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Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Question. Stephanie Allen read Classics and learning disabilities English at St Hugh’s College, Oxford, and is currently researching a PhD in Early Modern Academic Drama at review, the University of Fribourg. We’ve all been there. You’ve handed in an essay and college essays you think it’s pretty great: it shows off all your best ideas, and of coursework contains points you’re sure no one else will have thought of. You’re not totally convinced that what you’ve written is relevant to the title you were given but it’s inventive, original and about learning good. University Of South Admissions Essay. In fact, it might be better than anything that would have responded to the question.
But your essay isn’t met with the college essays disabilities, lavish praise you expected. When it’s tossed back onto your desk, there are huge chunks scored through with red pen, crawling with annotations like little red fire ants: ‘IRRELEVANT’; ‘A bit of a tangent!’; ‘. ’; and, right next to programs without dissertation, your best, most impressive killer point: ‘Right… so?’. The grade your teacher has scrawled at the end is nowhere near what your essay deserves. In fact, it’s pretty average. And the comment at the bottom reads something like, ‘Some good ideas, but you didn’t answer the question!’. If asked a question about college essays learning disabilities Keats, you should write about admissions Keats. If this has ever happened to you (and it has happened to me, a lot), you’ll know how deeply frustrating it is – and essays about how unfair it can seem.
This might just be me, but the exhausting process of researching, having ideas, planning, writing and re-reading makes me steadily more attached to top quality, the ideas I have, and the things I’ve managed to put on the page. Each time I scroll back through what I’ve written, or planned, so far, I become steadily more convinced of its brilliance. What started off as a scribbled note in essays learning the margin, something extra to essay literary time, think about or to pop in college about learning disabilities if it could be made to fit the argument, sometimes comes to be backbone of a whole essay – so, when a tutor tells me my inspired paragraph about Ted Hughes’s interpretation of mythology isn’t relevant to my essay on Keats, I fail to see why. Or even if I can see why, the thought of taking it out is wrenching. Who cares if it’s a bit off-topic? It should make my essay stand out, if anything! And an examiner would probably be happy not to read yet another answer that makes exactly the same points.
If you recognise yourself in the above, there are two crucial things to realise. The first is doctorate dissertation, that something has to change: because doing well in high school exam or coursework essays is college essays about learning, almost totally dependent on being able to pin down and organise lots of ideas so that an examiner can see that they convincingly answer a question. And it’s a real shame to work hard on something, have good ideas, and not get the marks you deserve. Writing a top essay is a very particular and actually quite simple challenge. It’s not actually that important how original you are, how compelling your writing is, how many ideas you get down, or how beautifully you can express yourself (though of course, all these things do have their rightful place). What you’re doing, essentially, is using a limited amount of time and disadvantages of coursework knowledge to really answer a question. It sounds obvious, but a good essay should have the title or question as its focus the whole way through . It should answer it ten times over college learning, – in every single paragraph, with every fact or figure. Treat your reader (whether it’s your class teacher or an external examiner) like a child who can’t do any interpretive work of their own; imagine yourself leading them through your essay by the hand, pointing out that you’ve answered the question here , and here , and here. Now, this is all very well, I imagine you objecting, and much easier said than done. But never fear!
Structuring an essay that knocks a question on institute, the head is something you can learn to do in a couple of easy steps. In the next few hundred words, I’m going to share with you what I’ve learned through endless, mindless crossings-out, rewordings, rewritings and rethinkings. I’ve lost count of the number of times I’ve been told to ‘write the question at the top of every new page’- but for some reason, that trick simply doesn’t work for me. If it doesn’t work for you either, use this three-part process to allow the question to college essays about disabilities, structure your essay: 1) Work out exactly what you’re being asked. It sounds really obvious, but lots of students have trouble answering questions because they don’t take time to figure out exactly what they’re expected to essays, do – instead, they skim-read and then write the about, essay they want to write. Sussing out a question is english essay from institute, a two-part process, and the first part is college learning, easy. It means looking at the directions the question provides as to what sort of essay you’re going to write. Of South Florida Admissions. I call these ‘command phrases’ and will go into more detail about what they mean below. The second part involves identifying key words and essays about learning disabilities phrases. Use forceful, persuasive language to show how the points you’ve made do answer the question. My main focus so far has been on tangential or irrelevant material – but many students lose marks even though they make great points, because they don’t quite impress how relevant those points are.
Again, I’ll talk about how you can do this below. 3) Be brutally honest with yourself about whether a point is relevant before you write it. It doesn’t matter how impressive, original or interesting it is. It doesn’t matter if you’re panicking, and you can’t think of any points that do answer the of south florida, question. If a point isn’t relevant, don’t bother with it. It’s a waste of college essays about learning disabilities, time, and might actually work against you- if you put tangential material in an essay, your reader will struggle to follow the of coursework, thread of your argument, and lose focus on your really good points. #8216;Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on college about learning disabilities, the heath#8217; by Theodore Chasseriau. Let’s imagine you’re writing an English essay about the role and importance of the three witches in Macbeth . You’re thinking about the different ways in which Shakespeare imagines and presents the witches, how they influence the action of the tragedy, and university of south essay perhaps the extent to which we’re supposed to believe in them (stay with me – you don’t have to know a single thing about Shakespeare or Macbeth to learning disabilities, understand this bit!). Now, you’ll probably have a few good ideas on this topic – and whatever essay you write, you’ll most likely use much of the same material.
However, the detail of the benefits of human cloning essay, phrasing of the question will significantly affect the way you write your essay. You would draw on similar material to address the following questions: Discuss Shakespeare’s representation of the college about disabilities, three witches in Macbeth . How does Shakespeare figure the supernatural in Macbeth ? To what extent are the top quality essays review, three witches responsible for Macbeth’s tragic downfall? Evaluate the importance of the three witches in bringing about Macbeth’s ruin. Are we supposed to believe in the three witches in Macbeth ? “Within Macbeth ’s representation of the witches, there is profound ambiguity about the actual significance and power of their malevolent intervention” (Stephen Greenblatt). Discuss.
I’ve organised the examples into three groups, exemplifying the different types of questions you might have to answer in an exam. The first group are pretty open-ended: ‘discuss’- and college about ‘how’-questions leave you room to set the scope of the essay. Top Quality Review. You can decide what the focus should be. Beware, though – this doesn’t mean you don’t need a sturdy structure, or a clear argument, both of college about disabilities, which should always be present in an essay. Assessment. The second group are asking you to evaluate, constructing an argument that decides whether, and how far something is true. Good examples of hypotheses (which your essay would set out to college essays about, prove) for these questions are: The witches are the most important cause of tragic action in Macbeth. The witches are partially, but not entirely responsible for top quality essays Macbeth’s downfall, alongside Macbeth’s unbridled ambition, and that of essays about disabilities, his wife. We are not supposed to believe the top quality essays, witches: they are a product of Macbeth’s psyche, and his downfall is his own doing. The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is about learning disabilities, deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is shaky – finally, their ambiguity is part of an uncertain tragic universe and english essay the great illusion of the theatre. (N.B.
It’s fine to college essays, conclude that a question can’t be answered in black and white, certain terms – as long as you have a firm structure, and english from institute literary time keep referring back to college about learning disabilities, it throughout the top quality review, essay). The final question asks you to respond to a quotation. Essays About Learning. Students tend to find these sorts of questions the most difficult to answer, but once you’ve got the hang of of human cloning essay, them I think the essays about disabilities, title does most of the work for you – often implicitly providing you with a structure for cloning essay your essay. The first step is essays learning, breaking down the benefits of human cloning, quotation into essays about disabilities, its constituent parts- the different things it says. I use brackets: ( Within Macbeth ’s representation of the witches, ) ( there is profound ambiguity ) about the ( actual significance ) ( and power ) of ( their malevolent intervention ) Examiners have a nasty habit of picking the most bewildering and terrifying-sounding quotations: but once you break them down, they’re often asking for something very simple. This quotation, for doctorate without dissertation example, is college essays about learning disabilities, asking exactly the same thing as the other questions. The trick here is benefits of human essay, making sure you respond to college essays, all the different parts. You want to make sure you discuss the following: Do you agree that the status of the witches’ ‘malevolent intervention’ is ambiguous? What is its significance? How powerful is it? James I, the doctorate without, King of England and Scotland at the time Macbeth was written, famously wrote ‘Daemonologie’, which encourages the practice of witch-hunting.
Having worked out exactly what the question is asking, write out a plan (which should be very detailed in a coursework essay, but doesn’t have to be more than a few lines long in college learning an exam context) of the material you’ll use in each paragraph. Make sure your plan contains a sentence at the end of disadvantages of coursework, each point about how that point will answer the question. A point from my plan for one of the topics above might look something like this: To what extent are we supposed to believe in college essays about the three witches in Macbeth ? Hypothesis: The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is uncertain finally, they’re part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the of south florida, theatre. At the time Shakespeare wrote Macbeth , there were many examples of people being burned or drowned as witches There were also people who claimed to be able to exorcise evil demons from people who were ‘possessed’.
Catholic Christianity leaves much room for the supernatural to college disabilities, exist This suggests that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might, more readily than a modern one, have believed that witches were a real phenomenon and did exist. My final sentence (highlighted in red) shows how the material discussed in the paragraph answers the rubric school, question. Writing this out at the planning stage, in college about learning disabilities addition to clarifying your ideas, is a great test of whether a point is middle school, relevant: if you struggle to write the college essays disabilities, sentence, and make the connection to the question and larger argument, you might have gone off-topic. English From Literary. Step Three: Paragraph beginnings and endings. This 16th century English illustration shows a witch feeding her familiars.
The final step to essays about, making sure you pick up all the possible marks for ‘answering the question’ in an essay is ensuring that you make it explicit how your material does so. This bit relies upon getting the beginnings and endings of paragraphs just right. To reiterate what I said above, treat your reader like a child: tell them what you’re going to say; tell them how it answers the question; say it, and then tell them how you’ve answered the question. This need not feel clumsy, awkward or repetitive. The first sentence of english institute, each new paragraph or point should, without giving too much of your conclusion away, establish what you’re going to discuss, and college essays about disabilities how it answers the doctorate without dissertation, question.
The opening sentence from the about disabilities, paragraph I planned above might go something like this: Early modern political and religious contexts suggest that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might more readily have believed in witches than his modern readers. The sentence establishes that I’m going to discuss Jacobean religion and essay literary time witch-burnings, and also what I’m going to essays about learning, use those contexts to show. I’d then slot in all my facts and examples in the middle of the paragraph. Essay. The final sentence (or few sentences) should be strong and decisive, making a clear connection to the question you’ve been asked: Contemporary suspicion that witches did exist, testified to by witch-hunts and exorcisms, is crucial to our understanding of the witches in college essays about learning disabilities Macbeth. Doctorate Programs Without Dissertation. To the disabilities, early modern consciousness, witches were a distinctly real and dangerous possibility – and the witches in admissions essay the play would have seemed all-the-more potent and terrifying as a result. The best way to college essays about learning, get really good at making sure you always ‘answer the question’ is to doctorate without, write essay plans rather than whole pieces. About Disabilities. Set aside a few hours, choose a couple of essay questions from review past papers, and for each: Write a hypothesis Write a rough plan of what each paragraph will contain Write out the first and last sentence of essays about learning disabilities, each paragraph. You can get your teacher, or a friend, to top quality essays review, look through your plans and give you feedback. If you follow this advice, fingers crossed, next time you hand in essays learning disabilities an essay, it#8217;ll be free from red-inked comments about irrelevance, and rubric 5 paragraph school instead showered with praise for the precision with which you handled the topic, and how intently you focused on answering the question. It can seem depressing when your perfect question is just a minor tangent from the question you were actually asked, but trust me high praise and good marks are all found in about learning disabilities answering the question in front of you, not the one you would have liked to essay school, see. About Disabilities. Teachers do choose the rubric middle, questions they set you with some care, after all; chances are the question you were set is the more illuminating and rewarding one as well.
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March 18, 2015 at 12:34 pm, ORA Admin said: A #8216;to what extent#8217; essay question is effectively a #8216;yes or no#8217; essay question that#8217;s phrased in a more helpful way. For example: To what extent did his desire for rubric essay middle school a son influence Henry VIII#8217;s decision to break from the Catholic Church? Did his desire for a son influence Henry VIII#8217;s decision to break from the Catholic Church? You can see that both questions will get a very similar answer, only #8220;to what extent#8221; gives you a hint of college essays about learning disabilities, what sort of answer is expected that it played some role, but that there are other causes that need to be considered. In a #8216;to what extent#8217; essay, you should consider a variety of reasons, but in each paragraph return to the reason given in of coursework the question. Essays Learning Disabilities. In my Henry VIII example, you might write one paragraph on his desire to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, but connect this back to his desire for a son, as he believed Anne Boleyn stood a better chance of giving him a son than Catherine of Aragon.
In the conclusion, you could then assess whether the university of south, reason given in the question is in fact the most important, or if there was a more significant reason that you have identified in disabilities the essay. Essay From Literary Time. We hope this helps, November 22, 2015 at college, 6:14 pm, Sarah said: How do I write an essay with keywords or key points already given in the question? For eg. If the question says to write an essay on some topic and below are some key points or key words. November 23, 2015 at 10:25 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. It is difficult to rubric essay, advise you on the specific essay in question, but we do have a large collection of college disabilities, essay-writing and study skills articles on the ORA website that may be of use to you. Admissions. Hopefully you can find something that can help you in the following articles: March 29, 2016 at college disabilities, 9:47 am, Fay said: How do you answer a #8220;why#8221; essay question?
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noms business plan This chapter describes a technique known as Business Transformation Readiness Assessment, used for evaluating and college about quantifying an organization's readiness to undergo change. This chapter builds on work by the Canadian Government and programs its Business Transformation Enablement Program (BTEP). 1. Enterprise architecture is a major endeavor within an organization and most often an innovative Architecture Vision (Phase A) and supporting Architecture Definition (Phases B to college learning disabilities D) will entail considerable change. There are many dimensions to change, but by benefits cloning far the most important is the human element. For example, if the enterprise envisages a consolidation of information holdings and a move to a new paradigm such as service orientation for essays integrated service delivery, then the human resource implications are major. Potentially coupled with a change-averse culture and a narrowly skilled workforce, the most sound and innovative architecture could go nowhere. Understanding the readiness of the organization to accept change, identifying the issues, and then dealing with them in the Implementation and Migration Plans is key to successful architecture transformation in Phases E and F. This will be a joint effort between corporate (especially human resources) staff, lines of business, and IT planners.
The recommended activities in an assessment of an without dissertation organization's readiness to address business transformation are: Determine the readiness factors that will impact the organization Present the college about, readiness factors using maturity models Assess the readiness factors, including determination of readiness factor ratings Assess the risks for each readiness factor and identify improvement actions to disadvantages mitigate the risk Work these actions into Phase E and F Implementation and Migration Plan. 30.1.1 Business Transformation Enablement Program (BTEP) The Canadian Government Business Transformation Enablement Program (BTEP) provides guidance on how to college about identify the english essay from institute, business transformation-related issues. The BTEP recommends that all projects conduct a transformation readiness assessment to at least uncover the college about, business transformation issues.
This assessment is based upon the determination and analysis/rating of a series of readiness factors. The outcome is a deeper understanding of the challenges and opportunities that could be presented in the course of the endeavor. Disadvantages. Many of the challenges translate directly into risks that have to be addressed, monitored, and, if possible, mitigated. The following sections describe Business Transformation Readiness Assessment using the BTEP method, including some lessons learned. College About Learning Disabilities. Readers should keep in mind that most organizations will have their own unique set of factors and criteria, but most are similar. The first step is to determine what factors will impact on the business transformation associated with the migration from the Baseline to Target Architectures. This can be best achieved through the english literary time, conduct of a facilitated workshop with individuals from different parts of the organization. It is important that all perspectives are sought as the issues will be varied.
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The business case document identifies concrete benefits (revenues or savings) that the college about learning disabilities, organization is committed to deliver and clearly and unquestionably points to goals that the organization is committed to essay achieving. Funding , in about disabilities the form of a clear source of fiscal resources, exists that meets the endeavor's potential expenditures. Sponsorship and Leadership exists and is broadly shared, but not so broad as to essay from institute diffuse accountability. Leadership keeps everyone on board and keeps all focused on college about learning, the strategic goals. The endeavor is sponsored by an executive who is appropriately aligned to provide the leadership the endeavor needs and able to articulate and defend the needs of the endeavor at the senior management level. These executive sponsors are and will remain engaged throughout. Governance is the ability to engage the involvement and support of all parties with an interest in or responsibility to the endeavor with the objective of ensuring that the corporate interests are served and the objectives achieved. There are clearly identified stakeholders and a clear sense of of south florida admissions essay their interest in and responsibility to the project; a culture that encourages participation towards corporate rather than local objectives; a history of being able to successfully manage activities that cross interest areas; a culture that fosters meaningful, as opposed to symbolic, participation in management processes; and a commitment to about disabilities ongoing project review and challenge and openness to outside advice. Accountability is the assignment of specific and appropriate responsibility, recognition of measurable expectations by university all concerned parties, and alignment of decision-making with areas of responsibility and with where the college essays about disabilities, impact of the decisions will be felt. Benefits Of Human Cloning. Accountability is aligned with the area where the benefits of success or consequences of failure of the endeavor will be felt as well as with the responsibility areas.
Workable Approach and Execution Model is an approach that makes sense relative to the task, with a supporting environment, modeled after a proven approach. There are clear notions of the client and the client's role relative to college learning disabilities the builder or prime contractor and the organization is experienced with endeavors of this type so that the processes, disciplines, expertise, and governance are already in place, proven, and available to apply to assessment the transformation endeavor. All the players know their roles because they have played them before with success. In particular, the roles of client and systems builder are mature and stable. There is a communication plan covering all levels of the organization and meeting the needs ranging from awareness to availability of technical detail.
There is a reward and disabilities recognition plan in place to recognize teams and individuals who use good change management practices, planning and prevention of crisis behaviors, and who reinforce behaviors appropriate to the new way of doing business. It is clear to everyone how implementation will occur, how it will be monitored, and how realignment actions will be made and there are adequate resources dedicated for the life of the essay, transformation. IT Capacity to Execute is the ability to perform all the IT tasks required by the project, including the skills, tools, processes, and management capability. There has been a recent successful execution of a similar endeavor of similar size and complexity and college essays about learning there exist appropriate processes, discipline, skills, and a rationale model for of south florida essay deciding what skills and activities to source externally. Disabilities. Enterprise Capacity to Execute is the ability of the enterprise to perform all the tasks required by the endeavor, in areas outside of from institute IT, including the essays, ability to make decisions within the tight time constraints typical to project environments based upon the recent successful execution of a similar endeavor of at least half the size and benefits essay complexity. There exist non-IT-specific processes, discipline, and skills to deal with this type of endeavor. The enterprise has a demonstrated ability to deal with the type of ongoing portfolio/project management issues and requirements.
There is about learning a recognition of the need for knowledge and skill-building for the new way of working as well as the value of benefits cloning a formal gap analysis for skills and behavior. Enterprise Ability to college about Implement and Operate the transformation elements and their related business processes, absorb the changes arising from implementation, and of coursework ongoing ability to operate in the new environment. The enterprise has a recent proven ability to deal with the change management issues arising from new processes and systems and has in place a solid disciplined and process-driven service management program that provides operations, maintenance, and support for existing systems. Once the factors have been identified and defined, it is useful to call a follow-on workshop where the factors shall be assessed in some detail in college essays learning terms of their impact/risk. The next section will deal with preparing for 5 paragraph middle an effective assessment of these factors. Once the factors are determined, it is necessary to present them in such a way that the assessment is clear and the maximum value is derived from the participants. One such presentation is through the use of maturity models. If each factor is converted into a maturity model (a re-usable governance asset as well) accompanied by a standard worksheet template containing all of the information and deductions that have to be gathered, it can be a very useful tool. The maturity model should enable participants to: Assess their current (Baseline Architecture) maturity level Determine the target maturity level that would have to be achieved to essays realize the disadvantages of coursework, Target Architecture Determine an intermediate target that would be achievable in a lesser timeframe.
The care spent preparing the college about, models (which is not insignificant) will be recouped by a focused workshop that will rapidly go through a significant number of factors. It is important that each factor be well-defined and cloning essay that the scope of the enterprise architecture endeavor (preliminary planning) be reflected in the models to keep the workshop participants focused and productive. Circulating the models before the workshop for comments would be useful, if only to ensure that they are complete as well as allowing the participants to prepare for the workshop. Note that the model shown below also has a recommended target state put in about learning by the enterprise architect; this again acts as governance. An example of a maturity model is shown in Figure 30-1 for one of the BTEP factors: Figure 30-1: Business Transformation Readiness Assessment - Maturity Model. Ideally, the without dissertation, factors should be assessed in a multi-disciplinary workshop. College Essays. Using a mechanism such as maturity models, enterprise architects will normally have to cover a great deal of ground in little time. The use of a series of templates for each factor would expedite the assessment, and florida admissions essay ensure consistency across the wide range of factors. The assessment should address three things, namely:
Readiness Factor Vision Readiness Factor Rating Readiness Factor Risks Actions. The vision for a readiness factor is the determination of where the enterprise has to evolve to address the factor. First, the factor should be assessed with respect to its base state and then its target state. For example, if the IT capacity to execute factor is essays disabilities rated as low, the of human cloning essay, factor should ideally be at high to realize the Target Architecture Vision. An intermediate target might be useful to about learning direct the implementation.
Maturity models are excellent vehicles to guide this determination. Once the factor visions are established, then it is useful to determine how important each factor is to the achievement of the Target Architecture as well as how challenging it will be to migrate the factor into an acceptable visionary state. The BTEP uses a Readiness Rating Scheme that can be used as a start point for any organization in any vertical. Each one of the readiness factors are rated with respect to: Urgency , whereby if a readiness factor is rubric essay school urgent, it means that action is needed before a transformation initiative can begin. Readiness Status , which is rated as either Low (needs substantial work before proceeding), Fair (needs some work before proceeding), Acceptable (some readiness issues exist; no showstoppers), Good (relatively minor issues exist), or High (no readiness issues). Degree of Difficulty to Fix rates the effort required to overcome any issues identified as either No Action Needed, Easy, Moderate, or Difficult.
Although a more extensive template can be used in the workshop, it is useful to create a summary table of the findings to consolidate the factors and college essays learning disabilities provide a management overview. A like summary is shown in Figure 30-2. Figure 30-2: Summary Table of Business Transformation Readiness Assessment. 30.4.3 Readiness Factor Risks Actions. Once the factors have been rated and assessed, derive a series of actions that will enable the factors to change to a favorable state. Each factor should be assessed with respect to risk using the process highlighted in disadvantages of coursework Part III, 31. Risk Management , including an estimate of college learning impact and disadvantages assessment frequency. Each factor should be discretely assessed and a series of improvement actions outlined.
Before starting anew, existing actions outlined in the architectures should be checked first before creating new ones. These newly identified actions should then be formally incorporated into the emerging Implementation and Migration Plan. From a risk perspective, these actions are designed to mitigate the about disabilities, risks and produce an acceptable residual risk. As risks, they should be part of the disadvantages, risk management process and college essays about closely monitored as the enterprise architecture is being implemented. 30.5 Readiness and Migration Planning. The assessment exercise will provide a realistic assessment of the organization and will be a key input into the strategic migration planning that will be initiated in Phase E and disadvantages of coursework assessment completed in Phase F. It is important to note whether the business transformation actions will be on the vision's critical path and, if so, determine how they will impact implementation. Essays About Learning. There is no point deploying new IT capability without employees trained to use it and support staff ready to sustain it. The readiness factors, as part of an overall Implementation and Migration Plan, will have to be continuously monitored (Phase G) and rapid corrective actions taken through the IT governance framework to programs ensure that the defined architectures can be implemented. The readiness factors assessment will be a living document and during the migration planning and essays learning disabilities execution of the Transition Architectures, the business transformation activities will play a key role. 30.6 Marketing the Implementation Plan.
The Architecture Definition should not be widely circulated until the business transformation issues are identified and of human mitigated, and the associated actions part of an overall marketing plan for college learning disabilities the vision and the Implementation and benefits of human essay Migration Plan. For example, the consolidation of information holdings could result in hundreds of lost jobs and this vision should not be announced before a supporting business transformation/human resources plan is essays learning formulated to retrain or support the workers' quest for top quality essays new employment. The business transformation workshops are a critical part of the Communications Plan whereby key individuals from within the organization gather to assess the implications of disabilities transforming the enterprise. To do this they will become aware of the Architecture Vision and architecture definition (if they were not already involved through the business scenarios and Business Architecture). This group will feel ownership of the top quality essays review, enterprise architecture, recognizing the enterprise architect as a valuable steward. Their determination of the factors will again create a culture of understanding across the enterprise and provide useful insights for the Implementation and Migration Plan. The latter plan should include a Communications Plan, especially to college essays keep the affected personnel informed. In many cases collaborating with the top quality essays, unions and shop stewards will further assist a humane (and peaceful) transition to the target state. In short, enterprise architecture implementation will require a deep knowledge and awareness of all of the business transformation factors that impact transitioning to the visionary state.
With the evolution of IT, the actual technology is college essays learning disabilities not the real issue any more in enterprise architecture, but the critical factors are most often the cultural ones. Any Implementation and review Migration Plan has to take both into consideration. Neglecting these and focusing on the technical aspects will invariably result in a lackluster implementation that falls short of essays about learning realizing the real promise of university of south essay a visionary enterprise architecture. The TOGAF document set is designed for use with frames. To navigate around the document: In the main Contents frame in the left margin of the page, click the essays about learning, relevant hyperlink to load the Contents List for that Part of the of south florida admissions, TOGAF document or go direct to essays about disabilities a chapter within the document. Within a chapter you can select Previous and Next at the top and bottom of the page to move to the previous or next chapter, or select Home to return to the welcome page. Downloads of TOGAF®, an Open Group Standard, are available under license from the TOGAF information web site. The license is free to any organization wishing to use the TOGAF standard entirely for internal purposes (for example, to review develop an information system architecture for use within that organization).
A book is also available (in hardcopy and pdf) from The Open Group Bookstore as document G116. TOGAF is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.
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Write a resume that will land you a programming job. Justin James lays out what he sees on college essays about, a developer's resume that makes him say wow!. and admissions essay, what makes him say ugh! I usually read 5 - 20 resumes each week. College About Learning Disabilities. Both my boss and I are extremely busy, so it's important that a programmer's resume grab our attention quickly by english institute literary time providing the right mix of necessary information with something that makes that person stand out from the pack. I've been involved with our hiring process for more than six months, so I feel fairly confident that I can distill what it takes for a programming resume to get me to say, Let's arrange an interview. Here are my tips for writing and college learning, organizing a pitch perfect programming resume. Keep in mind: I am not every hiring manager; also, all resumes go through our recruiters and HR department first. Essay From Time. Moreover, regular readers know that some of essays about my ideas fall a touch outside the norm when it comes to what makes a good developer. Reading the in-depth details of how you used mainstream skill XYZ to accomplish typical task ABC is not at the top of disadvantages of coursework assessment my agenda. About Learning Disabilities. I want to benefits of human cloning see your skills up front, so I don't need to go trolling through your resume to see if you meet my minimum needs. Skip the college learning summary and without dissertation, maybe even the objective.
Those summaries are a waste of my time. It is college essays learning, going to say something like seasoned IT pro university florida essay, with great communication skills or proven veteran with 10 years of programming experience. How do I know this? Because they all say this. Skip it, please. The objective is a slightly different story; it is useful only if it informs the interviewer about something that the skills and experience does not. The objective's relevance to essays about learning me is rubric essay middle, largely a function of about disabilities whether you wish to keep doing what you have been doing. If I see you have been programming — particularly at the data access layer and the business object layer — and there is no objective, I am going to assume that you are looking for more of the rubric school same with a different employer or location. If you want to do more of that work and essays, put an objective, you are wasting space. Rubric 5 Paragraph. If you are looking for a change of pace — like getting more into the presentation layer or heading towards a management track — it's important to state that in your resume.
Otherwise, we may discover during the interview that you are not interested in what we have to offer. Some IT hiring managers put a huge emphasis on certain educations but I do not. I always want you to list your school and your major, but I will only ask you about your education if there is something unusual or intriguing. For instance, a candidate with a Computer Science degree from MIT or with a PhD in Organic Chemistry will draw my eye because these degrees show a level of high intelligence. On the college about learning flipside, an AA in basket weaving or a lack of a degree will not count against you. In most cases, I am not even curious about programs without your education until I have already made up my mind. This includes certifications — MCSEs and CCNAs do not impress me that much at this point. Essays About Learning. They matter to institute time some folks, and they do not hurt you in my opinion, but I will only take that certification into account if all else is about learning disabilities, equal. Even if my project is a run-of-the-mill Web-based, data driven application (which it is not), I still want to see that you are more than someone with 10 years of essay from literary time experience writing run-of-the-mill Web-based, data driven applications. For example, compare these two items:
East Coast Power - Programmer 1999 - 2005. Wrote VB applications to control machinery. The hardware interface was handled in a COM library that was written by college essays about disabilities another team. Application was robust and reliable. Wrote Web-based tool to track system faults.
Created Web service to allow partners to consume portions of the database. East Coast Power - Programmer 1999 - 2005. Wrote VB applications to assessment control nuclear reactor. Real-time control and monitoring of essays learning disabilities systems handling 10,000 unique data inputs per university of south florida admissions essay second. Wrote advanced algorithms in C# to college about detect imminent system failure, which were used within a Web-based application. Created Web service in C# to allow partners to access data in a secure, reliable, and school, responsive manner; typical data set was 1,000,000 rows and concurrency challenges needed to be overcome at college essays learning the database and application layers. See the difference? Control machinery does not help me much — you could have been working on review, the elevator system for college disabilities all I know. Programming a nuclear reactor impresses me, especially since there has not been any nuclear reactor disasters during your employment. Writing advanced algorithms in C# touches my engineer's heart; whereas writing a mere Web-based tool is ho hum.
And, while writing a Web service is disadvantages of coursework assessment, fairly simple, particularly in college essays learning ASP.Net, it's not so easy to write one that is secure, reliable, and responsive with that size of a data set. It's also not easy to deal with concurrency issues at two different levels. I am not saying that it needs to doctorate without dissertation be wordy or full of minute details, but if you are doing work beyond what a summer intern could do, I need to learning know about it. Every developer has written a Web-based, data driven application. Show me more.
Make sure that your experience highlights your skills. I don't expect your employment history to english from institute time include a list of all your skills. But if you are looking for college disabilities work as a .Net developer, show me that you have done some .Net work. If you do not list that experience, I am going to school assume that you have little or no experience with it — even if it is on your skill list. If you have large amounts of experience outside of the college about learning workforce, find a way to show that on your resume. Keep your resume between two to four pages long. I have struggled through seven-page resumes filled with jargon and dissertation, boring details that made me want to cry. An overly long resume doesn't necessarily make me rule out a candidate, but why make it hard on me? On the college essays about other hand, a resume that tries to stick to the one page rule is programs without, not going to cut it for essays about a technical person unless they are new to the field. Disadvantages Assessment. In my experience, two to four pages is just right. Also, please use some whitespace, so I do not feel like I am drowning.
While technical pros' resumes do not need to about be pretty, formatting can make a huge difference in 5 paragraph essay middle school a resume's readability. If you cannot put three pages of text in front of me in a readable form, do I really want you touching the UI or writing code that someone else might have to maintain? I recommend that you stick to a larger font size (e.g., 10 - 12 pt.) in a font that reads well onscreen and in print (e.g., Verdana, Arial, Tahoma, Calibri, Helvetica). If you want a slightly fancier font, use it only for section headers. Also, do not mix Serif and college learning disabilities, Sans Serif fonts — that is university of south admissions, just ugly. Essays Learning Disabilities. Do not use Comic Sans anywhere, especially in hot pink or baby blue (and yes, unfortunately, this needs to be stated).
Keep your margins and space between paragraphs large enough to provide the essay from institute time reader some breathing room. I give applicants some slack on employment history. For instance, five year stints are fairly rare in IT, and I give anyone a lot of leeway if their history includes anything that occurred during the dot com boom/bust. If you are (or were) a contractor or consultant, make sure that is clearly stated; otherwise, I will think that you get fired and/or quit every 3 - 12 months. Essays Learning. If you were not a contractor or a consultant, and it looks like you have a hard time staying at rubric a job, I am going to be very cautious. If I see an increasing progression of job titles, mercenary pops into college essays learning my head. Also, if I see that they are lateral (or worse, negative) moves, bad apple is my first thought. Of course, sometimes you get hit with a string of employers that go under or get acquired — it happens to essay institute the best of us. If that is the case, find a way to convey that information so I don't think you are unemployable. It is critical that the spelling and grammar in your resume is college learning disabilities, flawless. I have seen applicants misspell the name of 5 paragraph essay school their state and the name of essays about learning their school.
If grammar and spelling are not your forte, ask someone to look over your resume for you. While I understand that many IT pros are not native English language speakers (or are English language speakers who paid little attention to those subjects in school), you should still ask someone for help. Disadvantages Of Coursework. In fact, knowing when to ask for help is a hallmark of the essays best developers. If I interview you and realize from institute time, your speech that you had the sense and humility to ask someone for help on your resume, I am going to be truly impressed. (For examples of college essays learning disabilities what not to do, check out this list of real-life resume blunders.) Stay out of EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity) territory. In the United States, companies with more than 10 employees need to dissertation follow EEO rules. These rules state that an employer cannot discriminate against essays about learning, or show preference for an employee based on certain group membership items or personal lifestyle issues, such as gender, age, ethnicity, nation of origin, religion, sexual orientation, and so on. So, do me a favor and try to cloning not expose any EEO-related information to me on the resume. In a face-to-face interview or even a phone interview, some of it will be unavoidable. College Essays Disabilities. But I will never solicit that information.
Not only do I want to keep my employer and myself out of trouble, but I personally feel that EEO is important. I can understand that many names (or even college attended) are strongly correlated with ethnicity, religion, or nation (or at least general geographic region) of origin, and college graduation or attendance dates give some age clues. Minimize this as much as possible. Please do not tell me about your church, your family situation, your home life, your parents, and so on. It is not that I am not interested — I would probably love to english literary learn these things about you if we hire you — but I do not need or want to know them before that you come on board. Outside interests, hobbies, achievements, and activities. I like to see these, but only if they are relevant. About Learning Disabilities. I really do not need to know about how big of a fan you are of the of coursework assessment New York Knicks; but if you wrote a piece of software that can do something nifty with the team's statistics for college about learning disabilities fun, I would love to know about it. Doctorate Without. People who contribute to learning disabilities open source projects get a huge gold star in benefits of human cloning essay my book, but only if I feel like they would be comfortable working on proprietary software with proprietary tools, and not bringing anything GPL'ed into my codebase. That is college essays, a small caveat there.
Contributed to project XYZ in the areas of from institute ABC and college about learning, DEF is enough to whet my appetite. Show me some outside learning too — don't let me think that you get home at 6;00 and shut off your brain. If this work is not interesting enough for benefits cloning essay you to read about or experiment with on your own time, why would I think that you will be engaged or even interested in the job we would hire you for? Please give me something meaty that we can discuss during the interview. So, where it is relevant, try to college disabilities show me how much of doctorate dissertation a nerd you are. For instance, try to mention the hovercraft you made from an inner tube and college about, a lawn mower engine.
Make note of the iterative, evolutionary game theory system you coded in disadvantages Lisp that proves that Nash's equilibrium is dead wrong. Tell me something about your three chess championship victories. I do not want to know that you memorized UHF or that you have a pocket protectors collection that have logos of now defunct minicomputer vendors. I know most of this falls under the essays about learning disabilities previous section, but it is relevant. English Literary Time. I love to work with programmers who love technology and logic and using their brains. College. People like that are simply better programmers. Of Coursework Assessment. Why would I want to hire someone who is intellectually lazy for an intellectually challenging job?
Obscure or nonmainstream technologies. I am not hiring Lisp, Prolog, Erlang, APL, Scheme, Clipper, PowerBuilder, Delphi, Pascal, Perl, Ruby, Python (forgive me for including those four in this list), Fortran, Ada, Algol, PL/1, OCaml, F#, Spec#, Smalltalk, Logo, StarLogo, Haskell, ML, D, Cobra, B, or even COBOL (which is fairly mainstream) developers. If you show these on your resume, I will want to interview you just for college essays learning disabilities the sake of slipping in programs without a few questions about these items. I am serious. As part of my secret geekiness, I am really into obscure and about learning disabilities, almost obscure languages and technologies. I know that a lot of those items take better-than-industry-average intellect and experience to essays review do; they also provide a set of experiences that gives their practitioners a great angle on problems. While you will never directly use those skills in learning disabilities my shop, you will be using those ways of thinking, and it will give us something to talk about on your first day. ( Aside: A coworker was shocked to learn that I played Half Life. He said, You are such a ‘business person' — I never thought you played video games.
I guess I'm camouflaging my secret geekiness too well!) I've given away crown jewels here. In my perspective, these tips will help any programmer write a perfect resume and get them an interview. What do you think gets applicants an interview? If you read resumes as either a hiring manager, a recruiter, or an HR employee, what makes you say wow! or ugh! when you see it on paper?
Justin James is the Lead Architect for Conigent. Justin James is the of coursework Lead Architect for college essays about disabilities Conigent. We deliver the top business tech news stories about the companies, the people, and the products revolutionizing the planet. Our editors highlight the TechRepublic articles, galleries, and doctorate programs, videos that you absolutely cannot miss to learning disabilities stay current on the latest IT news, innovations, and tips.
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2017 MBA Essay Questions: UCLA Anderson. The Anderson essay guide is about, here to help you out with everything about your MBA app to UCLA! Thankfully, UCLA has fixed the awkward mission-focused attempt at branding within their essay question, and simplified it to what really matters: the goals. 5 Paragraph Essay School? They also have a new short-answer question that lets you bring in another dimension. Describe your short-term and long-term career goals. How can the college essays, UCLA Anderson experience add value to your professional development? (500 words) Describe how you would contribute to the UCLA Anderson community. (250 words) For the short-answer question especially, it wouldn#8217;t hurt to benefits of human cloning, check out this video that they released in a prior session, so that you get a sense for what they mean by their culture and how they value those who #8220;share success, think fearlessly and drive change#8221;: You can also refer to past essays and college essays other discussion towards the bottom of this page. Anderson is one of the most reapplicant-friendly schools out doctorate dissertation, there, and this is college essays about disabilities, reflected by of south admissions essay, their very generous 750-word essay for those who are trying again: Reapplicant Essay Question: Please describe your career progress since you last applied and ways in college about learning disabilities which you have enhanced your candidacy. Include updates on short-term and long-term career goals, as well as your continued interest in UCLA Anderson. There#8217;s also a standard optional essay (250 words) so plenty of opportunity to talk to the adcom about things that matter in your app! We have updated our UCLA Anderson essay guide for 2017 to reflect these changes.
Average GMAT for the Class of university florida admissions essay 2018 decreased from 718 to college essays learning, 716, and programs dissertation the upper end of the 80% range of college essays learning scores ticked down from essay school 680 to 760, to 680 to 750. College Disabilities? We don#8217;t know about app volumes at of south florida admissions essay this school but it appears that either they#8217;ve been getting fewer candidates applying #8212; which is opposite to essays about, every other program #8212; and/or they had trouble getting them to convert that year. Rd 1: October 6, 2017 one of the 5 paragraph essay, later ones, which means you#8217;ll get to college essays about disabilities, take your breath after a crazy run in September with other schools#8217; deadlines hitting first. Disadvantages? It also means that (hopefully) you#8217;ll be able to do a better job on your UCLA app because you#8217;ll be well experienced by then! Interview invitations often begin coming out quite quickly after the deadline, and they continue throughout the whole cycle till December.
There#8217;s nothing to be interpreted from whether you receive one earlier or later in the sequence. Rd 2: January 5, 2018 another #8220;ouch#8221; Round 2 deadline (sigh nobody listens to the #8216;Snark) Two recommendations, as is common for most schools. One of them should be from your current boss and the second one someone else in college essays about learning a position of seniority. Top Quality Review? Three standardized questions for them to answer and essays about learning one optional (See their questions here ) Lots of essays resources for choosing your recommenders available here on the blahg; if you want more help on who to choose, our Letters of Recommendation App Accelerator walks through the specifics and lets you submit your recommenders#8217; strategy for feedback from EssaySnark. We don#8217;t have many Anderson essays reviewed on the blahg, however they look for the same strong career goals as Columbia, Ross, and other schools do, so try these out for some guidance: For Reference: Anderson#8217;s Past-Season Questions. Included in case anyone wants to college essays about disabilities, see what UCLA asked before. Click to view 2016 questions. 2016 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said when last year#8217;s questions came out#8230; remember this analysis is from *last year*.
They#8217;ve kept the question from 2015, which is: We believe that the best results are achieved when you share success, think fearlessly and drive change. Literary Time? With this in mind, what are your goals at college disabilities UCLA Anderson and in your short-term and doctorate programs without dissertation long-term career? Here#8217;s the video that they produced when they first came out with this particular essay: [end discussion of 2016 questions.] 2015 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. UCLA thankfully improved their application this year: The difficulties in phrasing of the essay question that they introduced last year have been fixed, and they#8217;ve also reverted to two recommendations, from just one that they had required. These are good news for learning disabilities, all you BSers. Details below, and our UCLA MBA essay guide is up to date with these 2015 changes.
Cool! With this question, and the change in their Round 1 schedule, EssaySnark is pleased to see UCLA Anderson, like other schools this season, redeeming themselves from past mistakes and applicant-unfriendly policies. UCLA joins the trend of 5 paragraph school improving apps! Like MIT, Anderson simplified their one essay question it#8217;s still a little unwieldy but it#8217;s much much better than they had before. Here it is for the Class of 2018: We believe that the best results are achieved when you share success, think fearlessly and drive change. College Essays About? With this in mind, what are your goals at UCLA Anderson and in your short-term and long-term career? (750 words) They#8217;ve posted this video as a way to literary, convey the #8216;culture#8217; themes those phrases #8220;share success, think fearlessly and college essays about learning disabilities drive change#8221; are all part of their school principles: They also pulled in university of south florida essay their Round 1 deadline, to October 6th. That#8217;s still one of the college about learning, later first-round deadlines for of human cloning, the top schools but it#8217;s now three weeks earlier than last year (it was way out on October 22nd then). This standardization actually may not help you all that much, since you#8217;ll likely be feeling pretty burned out by essay writing in the first week of October, having already managed submissions for about a month. The advantage is that you#8217;ll be in college essays about learning disabilities the swing of things with your essay writing projects and you will have plenty of experience writing essays for review, other schools by that time but the temptation may be very great to about learning disabilities, re-use one of those other essays for university, Anderson. And that would be a mistake.
When they had a three-weeks-later deadline then at least people could take a break and learning disabilities regroup after the flurry of craziness in September. University Of South Essay? So not sure this new standardized date is that helpful. What will help is hopefully! that Anderson will begin issuing interview invitations much earlier now. That#8217;s to everyone#8217;s benefit. The 2015 UCLA Anderson application guide will walk you through what#8217;s important in your pitch including some critical policies that are rather unusual at essays about disabilities UCLA compared to other schools. Of South Essay? Be equipped for success with this detailed guide for UCLA! 7/29/15 update: YES! ANDERSON SWITCHED BACK TO TWO RECOMMENDATIONS AGAIN! We had hoped that they would do this, and they have. (Last year it was only one rec which really put everyone at a disadvantage). One of your recommendations should be from your current boss and the second one someone in a position of seniority. Three questions for that person to answer (review them here ) [end discussion of 2015 questions.] 2014 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis.
8/1/14 The UCLA essay prompt has been updated; it#8217;s still just one question about goals, but it#8217;s been expanded to conform with the essays learning disabilities, trend of so many other schools talking about #8220;mission#8221; and #8220;principles#8221;. You shouldn#8217;t be using the optional essay for UCLA any more than you should for most other schools (in other words, don#8217;t submit it unless you need it for top quality essays review, something specific to explain about a weakness in your profile). 2014 UCLA full-time MBA question Class of 2017. UCLA Anderson is distinguished by three defining principles: Share Success, Think Fearlessly, Drive Change. What principles have defined your life and pre-MBA career? How do you believe that UCLA Anderson#8217;s principles, and essays about learning disabilities the environment they create, will help you attain your post-MBA career goals? (750 words maximum) There#8217;s also a reapplicant essay, and an optional essay of up to 250 words (remember that should be used only to explain stuff, not just to rubric middle school, talk about new things that you want to talk about). About Learning Disabilities? And, UCLA has mostly standardized with other schools asking just two questions of recommenders however just one recommendation is required.
That#8217;s gonna be tough. This year#8217;s essay question sounds remarkably similar to Haas and their #8220;defining principles#8221;; hate to doctorate without, call Anderson a copycat but this is far from original. Instead of Kellogg#8217;s #8220;Think Bravely#8221; we now have #8220;Think Fearlessly.#8221; We had actually applauded Kellogg#8217;s decision to drop language around their brand tagline from their essays this year, and college about now here is Anderson falling into that same trap or more precisely, forcing all of you BSers into it. At least #8220;Share Success#8221; is easy to cloning essay, understand, though on first blush it#8217;s pretty one-dimensional, too. These types of essays are NOT easy to write.
You need to spend time ferreting out essays about learning, what in benefits of human cloning essay heck the school means by these #8220;principles#8221; and learning then you need to come up with stories from rubric your past that illustrate how you#8217;re someone who shares them and THEN you need to communicate your plan for essays about disabilities, your future. All of that in 750 words. Sheesh. Not doing anyone any favors, UCLA. Rubric 5 Paragraph Essay? [End 2014 questions section.] What are your short-term and essays about disabilities long-term career goals, and how will an MBA from of south florida admissions UCLA Anderson specifically help you achieve these goals? (750 words) The beauty with UCLA is they give you enough room to actually write something. This July 2013 post from Anderson Admissions explains their changes. [end discussion of disabilities 2013 questions.] What is doctorate programs, your proudest achievement outside the workplace, and how has it impacted you? What are your short-term and long-term career goals, and how will an about MBA from UCLA Anderson specifically help you achieve these goals? [end discussion of 2012 questions.] The UCLA MBA essay guide has been updated for 2017 to help you out with your essay and essay from institute short answer! 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to help you with the about, 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to benefits, help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals!
The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of 2020 app. Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to essays learning, my pitch in order to maximize my . Thanks so much for english essay literary, the additional feedback ES. I really appreciate it. I just submitted my HBS app, . College Essays? What were we snarking about at this time in past years? 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to tell the adcom? 2016 : Good luck for HBS applicants! 2016 : No, you don't have to actually do the thing you say you will do in the career goals essay.
2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark? 2014 : The disturbing trend of university of south florida admissions decreasing transparency 2013 : More on visiting schools 2013 : ($) Being a thought leader is not a career goal. College Learning Disabilities? 2012 : ($) Duke's main essay: What do you tell your family, friends, and colleagues? 2012 : About Deadlines. University Florida Admissions? And Momentum. 2011 : Battle of the Blogs! EssaySnark® is learning, a registered trademark.
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coleridge essay Literary Terms and college essays, Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of university of south florida essay words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is learning disabilities the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.
Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the institute literary, end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of essays learning language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is disadvantages of coursework assessment a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of college about learning words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in of coursework, the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.
Algeo provides the example of the essays about, English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is of human essay (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from college essays or used to make up an top quality essays, important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at college essays about learning disabilities the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of benefits of human strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.
Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in essays learning disabilities, the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to english, those works in essays about disabilities, anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. Of Coursework! In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of college essays learning disabilities literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and programs without, study. College! (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and rubric 5 paragraph, non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by college disabilities philosophical biases and political considerations.
In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . University Florida! Cf. Essays Learning Disabilities! fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. Doctorate Dissertation! (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to learning disabilities, love or the praise of beauty is rubric 5 paragraph school a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the essays about learning disabilities, first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. Essay! An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of essays about learning disabilities Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in of south florida essay, the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of learning disabilities fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the 5 paragraph essay middle, four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity.
In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by college essays learning Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Programs! Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an college about learning disabilities, example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).
This has led some scholars to 5 paragraph, wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of about learning disabilities Love) may have invoked the english from institute time, wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). College Essays About Learning! The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the top quality, carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to college essays about disabilities, Make Much of Time. Cf. Benefits Of Human Cloning! Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. College Essays About Learning! For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . University Of South Florida Essay! Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the college essays about, dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for benefits of human cloning expanded information.
CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of essays about caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the of human cloning essay, lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the college essays about learning disabilities, highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and admissions essay, metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to college, state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. Of Coursework Assessment! For instance, Hamlet says of college essays disabilities Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. Benefits Of Human Essay! In pop music from the about learning disabilities, 1980s, the assessment, performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in college disabilities, someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the english essay from institute, speaker in these lyrics.
Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. College About Learning! A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son.
The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the of coursework assessment, People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for college a long time. Yeah, the sleight of benefits of human cloning essay my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. College Essays Learning Disabilities! One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of review torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the college about disabilities, heart of good catachresis.
Other examples, in The Lord of the top quality essays review, Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. About Disabilities! senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to assessment, have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. College Essays About Learning Disabilities! This abusio is the result of two metaphors. English From Institute Literary! The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of college essays learning disabilities a different color.
The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and top quality essays review, unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an college essays disabilities, ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the essay, result of sloppy writing, such as the essays about learning, history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and assessment, state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on college learning disabilities around it and middle school, glares at its enemies. College Essays About Disabilities! We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.
CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in without, which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for college essays about learning disabilities the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. Benefits Essay! E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the college essays, first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.
CATALEXIS : Truncation of of coursework assessment a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. College Essays Learning! The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. From! An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of about learning Myself. Benefits! An excerpt appears below:
The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. Disabilities! [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the florida essay, names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages.
CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. Learning Disabilities! (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and english essay institute literary, space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the college about, first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by doctorate programs without four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of about Time is an assessment, example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for college about learning Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the benefits of human essay, most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to college about, a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order.
The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of from institute literary time a page. Essays About Learning Disabilities! This word would match the first word on without dissertation the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from college essays one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. Cloning! This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and essays learning, anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an english time, imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . College Essays About! . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of rubric 5 paragraph school these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.
The term is used in college about disabilities, contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. Rubric 5 Paragraph Essay Middle School! They were famous for college essays learning disabilities their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and cloning essay, their support of the arts. About! See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements.
To see where Charles' reign fits in benefits of human cloning essay, English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of essays about disabilities King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in cloning, comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies.
The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on disabilities the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Rubric! Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in essays about learning disabilities, the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the doctorate, details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of about learning Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields.
Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at english essay institute the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). College About! Cf. Of Human Cloning! Inklings and college about learning disabilities, Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government.
In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and english from institute time, unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of essays learning those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf.
Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is english institute a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the essays learning disabilities, physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in 5 paragraph school, which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and learning, more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the middle school, ghost comes from about learning disabilities this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in disadvantages of coursework assessment, two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. College Essays Learning! It began in the late 1700s and continues to florida admissions essay, this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of college about disabilities The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.
Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the dissertation, foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. About Learning! Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the doctorate, Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in college learning, the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization.
Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in top quality essays, the Roman government. College Essays Learning! After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to of south, conducting the census for essays about learning disabilities tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. Benefits Essay! See also the essays about learning disabilities, Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and rubric 5 paragraph, the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in learning, matters of religion and the government. Top Quality! The Master of college Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to doctorate programs, conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the college essays about learning, Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and review, literary use, a common motif is the essays about, centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).
This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Top Quality Essays! Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and college essays about learning disabilities, Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and of human, handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to college essays disabilities, half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and disadvantages of coursework assessment, wall-painting, and about disabilities, it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the review, lower passions of college essays about disabilities gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of rubric 5 paragraph school time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth.
One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of college learning hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the english from, lower animal half was unseen. College Learning Disabilities! The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and doctorate without dissertation, evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on essays learning disabilities their quests. Among the Inklings of the rubric essay middle, 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and college about disabilities, bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an benefits of human cloning essay, emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the college essays about, perfect amalgamation of the essays, chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in about learning disabilities, the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in essay, Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of about learning Indo-European languages. English Essay From Time! These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the college essays about, Judeo-Christian God at the top of the top quality essays review, chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at college learning disabilities the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of doctorate programs intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. Essays About Learning! The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and cloning, philosophy throughout the essays disabilities, Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to without dissertation, each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and college essays about learning disabilities, an envoi or a tornada at of coursework assessment the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and college essays about disabilities, fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.
The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the top quality review, knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of college about learning disabilities betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.
The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and university of south, what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the college essays disabilities, course of the of coursework assessment, narrative). The main character of a work of college essays disabilities a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against benefits of human cloning, whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of about tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of university of south admissions deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in college essays about, the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to benefits, a character or to make the college essays about, character more vivid and doctorate programs, realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).
These names are all simple charactonyms. College! Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and essays, humorous and about disabilities, nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Essay Middle School! Most modern examples rhyme and about disabilities, use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and essays review, new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the essays, feel, and university of south, verbal patterns from an about disabilities, older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Benefits Of Human Cloning Essay! Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in college disabilities, reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern.
For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the school, words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the learning disabilities, word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the of coursework assessment, life I lead . College Essays About Learning! Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the benefits cloning, artistry is often lost in college about, English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and disadvantages of coursework assessment, poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in college essays about learning, English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Middle School! Following the grammatical conventions for gender in college essays learning disabilities, Spanish, the university of south florida admissions essay, adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and essays learning, social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and essay from institute, warhorses necessary for college essays learning disabilities mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services.
The tenets of essays review chivalry attempted to civilize the college disabilities, brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and essays review, single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in disabilities, arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to programs without, the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to college, a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of benefits cloning essay this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in essays disabilities, mine and swear.
To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.
For the best modern scholarly discussion of disadvantages chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of essays about learning disabilities a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by of south admissions serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in essays about learning disabilities, any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the assessment, chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in college about disabilities, religious festivals and benefits, dramatic performances by college essays about learning singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. Rubric 5 Paragraph Essay Middle School! This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). College About Learning! Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.
For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the university florida essay, passing years. Essays Learning Disabilities! Likewise, Rumor appears in doctorate programs without dissertation, Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. College About! See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on florida admissions Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. College Essays Learning Disabilities! Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.
Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and benefits of human essay, the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and college essays, lying on the floor in rubric middle, a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the college, tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and disadvantages assessment, place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of college about Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in of south essay, Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and learning disabilities, crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the doctorate without, book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. College About Learning Disabilities! Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.
In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in of south florida admissions essay, 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for college essays learning disabilities plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Essay! Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the essays disabilities, assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Essays Review! Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to college about learning, think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).
CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the top quality, Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the college about, Olympian gods, who were worshipped in from literary, public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and college essays about learning disabilities, death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the without dissertation, Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to disabilities, speak of the Olympian in top quality, contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). College Essays! See Burkert 199-203 for of human essay detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and learning disabilities, ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and doctorate programs without dissertation, receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Essays About Learning! Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in 5 paragraph school, each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:
The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the college essays about learning disabilities, mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of rubric diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the essays learning disabilities, two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of university of south florida admissions essay two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the college learning disabilities, subject's actions.
Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the doctorate without, writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to about learning disabilities, a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of essay from time closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at about learning disabilities the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is of south florida essay circular in college learning, its concluding repetition of the essay, opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of college learning disabilities reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the florida admissions, smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and about learning disabilities, concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.
They commonly wrote in of coursework, oposition to about, the aesthetic theories of the essays, Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in essays learning, reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the english essay from literary time, Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and essays learning, 410 BCE. Programs Without! Works created during the college, Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is rubric 5 paragraph school commonly held to about disabilities, be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.
To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the from institute, predecessor of the modern haiku . Essays Disabilities! See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and top quality essays review, a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . Essays Learning! If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and programs dissertation, examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to college about learning disabilities, functional type, click here ( TBA).
CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about english, a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the college essays disabilities, rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at programs without school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature.
Click here to college essays, download a PDF handout for more information. Without Dissertation! Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . College Essays Learning Disabilities! Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and of coursework assessment, June , trees and college disabilities, breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in university florida, some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by college disabilities clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the university of south essay, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by college learning disabilities inserting an exclamation mark to essay institute, indicate the palatal click. For instance, the college, !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes.
The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the of human cloning essay, last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the about learning disabilities, turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the benefits of human cloning, crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and about learning disabilities, denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and doctorate dissertation, crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by essays about the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. Disadvantages Of Coursework Assessment! The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. College Essays About Disabilities! critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of 5 paragraph essay middle school poetry.
Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and college about, sonnets , which have set numbers of of south florida syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. About Disabilities! First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the florida admissions essay, problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of essays learning a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by top quality a radical alteration or change in college about learning, the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an university essay, act which apparently causes magic to fade. College About Learning! Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences.
Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the from institute time, term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of college essays about learning disabilities Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and disadvantages of coursework, other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and college learning, jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on programs without dissertation nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of college learning disabilities this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the benefits of human, term cockney was a derogatory term for college about learning a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the top quality essays, wrong gender to lay an egg. Disabilities! By Renaissance times, the institute, word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district.
Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of essays about learning that area. Cockney dialect tends to top quality review, be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of college essays t -glottalization. Disadvantages! It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of college essays Britain that merges linguistic traits of benefits RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the college essays learning disabilities, actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in 5 paragraph middle school, the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of essays about learning disabilities stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the 5 paragraph school, speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the college essays learning, phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the without, vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to college about disabilities, another--often in school, mid-sentence.
An example sentence to essays about learning disabilities, illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to 5 paragraph school, death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in college essays disabilities, code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and of coursework assessment, German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in about disabilities, Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.
COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and without, meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to essays about disabilities, Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in doctorate without, reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and essays learning disabilities, faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word.
The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to english essay, a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of essays learning disabilities their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the top quality review, words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the college about disabilities, English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the programs without, grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to about learning disabilities, the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of of coursework assessment powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons.
See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. College About Disabilities! For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to university florida, fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to college essays learning, a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently.
American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the of coursework, American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. About Learning! American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Without! Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the college essays about learning, word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into disadvantages of coursework assessment, the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and essays learning disabilities, early twentieth century. Top Quality Review! See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and college disabilities, generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones.
On the of coursework assessment, obvious level, this process can take the form of college essays learning a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of of coursework assessment native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in essays about learning, academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in review, Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in essays about learning disabilities, Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the doctorate programs without, word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and college, boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and of coursework assessment, Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and about learning, indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of of coursework assessment humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and about, Comedy of of human cloning Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of essays learning human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the benefits of human essay, physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body.
The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for college more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and essays, others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is learning disabilities a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to english essay from institute literary, hide the blame for college essays about learning disabilities such an action. Benefits Of Human Essay! In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in college essays about learning disabilities, a sacrifice might be put on of human trial (instead of the priest wielding it). Learning! The sacrificial animal might be required to english essay institute time, volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of college about learning disabilities innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the top quality review, executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of college essays about learning cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by english from literary later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and college essays about learning disabilities, Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.
Given the essay from institute literary time, relative insignificance of learning these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. 5 Paragraph Middle! Another common version of the disabilities, comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is of coursework assessment miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of college about five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Top Quality! Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in essays about, which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the essays, action.
Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is college essays about disabilities just after the essay middle school, climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the college about learning disabilities, narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in essays, a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and college essays learning, finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in rubric, which an learning, adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the florida essay, security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in college learning disabilities, German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for benefits of human cloning essay food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and essays learning, weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. Essay! The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of about early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome.
COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of top quality Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an essays about learning disabilities, intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage.
Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of disadvantages of coursework assessment closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of college about disabilities iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Without Dissertation! Many of college about learning disabilities Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the 5 paragraph essay, Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the essays about disabilities, sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.
The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of essays vigilantes to hang hoboes and learning disabilities, bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and english essay from institute literary time, herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and college learning, birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.
The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the essays, Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of college about learning disabilities The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in benefits essay, Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of disabilities Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. Rubric 5 Paragraph School! By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the learning disabilities, logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and benefits, medieval European legends in about learning disabilities, which the beast is benefits of human cloning composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of college essays about a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head.
Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the rubric essay middle school, centaur has a horse's body and human torso and college essays learning, a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an admissions, ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in college essays learning disabilities, favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to english essay from literary time, explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in college about, traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is of human cloning lost in translation; the encounter of about fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Rubric 5 Paragraph Essay Middle! Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in college essays about learning, a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by of south florida admissions essay multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation.
They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the about, type case or by doctorate without dissertation setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and college learning, sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to benefits of human, creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and college essays about, eye), and from institute literary, so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and college essays about disabilities, the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by essay middle school ordeal , compurgation was the essays about learning, medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.
A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at doctorate without least his good character). If he was unable to learning disabilities, find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Essays! Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to college about disabilities, denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the of human, word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . Essays Learning! One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in middle school, his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for college learning disabilities power to two buckets in a well, for instance.
A conceit is english essay from time usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . About Learning! Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Rubric Middle School! Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the about learning disabilities, distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to programs, create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the college essays disabilities, way the benefits cloning essay, text appears situated on about learning disabilities the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of benefits cloning wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the essays about, words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).
The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on essays review glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is college about learning disabilities called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and top quality, Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from college essays learning more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the assessment, Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the college about learning, protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.
Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the assessment, most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the college essays about learning, protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to essay, save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in essays learning, which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Disadvantages Of Coursework! Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the about, hero struggles with the loss of disadvantages of coursework assessment his own intelligence to essays about learning disabilities, congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in of south, which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of learning Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is benefits cloning cheating on him.
CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to college learning disabilities, Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and university admissions essay, Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in college essays disabilities, Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change.
However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Rubric 5 Paragraph Essay Middle! Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an college, improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about disadvantages of coursework assessment, rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for college essays about disabilities example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of of human alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.
As M. College Essays About Learning Disabilities! H. English Essay From Institute! Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and college essays disabilities, ruder . 5 Paragraph! Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). Disabilities! See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to of human, indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of college disabilities standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation.
CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. University Florida! Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Learning! Sometimes, the 5 paragraph middle, author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Learning! Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.
Aphra Behn originally wrote many of institute time her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to essays about disabilities, have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in english institute literary time, which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon about learning disabilities which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition).
CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and doctorate programs without dissertation, the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in essays about learning, a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance.
Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the university of south florida admissions essay, Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of essays learning Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the of human essay, king was primate among men, the college essays disabilities, lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the programs without dissertation, lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak.
This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in essays learning disabilities, the world of ideas. Rubric School! Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the college essays, king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and english essay time, beasts to fall sick, rebellions to college essays disabilities, break out in disadvantages of coursework, the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of essays about learning these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. Benefits Essay! For more information about correspondences and college essays learning, the Chain of Being, click here.
COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to doctorate programs without dissertation, a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for college the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for top quality review details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of essays learning Saint Erkenwald . Click here for assessment details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for essays disabilities details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of 5 paragraph school writing by counting the college essays learning disabilities, numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on.
COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in rubric middle school, English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in essays learning disabilities, later years was the without, heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by college about the ladies for their crimes against love. University Of South Essay! These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and essays learning, Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.
In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an review, inversion of the essays learning, normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to without dissertation, a code of behavior that gave rise to college about learning disabilities, modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and 5 paragraph essay middle school, win her favor by valorous deeds.
He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by essays about selfish carnal desires or political concerns of disadvantages of coursework arranged marriages. In spite of essays about disabilities this ideal of doctorate chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and essays about learning, Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of programs dissertation parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to essays about learning, the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and from institute time, Shakespeare's sonnets.
These sonnets often emphasize in particular the college essays about, idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. Benefits Cloning! The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.
In the college essays about, Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is university of south florida admissions essay usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the college essays about, American South, black slaves were often brought in top quality essays, from a variety of essays African tribes sharing no common language. On the university of south essay, plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. Essays Disabilities! This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot.
At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of of coursework assessment a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and college about learning, logic in order to determine the validity of an benefits cloning, argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. About Learning! Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in university, which the disabilities, editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the rubric school, bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to college essays about learning, students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.
For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for of south essay Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. Essays Disabilities! RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the rubric school, opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and college essays disabilities, Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at top quality essays a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.
The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. About! Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in essays review, 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. College Essays About Disabilities! However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. Programs Dissertation! The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the essays, abbreviation Conqu.
Wm. Top Quality Essays! scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the college learning disabilities, line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the admissions, section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the essays about learning, editor considers the preceding version the best text for of coursework a modern reader--or at least the essays about, version the benefits essay, editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the college essays about learning, differing material appeared in rubric 5 paragraph essay middle, that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. College! This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and english essay, even contradictory variant readings.
For instance, in about, the case of essay The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in college essays about learning, the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to of human cloning essay, Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . About Disabilities! Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the university of south florida admissions, next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. College About! An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in top quality review, Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the essays learning, so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of doctorate programs 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.
These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from about learning disabilities Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to disadvantages of coursework assessment, rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. About Disabilities! August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of benefits of human works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the essays disabilities, cross as a symbol of top quality essays review Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the college essays about disabilities, gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.
Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an doctorate programs without dissertation, oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in college essays about disabilities, Mandarin China, and so forth. Top Quality Review! Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and about learning, archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. English Essay From! (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and college essays about disabilities, features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and of human essay, Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of essays disabilities these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is programs any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.
These refer collectively to about learning, many poems and stories written by rubric middle school various artists over several centuries. College About Learning Disabilities! These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the rubric 5 paragraph school, legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry.
The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and college essays, rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.
Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to rubric middle school, Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and college essays, internal rhyme . Disadvantages Of Coursework Assessment! Typically, the college essays disabilities, consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the dissertation, vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the about, English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and review, he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and college about disabilities, Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an disadvantages of coursework, example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the essays about learning, first six lines.
The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. Doctorate Programs! The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to about learning, Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on school the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. College Learning Disabilities! Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Benefits Of Human Essay! Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.
The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to college about, metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the essays, poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.
CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the essays about learning disabilities, term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and without dissertation, the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the college essays, sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.
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essay strucutre Tristanne Connolly, Department of English, St. Jerome's University. You can skip ahead to advice on: Essays usually begin with one introductory paragraph.
The first section of this paragraph eases the reader in. Essays! You could be writing about anything at this point, so use your introduction to let readers know what you are writing about, and get them interested. Possible ways to do this are: Find a quotation that reflects your ideas, or sums up what you want to say in an interesting, snappy way. You have a ready source for quotations in the piece of literature you're writing about. If you take your quote from another source, make it clear to the reader where it comes from: not just the name of who said it, but brief background, such as who that person is, and in what context it was said. Also relate it clearly to the topic (and text) at hand. Give an essay from time example. Is there an especially interesting instance of about learning disabilities, what you are writing about?
Use it to pull the reader in. Remember, though, that in the body of your essay you will be using examples to prove your point; this is essay institute literary a different kind of example, used only to introduce your point and intrigue your reader. Start with the college about learning disabilities general and move to the specific--but not too general. Avoid the society today and disadvantages most people kind of generalization because they are often untrue and always uninteresting. (William Blake once wrote, To Generalize is to be an Idiot. Why? Because there is about learning disabilities always an exception, and because the details or minute particulars you use to from literary time prove your general idea are where the truth resides.)
Give some background. What does the reader need to know about your topic, not only to get interested, but as a basis for college, what you intend to say? Explain an issue. Essay! Why is your topic important? What is at stake? Offer a definition. Beware, just pulling a definition out of the learning disabilities dictionary can seem quite boring. If you do, comment on it, put a twist on it, contest it; or, come up with your own definition for the purposes of your paper. Note that handbooks to literature can offer fruitful and even contestable definitions of of south admissions, literary terms and devices. Ask a question. College About Learning! This gets readers involved, inviting them to answer your question mentally.
But keep control of the situation in case they answer in a way that doesn't serve your point. When you use rhetorical questions in your essays, always make sure to answer them. Make a comparison. The thing you are writing about, what is it like? Does your paper use comparisons that you can introduce right away?
Is there a metaphor you can use to shed light on assessment, what you are saying? Tell a little story or anecdote related to your topic. In very formal essays, this is the only place where you might be able to get personal. Make sure your introductory story is college essays disabilities not too long. If necessary, give it its own short paragraph and let the assessment next paragraph do the college essays disabilities job of the programs introduction. Present a mystery. Make what you are writing about sound interesting and complicated by addressing its contradictions, or its fascinating unknowns. However, simply saying we will never know makes the reader feel as though you have no new insight to provide: go further and essays learning make some kind of essays, suggestion, even if it is college about disabilities tentative. Next, give a few transitional sentences to move from your hook or attention-getter to your thesis. A good thesis statement or main idea is the benefits of human cloning essay key to a good essay.
It is usually one sentence but can be two if necessary, and it is traditionally placed at the very end of your introduction (this is the spot where teachers, grading stacks of papers, tend to look for it). College Essays! It is the main thing you are trying to say or argue in your essay, and all of your body paragraphs will go to prove, support and elaborate on it. It is the pin that holds your essay together. A topic is essays review what your essay is about, while a thesis is your stand, your particular, focused statement or argument on that topic, the insight that all of college essays about disabilities, your points come together to show. Here are some ways to essay school improve thesis statements: Make sure your thesis makes a claim . College About Disabilities! For instance, if you say there are many similarities and differences or this essay will address the characteristics of. , you could get more specific. What similarities and differences? What characteristics? What do they have in common? And what does it all mean?
Are there any interesting contradictions involved, e.g., are there opposite characteristics working together, or characteristics that could have the opposite effect? Make sure your thesis is not obviously true: a statement of fact or a clich. Disadvantages! Instead, can you put a new twist on an old idea, or contest received wisdom? You are not really proving anything if you are restating common knowledge. Make sure your thesis can be proven within the constraints of the assignment. Know what kind of evidence to use for college about learning, a particular assignment, and make sure your thesis fits. English From Institute Literary Time! For instance, when you are writing a literary essay, you must make sure your main point focuses on the text itself, and can be supported by textual evidence, rather than some other kind, such as personal experience, or statistics. These might be helpful for some small points, but if they're necessary to college essays about disabilities the main idea, then it's no longer a literary essay. When your essay assignment requires research, you must make sure your point can be proven reliably using sources you are able to find.
Make sure your thesis is not based only on opinion. Particularly, judgments such as good or bad, true or false, are hard to benefits of human essay prove for this reason. Could you say something about the significance of the topic instead? Or examine why you think something is college essays true or false, good or bad? Iif you are automatically stating your opinion without considering it, you are not thinking very deeply and may be in the realm of clich. Dealing with a text, think about how the writer seems to feel about the topic, and be aware that she or he may not agree with you (or even the 5 paragraph speakers in the text!).
In all cases, question your assumptions. College Essays About Disabilities! Imagine counterarguments and other views. Find out the reasons for disadvantages assessment, your opinion, and that may lead you to a point you can explain and prove. College About Learning Disabilities! Additionally, it will help you communicate with your reader, who may have a different point of view. Make sure your thesis is focused: not too broad. Is your claim too general to doctorate be convincingly proven with a few examples? Try to essays about learning disabilities define it: you do not need to account for assessment, everyone or everything. Can you develop your point and prove it within the page limit? Sometimes it is better to say more about less. You can pick one of the things you intended to address, or concentrate on one particular aspect of the topic. You will notice that most of these problems with main ideas can be solved by college essays about learning disabilities, getting more specific and more analytical . Ask the institute literary questions, What exactly? and What does it all mean? or What does it all teach us about ___?
Complications can actually help you. If you come up against difficulties and contradictions in your thinking, don't sweep them under the carpet. Think about how you can turn them around to prove your point anyway, or think how you can use them to define your idea more precisely. The thesis must not only state a claim worth proving; it must also give the reader an idea of how you intend to develop your main idea. For instance, if you have three sub-points to your main idea, you can list them in brief in the same order you will discuss them in learning, your body paragraphs. Literary Time! Also, make sure that your main idea effectively ties together all three (or however many) of your sub-topics. About! What do they have in common? What makes them different? The thesis is like a preview of your essay. This means that it helps a lot to have an idea of what you are going to say before you begin to of south florida admissions essay write a first draft -- and that if your idea changes as you write and essays about disabilities experiment, you should go back and change the rubric essay school thesis to fit. Do not save your main point for your conclusion: essays are not suspense stories or poker games.
Lay your cards on the table in the introduction. College About Learning! However, remember that in top quality essays, your body paragraphs you will prove and expand on your main idea: the introduction shows exactly where you are going, and in the body paragraphs you go there. You can have as many body paragraphs as you wish. Essays About! However many sub-topics you have to top quality essays prove your thesis, that is how many body paragraphs you will have. College Essays About Disabilities! You can place them in any order, so long as it makes sense. For instance, you can: *place the strongest argument last. *move in of coursework assessment, chronological order. *move from college learning, causes to top quality essays review effects. *alternate: if you are writing about more than one thing, move back and forth between them.
*chunk: if you are writing about more than one thing, write all about one then all about the other. Every body paragraph must have a topic sentence which is essays about like a mini-thesis, and which is from time usually placed at college essays learning, or near the beginning of the paragraph (indicating what you are going to prove), but can also come at disadvantages of coursework, the end (indicating what you have just proven). The topic sentence expresses the learning disabilities main point this paragraph is out to demonstrate. Keeping aware of your topic sentences can help you make sure your paragraphs are well-developed . Give as much proof and essay from institute time explanation as you can for your sub-point in learning, each paragraph. Go into detail. Make sure in every paragraph you: *offer some kind of of coursework assessment, evidence . For a textual or literary essay, your evidence will be specific references to college learning disabilities the text along with logical argument and explanation of your interpretation. In a research essay, you will also include references to respectable scholarly work on the topic, not so much as evidence but as other voices in disadvantages of coursework assessment, the debate over the text--you're having a written conversation with fellow scholars. *offer full explanation of college essays learning disabilities, how and university florida admissions why your evidence proves your point , and how and why that point relates back to your thesis.
If any of college disabilities, your paragraphs are lacking either of these things, something is wrong with them and cloning essay they must be fixed. E.g., a paragraph that is all evidence or summary with no explanation indicates no brain work on your part: you need to analyze your evidence and about disabilities explain what it means, particularly in english essay from, relation to your main idea. Essays Learning Disabilities! Conversely, a paragraph that is all assertions gives the reader the impression you are talking through your hat. Essay readers will not take your word for top quality review, it. If you are arguing something reasonable, you should be able to prove it, and if you don't it will look like you can't.
For every assertion you make, give proof and explanation. Topic sentences can also help you make sure your paragraphs are all unified . Each paragraph should be about only one thing . If there is college about disabilities any sentence in a paragraph which is not on university of south florida, topic, it should either be moved to the paragraph where it belongs, or thrown out. If nothing in the paragraph can be clearly related to your essay's main idea, the whole paragraph has to go. Your body paragraphs must all work to prove your thesis: this makes your essay coherent . To assure your reader that your essay is college about coherent or hangs together, you need to have smooth transitions between paragraphs. A formulaic way to move from one paragraph to the next is to say something like, Another example. or The third point is. , but this is very mechanical and university admissions essay so doesn't have the finesse of an A paper! Using such formulae is handy for essays about learning disabilities, a first draft, but as you improve your paper, try to replace mechanical transitions with more interesting ones. Think about the top quality essays ideas you are trying to express: what do they have in common? What is the difference between the last idea and this one? You can use the similarities and differences to compose interesting transition sentences which help you show why you decided to organize your paper the college way you did, and also give more significance to university of south florida your points. Handy comparison and contrast words can assist you here: (of course you will fill in about, the details!) Although/While this last idea is like this, this next idea is like that; This last idea is benefits essay like this, and college about learning disabilities this new idea is also/similarly like this with these important differences or further details. You can also use time sequence (e.g.
Next/Meanwhile ), or cause and effect (e.g. Essay Middle! Consequently/If. College Learning Disabilities! then ). The conclusion of an essay wraps things up. It reiterates the main idea in different words, and looks back over how the thesis was proven. This is not just repetition: it gives you an opportunity to show how you have developed your idea, to indicate what the reader has learned by reading your essay.
As well as summing up , the conclusion should leave the essay institute literary reader satisfied that the essays about learning time it took to read the essay was well spent. Disadvantages Assessment! So, remember Miles Davis and essays about learning answer the question, So What? Why is all this important? What are the implications of what you have argued? What does it mean in benefits of human essay, the big world? As in your introduction, though, be careful not to over-generalize , making a claim that your essay is more important than it is or has proven more than it has. College Essays About Learning! No new information should be offered in the conclusion; only the ideas already presented, seen in a new light. Some ways to put a sting in the tail of your essay:
Quotation. Find one that reflects or sums up your point in a clever and university admissions essay memorable way. Figurative language. College Learning Disabilities! Metaphors and images can leave a striking idea or picture in the reader's mind, and you can use them to elaborate on your insight. Especially if you use one in of south florida essay, the introduction, bring it up again and see how you can use it a bit differently. Example or anecdote. A brief story or example can make the implications of your point more vivid, and place your ideas in a wider context.
Predictions or speculations. What follows from what you have argued? Make sure you don't speculate too far; stick to what seems plausible from about, what you said previously. And a finishing touch: a great title. A good title is not too vague, yet not too long either. A good way to rubric essay middle think about it is, if a person were trying to find articles on your topic in a database, would your title have enough of the right keywords to college essays about learning disabilities pop up? Be sure to mention the without dissertation text and/or author you're writing about, and include words which reveal something about the main drift of your argument. These are the college learning disabilities mechanics of an appropriate title; of course, you also want it to be interesting. A unique or clever turn of phrase can do this for essays review, you. You can also take a short phrase from the college essays about text which you think particularly relates to what you have to say, and place it before your main title, with a colon to connect them. Here's an example.
Wild Ecstasies and Sober Pleasure: The Relationship between William and Dorothy Wordsworth in Lines Written a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey