspired by fugitive essay the theories of utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham. This law relegated the a thesis, needy to prison-like institutions called workhouses, splitting up families and essay middle school subjecting them to repugnant living conditions and hard labor. Similarly, in creating the pathetic character of Jo the street-sweeper in Bleak House (1852-3), Dickens was inspired by the testimony of a real child laborer interviewed in an 1850 law report.

Both boys admit, under questioning, that no one has ever bothered to steps teach them anything, not even the shortest prayer. Jo’s dramatic death scene enables Dickens to fulminate on the fate of such forlorn waifs: Dead, your Majesty. Dead, my lords and gentlemen. Dead, Right Reverends and Wrong Reverends of every order. Dead, men and cover marketing fresher women, born with Heavenly compassion in your hearts.

And dying thus around us every day. (Chapter XLVII) It is steps, easy to interpret the outraged activism of writers like Dickens as indicative of a transformation in public sentiment about children. But such protests were fuelled by the fact that many people still believed that children did not need to be shielded by the state from antithesis convention, adult responsibilities. Queen Victoria’s husband Prince Albert spoke for many when he argued that the a thesis paragraph, working man’s children were “part of his productive power,” an pieces essay, indispensable source of family income (Horn, Town Child 100). Thus, although legislation aimed at regulating and reducing child labor was passed throughout the century, there was no attempt to steps to writing paragraph outlaw it completely.

Loopholes in laws like the 1833 Factory Act and the 1867 Workshops Act, coupled with a lack of local enforcement, meant that many children continued to school work. As late as 1891, over steps a thesis paragraph 100,000 girls between the ages of costco paper 10 and 14 were still employed as domestic servants in England and Wales. Steps To Writing. That same year, the lsu resume builder, British government dragged its feet at raising the minimum age for part-time factory work from to writing paragraph, 10 to 11, even though they had promised to extend it to 12 at essay school an 1890 European congress on child labor. Education reform also proceeded at a slow pace. Steps A Thesis Paragraph. In the early 1860s, the costco paper, Royal Commission on Popular Education declared that compulsory schooling for all children was “neither obtainable nor desirable.” If the child’s wages are crucial to to writing the family economy, they wrote, “it is fugitive, far better that it should go to work at the earliest age at which it can bear the physical exertion than that it should remain at school” (Horn, Town Child 74).

Another powerful impediment to the creation of a public school system was religious; dissent between the Church of England and nonconformists over the content and amount of religious instruction stalled legislative efforts until 1870, when the Elementary Education Act finally created a national network of primary schools. Steps To Writing Paragraph. A similarly provision for essay secondary education was not passed until 1902. Middle- and upper-class families could employ tutors, or send their children to private schools, but these were unregulated and varied widely in quality. Girls were worse off than boys, since many people believed that domestic skills and to writing paragraph basic literacy were all they needed to learn. What explains the sluggish pace of reform? The rise of industrial capitalism created a huge demand for cheap labor, which children certainly were. Responding to this boom, Victorian economists and politicians embraced a laissez-faire approach which involved keeping state interference to a minimum. Forced to fend for themselves, many families endured such extreme poverty that their children’s wages were indeed crucial to their survival. And although the Romantic belief in childhood innocence was spreading, many clung to the Calvinist notion of original sin, which held that work was good for children, since “Satan finds mischief for idle hands to do.”

The Innocent Ideal. Nevertheless, as the century wore on, more and costco more people began to accept the idea that childhood should be a protected period of education and enjoyment. However slow education reform was in paragraph, coming, it did come: in model middle school, 1851, fully one third of English children received no education at all, whereas by the end of the century, nearly ninety percent went to school for seven to eight years. At the same time, there was an explosion of books, magazines, toys, and games aimed at steps a thesis entertaining children. Indeed, children’s literature blossomed into what critics call its “Golden Age.” With its rollicking depiction of nursery life, Catherine Sinclair’s Holiday House (1839) is often regarded as a landmark text that shifted the focus of lsu resume builder children’s fiction from instruction to delight. Classics like Edward Lear’s A Book of Nonsense (1846) and steps paragraph Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865) carried on this tradition. Mixing fantasy and realism, authors like Juliana Ewing, Mary Louisa Molesworth, and E. Nesbit painted a vivid picture of the middle-class nursery as a hotbed of hobbies: private theatricals, elaborate games, gardening, the composition of family magazines, and fugitive essay so on. Like Dickens, children’s authors often voiced their belief in the perfect purity of the young, as when Carroll enthused, “Their innocent unconsciousness is very beautiful, and gives one a feeling of reverence, as at the presence of steps to writing a thesis something sacred” ( Letters 381) Such sentiments became increasingly common in sermons, poetry, and periodicals from this period; the Victorians often quoted Wordsworth’s claim in model middle school, the Immortality Ode that “Heaven lies about steps to writing a thesis, us in our infancy!” Artists like Charles West Cope and research John Everett Millais produced dozens of domestic genre paintings with titles like The First Music Lesson (1863) and My First Sermon (1862-3), which portray the child as a bastion of simplicity, innocence, and playfulness. Women were also praised for embodying these qualities, and together with children they were urged to inhabit a separate sphere: to steps a thesis paragraph withdraw from the workforce, embrace their status as dependents, and provide the male breadwinner with a refuge from the college about learning, dog-eat-dog capitalist world outside the steps paragraph, family. Ironically, though, even as the Victorians represented children as opposed by nature to the materialistic world of trade and profit, the figure of the child was commodified and put on display as never before.

For example, the Pears Soap Company bought reproduction rights to Millais’ paintings Cherry Ripe (1879) and Bubbles (1886), and fugitive essay placed the images in advertisements and steps to writing paragraph calendars (see figure 3). When Cherry Ripe was featured as a color centerfold in a Christmas annual, the magazine quickly sold 500,000 copies. Kate Greenaway also took advantage of the increased public appetite for images of childhood; her watercolors of children playing appeared not just in model essay middle, her wildly popular books but on tea towels, wallpaper, stationary, soaps, and clothes. Actual young people were paraded before the public as well. New presentation furniture like the bassinet and the perambulator allowed infants to be displayed to an admiring world. Child actors appeared on stage in record numbers, performing in pantomimes, ballets, operettas, straight dramas, minstrel shows, music halls, and circus acts. By the 1880s, Drury Lane Theatre was hiring 150-200 children per pantomime. Child prodigies like Jean Davenport and Lydia Howard astonished audiences by playing multiple roles in the same evening, while numerous companies routinely ran all-child productions.

For example, the famous D’Oyly Carte Opera Company had a children’s troupe which put on Gilbert and steps to writing Sullivan operettas without the help of a single adult performer. The Cult of the cover for mba marketing fresher, Child. As children became more visible on the stage, the paragraph, question naturally arose: did such work constitute labor? Considerable controversy arose over this issue in the 1880s. Educational activists like Millicent Garrett Fawcett insisted that children under ten should be banned from cover letter for mba, full-time theatre work as they had been from factories and workshops. Theatre people and steps a thesis other artists, including Carroll and essays about learning the poet Ernest Dowson, strongly disagreed. Acting was not a labor but an art, they maintained, and children benefited from and enjoyed doing it. Dowson develops this argument in his 1889 article “The Cult of the Child.” As his title indicates, however, the insistence that children “delight in” performing quickly gives way to the admission that adults delight in watching children perform. “Disillusioned” grown-ups, tired of facing the complexities of contemporary life, find relief by turning their attention to children: “[T]here are an ever increasing number of people who receive from the beauty of childhood, in art as in life, an exquisite pleasure.” Dowson and other members of the “cult” insisted that contemplating the innocent simplicity of children served as a healthy corrective to the tawdriness and skepticism of modern life. To Writing. Religious doubt was on the rise, particularly after the publication of Charles Darwin’s findings about evolution. Convention. Some commentators have suggested that the child gradually replaced God as an object of worship. But although adherents to the cult of the child described their appreciation in steps paragraph, religious and/or aesthetic terms, the art they produced reveals a disturbing tendency to conceive of the costco research, child as the ideal romantic partner.

In novels like Carroll’s Sylvie and Bruno (1889) and J. M. Barrie’s The Little White Bird (1902), besotted bachelors pursue children rather than women, while Dowson wrote a sonnet sequence celebrating the charms “Of a Little Girl.” Dowson also fell in love with an eleven-year-old named Adelaide Foltinowicz, proposing to her when she was fourteen. A Thesis. He was not alone; eminent Victorians like John Ruskin and the Archbishop of Canterbury also wooed young girls, and child prostitution was an accepted if deplored fact of London life. To our eyes, the Victorians seem very inconsistent in terms of their attitudes toward children. Child-worshippers who waxed rhapsodic about the perfect purity of children simultaneously eroticized them. Even as sentimentality about childhood reached new heights, the letter for mba marketing resume, notion that all children are savages likewise gained widespread support; many Victorians accepted the “Law of Recapitulation,” which stipulated that as a child develops, he or she repeats the stages of a thesis paragraph development of the pieces essay, human race.

This belief in “the savagery of all children and the childishness of all savages” served a justification for subjecting children to a thesis harsh discipline, and natives of other countries to the rule of the costco, expanding British Empire (Cunningham 98). These contradictory impulses of cruelty and concern informed the steps to writing paragraph, actions of individual Victorians. Journalist W. Antithesis Speech Convention. T. Stead provides a perfect example. Steps To Writing A Thesis. In 1885, he launched a campaign to essays disabilities raise awareness about child prostitution and prod the government to raise the age of consent. Steps A Thesis. But his method of costco research paper pursuing these admirable goals landed him in jail. To prove that virgins were being sold on the street in record numbers, he abducted a thirteen-year-old girl without telling her parents what he planned to do with her. After subjecting the a thesis, unwitting girl to a medical exam to prove her purity, he drugged her, pretended to accost her, and sent her off to Paris.

The lurid account he wrote of these events featured headings like “The Violation of Virgins” and “Strapping Girls Down.” It reads like pornography, yet it helped assure the passage of the Criminal Law Amendment Act of letter for mba marketing 1885, which raised the age of consent from thirteen to sixteen. This bizarre event encapsulates some of the conflicting discourses circulating around the steps a thesis, Victorian child. Boone, Troy. Youth of Darkest England: Working-Class Children at the Heart of virginia convention Victorian Empire . New York: Routledge, 2005. Bristow, Joseph. Empire Boys: Adventures in a thesis paragraph, a Man’s World . London: HarperCollins, 1991. Coveney, Peter. The Image of Childhood: The Individual and Society: A Study of the Theme in English Literature . Rev. Ed.

Baltimore: Penguin books, 1967. Cunningham, Hugh. The Children of the Poor: Representations of Childhood Since the Seventeenth Century . Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1991. Davidoff, Leonore and Catherine Hall. Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class, 1780-1850 . Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1897. Garlitz, Barbara. “The Immortality Ode: Its Cultural Progeny.” Studies in English Literature 6 (1966): 639-649. Higonnet, Anne.

Pictures of Innocence: The History and Crisis of Ideal Childhood . London: Thames and lsu resume Hudson, 1998. Horn, Pamela. The Victorian Country Child . Thrupp, Stroud, UK: Sutton, 1997. ---. The Victorian Town Child . New York: NYUP, 1997.

Kincaid, James. Child-Loving: The Erotic Child and Victorian Culture . New York: Routledge, 1992. Robson, Catherine. Men in steps to writing a thesis, Wonderland: The Lost Girlhood of the cover letter marketing, Victorian Gentleman . Princeton: Princeton UP, 2001. Steedman, Carolyn.

Strange Dislocations: Childhood and the Idea of Human Interiority, 1780-1930 . Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1995. Walvin, James. A Child’s World: A Social History of English Childhood 1800-1914 . New York: Penguin, 1982.